Adventurer, Conqueror, King System SRD

Adventurer Conqueror King System

Rules for Roleplaying in a World of Swords, Sorcery, and Strongholds

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Characters

Chapter 3 Equipment

Chapter 4 Proficiencies

Chapter 5 Spells

Chapter 6 Adventures

Chapter 7 Campaigns

Chapter 8 Monsters

Chapter 9 Treasure

Chapter 10 Secrets

OGL

Detailed Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Characters

Chapter 3 Equipment

Chapter 4 Proficiencies

Chapter 5 Spells

Chapter 6 Adventures

Chapter 7 Campaigns

Chapter 8 Monsters

Chapter 9 Treasure

Chapter 10 Secrets

Open Game License


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Chapter 1: Introduction

It is an age when empires totter on the brink of war, and terrible monsters tear at the fragile borderlands of men; when decaying cities teem with chaos and corruption, where nubile maidens are sacrificed to chthonic cults and nobles live in decadent pleasure on the toil of slaves; when heroes, wizards, and rogues risk everything in pursuit of glory, fortune, and power. These are days when adventurers can become conquerors... and conquerors can become kings!

About the Game

The Adventurer Conqueror King System (ACKS) is a set of rules for role-playing in a world of swords, sorcery, and strongholds, where you take on the role of an adventurer in an imaginary land drawn from the epics and legends of the past.

The Adventurer Conqueror King System provides a complete toolkit for enjoying a wide variety of heroic fantasy settings. It covers character creation, spells and magic, encounters and combat, monsters and treasure, and all the associated game mechanics necessary for swords-and-sorcery adventure.

Whatever setting your adventures inhabit, with the Adventurer Conqueror King System, you can seek fame, wealth, and power by conquering foes, gathering treasure, and accumulating land and followers. If you are skilled and lucky, you may rise to become a mighty overlord, a wizard-king, or theocrat, holding the destiny of thousands in your hands. If not, the wages of your adventures will be merely death...

How to Use This Book

This rulebook contains the complete rules of the Adventurer Conqueror King System, organized into the following parts.

Chapter 1, Introduction, explains the concept of role-playing and defines the most important terms used in the rulebook.

Chapter 2, Characters, provides numbered, easy to follow steps to create a player character, along with lists of equipment.

Chapter 3, Equipment, provides prices and statistics for the various weapons, armor, and other equipment available in the game.

Chapter 4, Proficiencies, details the various proficiencies that characters may acquire, along with information on the game mechanics of all proficiencies.

Chapter 5, Spells, lists the various spells that different characters may learn and cast, along with a detailed description of each spell's effect in the game.

Chapter 6, Adventures, provides rules for exploration, encounters, and combat in the dangerous and violent world that the player characters will adventure within.

Chapter 7, Campaigns, covers the long-range pursuits of characters as they adventure, including conducting magical research, building strongholds, and establishing domains and realms.

Chapter 8, Monsters, contains a roster of over 100 creatures, some malefic and others benevolent, arranged alphabetically.

Chapter 9, Treasure, contains descriptions and explanations of the different types of treasure, including rare and wondrous magic items, which adventures may find.

Chapter 10, Secrets, provides guidelines for the Judge on constructing campaign settings, designing dungeons, and judging the game.

The Basics of The Game

Read this section carefully! These terms will be used through the rules of the Adventurer Conqueror King System.

When a group of people sit down to play using ACKS, the participants are called players, and they take on the role of a character (or, sometimes, more than one character). Characters played by players are referred to as player characters (PCs) or adventurers. The players act in the role of their characters in the world designed and presented by a special game participant referred to as the Game Judge (or Judge for short). It's the Judge's responsibility to prepare ahead of time to give the players opportunities for adventure, and to judge the results of their choices during adventurers fairly and wisely. The Judge is the referee of the game, and the final arbitrator of rules and rules decisions. He also narrates the action of the game, and plays the roles of all the various monsters in the world. A special type of monster is the non-player character (NPC). NPCs share many similarities with the characters played by the players, but the Judge determines their actions, personalities, and motivations. PCs, NPCs, and other monsters are collectively called creatures.

Characters have ability scores, which determine how strong, smart, and otherwise talented they are. Based on their ability scores, characters each will select a class, such as fighter or mage, which might be thought of as a profession, and which dictates what sorts of training and capabilities characters can develop. Characters have levels of experience, or class levels, which measure how well-developed and powerful they are. Player characters begin at 1st level in a particular class. Normal people, lacking the call to adventure, are generally 0th level characters.

Experience points (XP) are used to measure the progress of characters through their class levels. These points are earned based partly on how powerful defeated monsters are, but mostly on how much treasure is found and returned to civilization by the player characters. As characters accumulate experience points through fighting monsters and gaining wealth, they will reach higher levels (2nd level, 3rd level, and so on). Gaining a level is a special occasion, because it incrementally marks your success as your alter ego. Each time a character gains a level, he becomes more powerful and capable of taking on the dangers of more exciting adventures.

Monsters also have levels, called monster levels, which are a direct measure of how challenging an opponent the monster is. Likewise, spell levels measure how powerful a spell is. For instance, some spells are 1st level spells, and some are 2nd level, and so on. Monster and spell levels do not directly correspond to class levels; they are only a relative measure of the power of spells.

As characters go up in level, one thing that changes is their number of hit points (hp). Characters gain more hp as they advance in levels, and this allows them to endure more damage and survive. Characters most often take damage from monsters while engaged in an encounter. An encounter is a situation in which the PCs and monsters are interacting. Time and movement are measured in detail during encounters, with actions resolved in a precise order known as initiative.

A series of encounters connected by time, location, and player choices is called an adventure. An adventure is often used to describe one play session, but it may also be used in reference to a full scenario that may take several play sessions to finish. Many published adventures will use the term adventure and module interchangeably. When many adventures are strung together, often with the same characters in play, this is referred to as a campaign.

Most adventures the characters undertake will initially take place in monster-filled dungeons, underground complexes that are stocked with many monsters, treasures, and treacherous secrets. Dungeons may be large or small, but they are usually underground locations that are determined and described by the Judge. While the Judge may design these areas, published pre-made dungeons might also be used. Dungeons are divided into dungeon levels. A dungeon level could be thought of as a floor of a building. When characters travel into the top-most level of a dungeon, they are in the level closest to the surface of the earth. If the dungeon has multiple levels, the next level down is the second level, then the third, and so on. The deeper the dungeon level, the greater the dangers that await the characters.

After many adventures, high-level characters will begin to construct strongholds, such as castles or towers.. Strongholds enable a character to attract followers and establish domains over which he exerts sovereign control. With careful play, a character may establish or conquer multiple domains and ultimately establish a realm. Being ruler of a vast realm is the ultimate goal of many characters in Adventure Conqueror King campaigns.

Winning and Losing the Game

No one "loses" when playing the Adventurer Conqueror King System. In the course of adventure, your adventurers will frequently die; this is a fact of the game, but it does not indicate failure or "losing" in the sense that someone loses at, say, a card game. One can measure "success" under the Adventurer Conqueror King System in many ways, such as acquiring treasure, levels of experience, or castles and followers. In some cases, a glorious death may be the greatest success!

However, the one common measure of success that everyone should strive for is to have fun. Everyone can win at this game, because everyone can have fun playing it. So while a character may die, or riches may be lost, it is the game play itself that matters. Winning is in being able to suspend disbelief long enough to be immersed in the fantasy world you create with your party.

Dice

The Adventurer Conqueror King System primarily uses six different kinds of dice to determine the results of actions and situations, but these same dice might be used to generate numbers of varying ranges. These different dice and the terms employed to use and describe them are detailed below.

The 20 sided die, or d20, is one of the most important dice in the game: it is used to resolve all attack and saving throws. As explained later, when making a throw, the die is rolled, and modifiers are then added or subtracted. If the total result equals or exceeds an assigned value, the roll is a success; otherwise it has failed.

The 10 sided die, or d10, is used to generate numbers from 1 to 10; it is numbered 0 to 9, but a roll of 0 is counted as 10. A pair of d10s are also used together to generate numbers from 1 to 100, where a roll of 00 is counted as 100. The two dice should be different colors, and the player must declare which die is the tens digit and which die is the ones digit before rolling them! Rolling two d10s this way is called a percentile roll, or d100.

The 4 sided die, or d4, is a special case. It is not so much rolled as "flipped," and the number which is upright is the result of the roll.

The other dice normally used have 6, 8, and 12 sides, and are called d6, d8, and d12. d6s may be made with either numbers or pips; it makes no difference which sort you choose.

When multiple dice are to be rolled and added together, it is noted in the text like this: 2d6 (roll two d6 dice and add them together), or 3d4 (roll three d4 dice and add them together). A modifier may be noted as a "plus" value, such as 2d8+2 (roll two d8 dice and add them together, then add two to the total).

Notation Meaning
d2 A result of 1 to 2 is obtained by rolling 1d6. A result of 1-3 = 1, and 4-6 = 2.
d3 A result of 1 to 3 is obtained by rolling 1d6. A result of 1-2 = 1, 3-4 = 2, and 5-6 = 3.
d4 Four sided die
d6 Six sided die
d8 Eight sided die
d10 Ten sided die, a "0" indicates a result of 10
d12 Twelve sided die
d20 Twenty sided die
d100 Percentile dice (a number between 1 and 100 is generated by rolling two different ten-sided dice. One, designated before rolling, is the tens digit. The other is the ones digit. Two 0s represent 100.

Rolling and Throwing the Dice

The Adventurer Conqueror King System has a variety of different systems and sub-systems that determine how situations are resolved. All of these various sub-systems rely on generating a randomized outcome by using dice.

Rolling the Dice

During the course of play, many situations will arise in which there are a range of possible outcomes. The players or Judge will make a roll of the dice to see which of the possible outcomes occurs. Thus, when a character meets a monster during an encounter, the Judge will make a surprise roll to see if either or both sides are caught off guard and a reaction roll to see how the monster reacts to the character, with results ranging from friendly to hostile.

Likewise, when a character is in combat, the player will make an initiative roll to determine when he gets to act, with results ranging from last to first. When a character hits an opponent, the player will make a damage roll to determine how many hit points his target loses. When monsters begin to lose a battle, they will make a morale roll to determine if they flee, surrender, or stay and fight.

To make a roll of the dice, you follow these steps:

Sometimes a roll will be applied for an absolute result. For example, a damage roll is applied directly against the hit points of the target hit. Other rolls are relative to each other. For example, a character's initiative roll is compared against the initiative rolls of other characters to determine who goes first during combat. An initiative roll of 6 has no absolute meaning other than being faster than an initiative roll of 5. Other rolls are compared to a table.

Throwing the Dice

One very common type of die roll is called a throw. A throw occurs whenever a character or monster is taking an action that will either succeed or fail. For instance, when a character attempts to strike an opponent in combat, his player makes an attack throw. When a character tries to avoid a catastrophic event, his player makes a saving throw. When a character attempts to open a lock or bash down a door, his player makes a proficiency throw. Most throws are resolved with 1d20.

To make a throw of the dice, you follow these steps:

If the total equals or exceeds the target value, the outcome is favorable to the character. If the result is lower than the target value, the outcome is unfavorable to the character. The value required to succeed at different throws is usually based on the character's class and level. For instance, fighters have easier attack throws than other than characters, while thieves have easier proficiency throws to sneak around.

Example: Marcus has an attack throw value of 6+. When he makes an attack throw, he will roll 1d20, add any relevant modifiers to the die, and compare the total to his attack throw value. If it equals or exceeds 6, he will hit.

If a particular throw is subject to a modifier that will always apply, it is often easier to record this modifier as an adjustment to the target value for the throw. Bonuses reduce the target value required, while penalties increase the target value required.

Example: Joanna has an Open Locks proficiency throw of 16+. However, she has a Lockpicking proficiency that gives her a +2 bonus to Open Locks. For ease of play, Joanna can record her Open Locks proficiency throw as 14+, applying the +2 bonus as a 2-point reduction in the target value instead of modifying the die roll. Throwing the die and aiming for 14+ is mathematically identical to throwing the die with a +2 bonus and aiming for 16+.

What Kind of Die Should You Use?

The kind of die used for the various rolls depends on the riskiness and randomness of the situation character is facing. The rules will detail which die is used in each situation; below is some general explanation that will help frame the rules to come.

In general, situations where the outcome is strongly influenced by both skill and fortune are resolved by using a twenty-sided die (1d20). Most throws use 1d20, with the usual target value for the throw being in the range of 10 to 20. When throwing 1d20, a modifier such as +2 or -3 has a significant but not overpowering impact on the outcome.

Sometimes, the outcome of a situation will be heavily influenced by factors of skill or innate ability, with less scope for random chance. These situations are usually resolved by throwing or rolling a six-sided die (1d6). Surprise rolls, initiative rolls and many damage rolls use d6s. With a range of numbers of just 1-6, a modifier such as +2 or -3 makes a very big difference.

Where a wide range of outcomes is possible, but some are much more probable than others, a roll of two six-sided dice (2d6) is used. A roll of 2d6 will generate a bell curve with common results centered on 6-8, and rare outcomes at 2-3 and 11-12. Reaction rolls and morale rolls both use 2d6. Monsters will generally react cautiously to adventurers, and generally stay and fight with moderate resolve, but may occasionally be very friendly or very hostile, fight to the death or flee in terror.

Common Abbreviations

Below are some of the most common abbreviations that will be found in this book or Adventurer Conqueror King supplemental books.

Abbreviation Meaning
Abilities -
STR Strength
INT Intelligence
WIS Wisdom
DEX Dexterity
CON Constitution
CHA Charisma
Other -
hp Hit points
shp Structural hit points
HD Hit Dice (or Hit Die)
AC Armor Class
XP Experience points
PC Player character
NPC Non-player character
cp Copper pieces
sp Silver pieces
ep Electrum pieces
gp Gold pieces
pp Platinum pieces
TT Treasure Type

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Chapter 2: Characters

Creating a Character

You've taken the first step on your adventure, but you are still a 0th level human. Don't despair, because you become 1st level when you create your first character, and progress from there! To create a character, follow the nine steps below:

  1. Start with a fresh character sheet. You can copy the one provided in this book, download and print one, or reproduce it by hand on a piece of paper. If all else fails, just scribble down notes on scratch paper!

  2. Roll 3d6 in order for your character's ability scores, as described below under Character Abilities, and write the results after the names of the abilities. Write down the ability score bonus or penalty for each score, as shown on the Ability Score table.

  3. Choose a class which suits your character's abilities from the Character Classes section. All classes have prime requisites, and some classes require minimum scores for some abilities. If abilities are not quite high enough for the class you would like to play, see Classes and Ability Scores for some options to adjust your scores. Write down the special abilities of your class, as described for each class.

  4. Note on your character sheet that your character has zero (0) experience points (or XP); you may also want to note the number needed to advance to second level, as shown in the table for your class. Gaining experience points is explained in the Adventures and Campaigns chapters.

  5. Roll hit points (hp) using the appropriate die for your class, adding your Constitution bonus or penalty, and note the result as your hit points on your character sheet. If your character has a Constitution penalty, the penalty will not lower any Hit Die roll below 1. (At your Judge's discretion, you may begin with the maximum hit points for 1st level.)

  6. Record your character's attack throws and saving throws on your character sheet. Attack throws and saving throws are listed with each class, and described fully in the Adventures chapter. Note that attacks with melee weapons are modified by your Strength, while missile weapons such as bows or thrown daggers are modified by Dexterity. Don't forget to adjust your attack throws to reflect these modifiers.

  7. Choose your character's starting proficiencies from the Proficiencies chapter. Apply any modifiers to your ability scores, hit points, attack throws, or saving throws from proficiencies. If you have chosen to play a mage or elven spellsword, roll for your starting spells, as described in the Spells chapter.

  8. Generate your character's starting wealth by rolling 3d6x10 gold pieces (gp) and purchase equipment for your character from the lists in the Equipment chapter. Write your purchases on your character sheet, and note how much money remains afterward. Make sure you understand the weapon and armor restrictions for your class before making your purchases. Since you now know what armor your character is wearing, note your Armor Class (AC) on the character sheet based on the type of armor you choose. Don't forget to add your Dexterity bonus or penalty to AC. Likewise, record your weapon damages based on the type of weapons you choose, modified by your Strength bonus or penalty. Calculate your character's encumbrance based on how much weight he is carrying.

  9. Give your character a name, and create a description of what your character looks like, his personality, and maybe even a brief note about the character's background. Then choose an appropriate Alignment for your character. Your Judge will have information on the setting of your character's world that can be helpful in naming your new character and developing his background.

Generating Multiple Characters (Optional)

As an optional rule, at the start of play, each player generates five characters and select one primary and two back-up characters. The remaining two characters are given to the Judge to use as NPCs to populate the campaign setting. If the primary and back-ups are all killed, the player generates five additional characters, again picking three and giving the Judge two. This ensures that the player always has a variety of characters to choose from to find one he likes, and gives the Judge some additional NPCs to populate the world.

Character Abilities

Character Abilities must be determined by rolling randomly. Roll 3d6 for each ability in the order listed below. As an optional rule, the Judge may allow you to roll 6 scores and then assign them to your abilities in any order you desire.

When complete, your character will have a score ranging from 3 to 18 in each of the following abilities. A bonus or penalty is associated with each score, as shown on the table below. Each class has one or more prime requisite ability scores, which affect the rate at which the character will earn experience points. Some class may have other minimum ability requirements which must be met in addition.

Ability Score

Ability Score Bonus/Penalty
3 -3
4-5 -2
6-8 -1
9-12 0
13-15 +1
16-17 +2
18 +3

Strength: As the name implies, this ability measures the character's raw physical power. Strength is a prime requisite for assassins, explorers, dwarven vaultguards, elven spellswords, and fighters. Apply the ability bonus or penalty for Strength to all attack throws and damage rolls in melee (hand-to-hand) combat. Note that a penalty here will not reduce damage from a successful attack below one point, unless the target is otherwise invulnerable to the attack (see the Adventures chapter for details).

Intelligence: This is the ability to learn and apply knowledge. Intelligence is a prime requisite for elven nightblades, elven spellswords, and mages. The ability bonus for Intelligence is added to the number of proficiencies the character begins play with (see the Proficiencies chapter for details) and the number of languages the character is able to learn to read and write, as described below. Mages, elven nightblades, and elven spellswords increase the number of spells of each level in their repertoire by their Intelligence bonus (see the Spells chapter for details).

All characters begin the game knowing their native language. In most campaign worlds, the majority of humans speak a common language, often called "Common." The demi-human races (elves and dwarves) have their own languages, and members of these races normally begin play knowing their racial language, Common (or the local human language if it isn't called Common), and certain other languages based on the race.

A character with an Intelligence penalty will only know his native language, and cannot read more than a word or two. Characters with at least average Intelligence (9-12) will be literate in any languages they can speak. Characters with an Intelligence bonus may begin the game knowing one or more languages other than those given above; the number of additional languages that may be learned is equal to the Intelligence bonus (+1, +2, or +3). The player may also choose to leave one or more bonus language "slots" open, to be filled during play.

The languages available to characters include the demi-human languages (Elven, Dwarven, Gnomish, and Halfling) and the various beastmen dialects (e.g. Orc, Goblin). At the Judge's discretion, player characters may also begin play knowing ancient or archaic tongues, or exotic languages such as Draconic (the language of dragons). The specific languages available will depend on the campaign setting.

Wisdom: A combination of intuition, willpower and common sense. Wisdom is a prime requisite for bladedancers, clerics, and dwarven craftpriests. The Wisdom bonus or penalty applies to saving throws caused by spells or magic items. This would include, e.g., a save versus Blast against a fireball or a save versus Death from a finger of death, but not a save versus Petrification against a medusa's gaze.

Dexterity: This ability measures the character's quickness and balance as well as his aptitude with tools. Dexterity is a prime requisite for assassins, bards, bladedancers, elven nightblades, explorers, and thieves. A character's Dexterity bonus or penalty is applied to his attack throws with missile weapons, Armor Class value, and Initiative die rolls.

Constitution: Constitution is a combination of general health and vitality. Apply the Constitution bonus or penalty to each Hit Die rolled by the character. Note that a penalty here cannot reduce any Hit Die roll to less than 1 point.

Charisma: This is the ability to influence or even lead people; those with high Charisma are well-liked, or at least highly respected. Charisma is a prime requisite for bards. Apply the Charisma bonus or penalty to the character's reaction rolls. Charisma also determines the maximum number of henchmen the character may employ, and modifies their morale. The number of henchmen a character may hire is equal to 4 plus the Charisma bonus or penalty (and therefore ranges from 1 to 7); the average morale of any such henchmen will be 0, modified by the character's Charisma bonus or penalty.

Classes and Ability Scores

Once abilities have been determined, each player must choose a class. Each class has one or more prime requisite ability scores. A character must have an ability score of at least 9 in a class's prime requisite(s) in order to choose a particular class. Some classes have additional minimum ability score requirements. A character must have the minimum required ability, if one is indicated, in order to choose a particular class.

If a character's prime requisite ability is high enough, the character will receive a bonus to experience points earned during play. The Ability Prime Requisite table, below, details the effect a score in a prime requisite has on experience points earned by characters. If a class has two prime requisites, calculate the character's experience adjustment based on whichever prime requisite has the lower ability score.

Ability Prime Requisite

Score Experience Adjustment
9-12 0%
13-15 +5%
16-18 +10%

Once a player has selected his character class, he may raise the class's prime requisite ability or abilities if desired by sacrificing points in other abilities. 2 ability points may be sacrificed from an ability to raise a prime requisite ability 1 point. This may be done more than once, but no ability can be lowered below 9, and no ability may be lowered if it is also a prime requisite for the class, even if there are a few points to spare above the minimum required score.

Hit Points

Hit points are a measure of a character's ability to survive in combat. When a character, or any other being, is reduced to 0 or fewer hit points, he is incapacitated and possibly dead. Hit points are not a direct representation of the character's capacity to receive physical injury. Rather, they represent a holistic combination of fighting skill, stamina, luck, and the favor of the gods, all of which contribute to helping the character roll with blows and survive attacks that would have killed a lesser combatant.

Each character class rolls a different kind of die to determine hit points, as noted in the Character Classes section, based on their toughness in battle. One die is rolled at first level, and further dice are rolled and cumulatively added to the total hp for each level of experience, unless otherwise noted. One optional rule, to allow first level characters to be hardier, is for the Judge to allow all hp rolls for first level characters to be considered the maximum result (e.g. an 8 for fighters or a 6 for clerics.)

Character Classes

In the Adventurer Conqueror King System, there are two types of classes: human classes and demi-human classes. Humans are the most widespread of all races. Their ambition, cunning, and courage have led them to settle most of the known world, so most characters in the game will belong to one of the human classes.

The core human classes described in these rules are the fighter, mage, cleric, and thief. Four additional human classes, the assassin, bard, bladedancer, and explorer, are provided to show how the core classes can be customized for specific archetypes within a campaign setting.

Compared to humans, demi-humans are rare, and generally more specialized. Demi-human classes are defined by their race, with different classes available for dwarves, elves, and other demi-humans. The demi-human classes described in these rules are the dwarven vaultguard, dwarven craftpriest, elven spellsword, and elven nightblade.

Selecting equipment and proficiencies can be time-consuming, especially for new players. As a faster alternative, we offer a pre-generated template for each class, with weapons, armor, equipment, proficiencies, and spells ready for play. If you want to use these templates, you can skip step 8 (picking proficiencies and spells) and 9 (rolling for starting wealth and purchasing equipment) of character generation and simply use the template. A variety of additional templates, new classes, and rules for creating customized classes are available in the Adventurer Conqueror King System Player's Companion, available separately from Autarch.

Core Classes

Fighter

Prime Requisite: STR
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d8
Maximum Level: 14

Fighters are exclusively trained in the arts of combat and war. They are specialists at dealing physical blows. Fighters may have learned their arts as warriors, gladiators battling for glory in the arena, raiders, or sell-swords in the games of the noble houses.

As their name suggests, fighters are exceptionally skilled combatants. Fighters are trained in the use of all weapons and armor. They may fight wielding a weapon and shield, wielding a two-handed weapon, or wielding a weapon in each hand, as desired. At first level, fighters hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws by two points every three levels of experience (the best progression of any class). Fighters also increase their base damage roll from successful missile and melee attacks by +1 at 1st level and by an additional +1 at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th level.

When a fighter reaches 5th level (Exemplar), his battlefield prowess inspires others to follow him. Any henchmen and mercenaries hired by the fighter gain a +1 bonus to their morale score whenever he personally leads them. This bonus stacks with any modifiers from the fighter's Charisma or proficiencies.

At 9th level (Warlord), a fighter can, assuming enough gold is at hand, build a castle and become a great leader of men, taking a leadership rank in his society. When he does so, up 1d4+1x10 0th level mercenaries and 1d6 fighters of 1st-3rd level will come to apply for jobs and training. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for mercenaries. Through force of arms, the fighter may ultimately control several castles or even entire realms, but must be a capable, strong leader and provide protection. Additional rules for castles are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Mercenary
Proficiencies: Combat Reflexes, Manual of Arms
Starting Equipment: Well-oiled sword, metal shield re-painted many times, slightly battered chainmail armor, crossbow, case with 20 quarrels, military tunic, boots, backpack, 2 week's iron rations

This pre-generated template represents a wary sellsword. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your fighter's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Fighter Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Damage Bonus
0 Man-at-Arms 1 1d8 +1
2,000 Warrior 2 2d8 +1
4,000 Swordmaster 3 3d8 +2
8,000 Hero 4 4d8 +2
16,000 Exemplar 5 5d8 +2
32,000 Myrmidon 6 6d8 +3
65,000 Champion 7 7d8 +3
130,000 Epic Hero 8 8d8 +3
250,000 Warlord 9 9d8 +4
370,000 Warlord, 10th lvl 10 9d8+2* +4
490,000 Warlord, 11th lvl 11 9d8+4* +4
610,000 Warlord, 12th lvl 12 9d8+6* +5
730,000 Warlord, 13th lvl 13 9d8+8* +5
850,000 Overlord 14 9d8+10* +5

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Fighter Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1 15+ 14+ 16+ 16+ 17+ 10+
2-3 14+ 13+ 15+ 15+ 16+ 9+
4 13+ 12+ 14+ 14+ 15+ 8+
5-6 12+ 11+ 13+ 13+ 14+ 7+
7 11+ 10+ 12+ 12+ 13+ 6+
8-9 10+ 9+ 11+ 11+ 12+ 5+
10 9+ 8+ 10+ 10+ 11+ 4+
11-12 8+ 7+ 9+ 9+ 10+ 3+
13 7+ 6+ 8+ 8+ 9+ 2+
14 6+ 5+ 7+ 7+ 8+ 1+

Mage

Prime Requisite: INT
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d4
Maximum Level: 14

Sometimes called wizards, sorcerers, or magicians, mages study arcane secrets and cast spells. While early in their career mages have only limited power, experienced mages are able to cast a great number of powerful spells. A mage may be a wizard steeped in ancient lore, a sinister sorcerer, or a village witch or hedge wizard with strange charms and hodge-podge traditions.

Because of their devotion to arcane study, mages receive limited combat training. At first level, mages hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws only two points every six levels of experience (i.e., half as fast as fighters). They may only fight with quarterstaffs, clubs, daggers, and darts. They are unable to use shields, fight with two weapons, or wear any kind of armor. For these reasons, mages are quite vulnerable to physical danger, and in an adventuring group they should be protected.

In exchange for these weaknesses, mages can learn and cast many powerful arcane spells. The number and levels of spells the mage can use in a single day are listed on the Mage Spell Progression table. A mage's spell selection is limited to the spells in his repertoire. A mage's repertoire can include a number of spells up to to the number and level of spells listed for his level, increased by his Intelligence bonus. For instance, Quintus, a 3rd level mage, is able to cast 2 1st level spells and 1 2nd level spell per day. If he has 16 INT (+2 modifier) he can have up to 4 1st level and 3 2nd level spells in his repertoire. More information on casting spells and individual spell descriptions can be found in the Spells chapter.

When a mage reaches 5th level (Thaumaturge), he may begin to research spells, scribe magical scrolls, and brew potions. When a mage reaches 9th level (Wizard), he is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs. A mage may also build a sanctum, often a great tower, when he reaches 9th level. He will then attract 1d6 apprentices of 1st-3rd level plus 2d6 normal men seeking to become mages. Their intelligence scores will be above average, but many will become discouraged from the rigorous mental training and quit after 1d6 months. While in the mage's service, apprentices must be provided food and lodging, but need not be paid wages. If the mage builds a dungeon beneath or near his tower, monsters will start to arrive to dwell within, followed shortly by adventurers seeking to fight them. Additional rules for mages' sanctum are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

At 11th level, a mage may learn and cast ritual arcane spells of great power (7th, 8th, and 9th level), craft magical constructs, and create magical cross-breeds. If chaotic, the mage may create necromantic servants and become undead. These rules are in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Magical Scholar
Proficiencies: Loremastery, Collegiate Wizardry
Starting Equipment: Rune-etched quarterstaff, blue mage's cassock, shoes, backpack, spell book with sleep, 2 week's iron rations, 85gp

This pre-generated template represents a curious magical scholar from an organized guild of mages. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your mage's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies and starting spells before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4 and Spell Repertoire in Chapter 5).

Mage Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 Arcanist 1 1d4 1 - - - - -
2,500 Seer 2 2d4 2 - - - - -
5,000 Theurgist 3 3d4 2 1 - - - -
10,000 Magician 4 4d4 2 2 - - - -
20,000 Thaumaturge 5 5d4 2 2 1 - - -
40,000 Enchanter 6 6d4 2 2 2 - - -
80,000 Sorcerer 7 7d4 3 2 2 1 - -
160,000 Mage 8 8d4 3 3 2 2 - -
310,000 Wizard 9 9d4 3 3 3 2 1 -
460,000 Wizard, 10th lvl 10 9d4+1* 3 3 3 3 2 -
610,000 Wizard, 11th lvl 11 9d4+2* 4 3 3 3 2 1
760,000 Wizard, 12th lvl 12 9d4+3* 4 4 3 3 3 2
910,000 Wizard, 13th lvl 13 9d4+4* 4 4 4 3 3 2
1,060,000 Archmage 14 9d4+5* 4 4 4 4 3 3

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Mage Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-3 13+ 13+ 15+ 11+ 12+ 10+
4-6 12+ 12+ 14+ 10+ 11+ 9+
7-9 11+ 11+ 13+ 9+ 10+ 8+
10-12 10+ 10+ 12+ 8+ 9+ 7+
13-14 9+ 9+ 11+ 7+ 8+ 6+

Cleric

Prime Requisite: WIS
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 14

Clerics are holy crusaders, trained to fight to further the ends of their faith. Humans who become clerics have pledged their lives to serve a particular deity or religion. To this end, they conduct their lives in a way that furthers the desires and will of their gods or goddesses. A cleric may be a priest-militant, a cultist sworn to the chthonic powers of the Nether Darkness, or anything in between.

Clerics are skilled combatants, albeit not as good as fighters. At first level, clerics hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws by two points every four levels of experience (a progression mid-way between fighters and mages). As holy warriors, clerics are trained to wear any armor and fight with a variety of weapons. The particular weapons that clerics are trained to fight with are determined by the strictures of their religious order.

If your Judge has not specified particular religious orders in his campaign, the default cleric is assumed to be a worshipper of the God of Law and Light. Strict holy doctrine prevents these clerics from using any weapons that shed blood. The cleric of Law and Light may use only blunt weapons such as warhammers, maces, clubs, quarterstaffs, and slings. This cleric may use any shields or fight with two-handed weapons, but is not trained to fight with weapons in each hand (i.e. he may not 'dual wield'). (See the bladedancer campaign class for an example of a cleric variant with a different feel).

All clerics have the ability to turn undead, calling upon the name and power of their deity to turn away, and even destroy, undead. The potency of this ability is determined by level. On the Turning Undead table, there will be a dash, a "T", a "D", or a number corresponding to the type of undead monster and the level of the cleric. A dash means that the cleric has not attained high enough level to turn the undead type. A "T" means that the cleric automatically turns the undead, and a "D" means that the undead will be destroyed automatically. A number indicates that the player must roll that number or higher on 1d20 in order to turn the undead. If this roll is successful, or there is a "T" in the chart, the player rolls 2d6 and the result equals the number of total Hit Dice of undead monsters turned. A "D" in the chart requires the same roll to determine how many HD of undead are destroyed. No matter what the dice roll result, at least one undead monster will always be turned or destroyed, as appropriate, on a successful use of turning.

There is no limit to how often a cleric may attempt to turn undead each day, but if an attempt to turn undead fails during an encounter, the cleric may not attempt to turn undead again for the remainder of that encounter.

Example: Balbus the Blessed, a 1st level cleric, attempts to turn 4 foul undead skeletons. When Balbus's player looks at the Turning Undead table, the value corresponding to his level and the entry for skeletons is 10+. He will turn some undead on a roll of 10 or higher on 1d20. He rolls a result of 12, meaning some skeletons will be turned. To determine how many HD he turns, he rolls 2d6 and comes up with a 3. Since skeletons have 1 HD each, three of them flee, leaving one behind for Balbus to vanquish.

If Balbus had been attempting to turn zombies, or other undead that have 2 HD each, he would only have turned one, since a roll of three only completely accounts for one 2 HD monster.

Turned undead flee the area for 10 rounds by the best and fastest means available to them. If they cannot flee, they cower in terror, taking no actions and suffering a -2 penalty to AC. If the cleric attacks turned undead in melee combat, the turning effect is broken, but he can use spells or missile weapons against them, and other characters may attack them in any fashion, without breaking the turning effect. Destroyed undead are immediately turned to ash.

Certain chaotic sects teach their clerics to control undead rather than turn them. The undead are controlled for 1 turn per level of the cleric. If the undead would have been destroyed, the undead are controlled for 1 day per level of the cleric instead. Controlled undead behave as if charmed, obeying the cleric as if they were friends. However, if the controlled undead are turned or destroyed by a cleric during the duration of the control, the control is dispelled immediately. If the duration of the control ends without incident, the undead will flee (as if turned).

Starting at 2nd level (Acolyte), clerics may manifest their deity's power in the form of divine spells, which are granted through prayer and worship. The power and number of divine spells available to the character are determined by level according to the Cleric Spell Progression table. See the Spells chapter for a list of all available spells.

In order to use spells and turn undead, clerics must uphold the doctrines of their faith and god. If a cleric ever falls from favor, due to violating the beliefs of his god or breaking the rules of his clergy, the god may impose penalties upon the cleric. These penalties are entirely up to the Judge, but might include penalties to attack or a reduction in spells available. More information on casting spells and individual spell descriptions can be found in the Spells chapter.

When a cleric reaches 5th level (Vicar), he may begin to research spells, scribe scrolls, and brew potions. At 9th level (Patriarch), he is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs. At 11th level, a cleric may learn and cast ritual divine spells of great power (6th and 7th level), and craft magical constructs such as golems and animated statues. If chaotic, the cleric will become able to create necromantic servants and even become undead himself. These activities are explained in the Campaigns chapter.

Upon attaining 9th level (Patriarch), a cleric may establish or build a fortified church. So long as the cleric is currently in favor with his god, he may buy or build his fortified church at half the normal price due to divine intervention. Once a fortified church is established, the cleric's reputation will spread and he will attract 5d6x10 0th level soldiers armed with various weapons, plus another 1d6 clerics of 1st-3rd level of the same religion to serve the order. They are completely loyal (morale +4). While in the cleric's service, his followers must be provided food and lodging, but need not be paid wages. The Judge determines which proportions of followers are archers, infantry, etc. Additional rules for fortified churches are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Priest
Proficiencies: Divine Blessing, Theology
Starting Equipment: Mace, wooden shield, banded plate armor, priest's cassock, shoes, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, holy symbol, holy book

This pre-generated template represents a devout priest from an organized religious order. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your cleric's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Cleric Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5
0 Catechist 1 1d6 - - - - -
1,500 Acolyte 2 2d6 1 - - - -
3,000 Priest 3 3d6 2 - - - -
6,000 Curate 4 4d6 2 1 - - -
12,000 Vicar 5 5d6 2 2 - - -
24,000 Rector 6 6d6 2 2 1 1 -
50,000 Prelate 7 7d6 2 2 2 1 1
100,000 Bishop 8 8d6 3 3 2 2 1
200,000 Patriarch 9 9d6 3 3 3 2 2
300,000 Patriarch, 10th lvl 10 9d6+1* 4 4 3 3 2
400,000 Patriarch, 11th lvl 11 9d6+2* 4 4 4 3 3
500,000 Patriarch, 12th lvl 12 9d6+3* 5 5 4 4 3
600,000 Patriarch, 13th lvl 13 9d6+4* 5 5 5 4 3
700,000 Theocrat 14 9d6+5* 6 5 5 5 4

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Cleric Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 13+ 10+ 16+ 13+ 15+ 10+
3-4 12+ 9+ 15+ 12+ 14+ 9+
5-6 11+ 8+ 14+ 11+ 13+ 8+
7-8 10+ 7+ 13+ 10+ 12+ 7+
9-10 9+ 6+ 12+ 9+ 11+ 6+
11-12 8+ 5+ 11+ 8+ 10+ 5+
13-14 7+ 4+ 10+ 7+ 9+ 4+

Cleric Turning Undead by Cleric Level

Undead Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14+
Skeleton 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D D D D D D
Zombie 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D D D D D
Ghoul 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D D D D
Wight 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D D D
Wraith - 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D D
Mummy - - 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D D
Spectre - - - 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D D
Vampire - - - - 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D D
Infernal* - - - - - 19+ 16+ 13+ 10+ 7+ 4+ T T D

*This category includes very powerful undead, or unholy beings such as demons and devils

Thief

Prime Requisite: DEX
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d4
Maximum Level: 14

Thieves have a range of unique skills associated with their profession that make them very handy companions in adventures. However, thieves can be a bit shady and they sometimes are not as trustworthy as other classes. A thief will usually belong to a Thieves' Guild from the character's local town, where he can seek shelter and information between adventures. At the Judge's discretion, a thief may have to forfeit a portion of his earnings to the guild in exchange for protection. Thieves are everywhere, from the slums to the highest halls of the government.

Thieves are trained combatants, although not as skilled as fighters. At first level, thieves hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws by two points every four levels of experience. Because of their need for stealth and free movement, thieves cannot wear armor heavier than leather, and cannot use shields or exclusively two-handed melee weapons such as great axes or polearms. They may use any missile weapons and any one-handed melee weapons. They may fight with a one-handed weapon in each hand, or wielding a one-handed weapon with two hands.

A thief also has the ability to backstab. He must catch an opponent unaware of his presence, either by surprise or by moving silently and/or hiding in shadows to sneak up on his opponent. When backstabbing, the thief will receive an attack bonus of +4 and, if successful, deal additional damage for every four levels he has attained. A thief at 1st through 4th levels does double the normal damage, at 5th-8th levels does triple the normal damage, at 9th-12th levels does quadruple the normal damage, and at 13th level or higher does quintuple the normal damage.

Thieves have the following range of skills, which improve as the thief gains levels according to the progression on the Thief Skills table. When a thief attempts to make use of one of his skills, the character or Judge will make a proficiency throw of 1d20. (Usually the Judge will make rolls for these abilities, because a thief is not always aware when he has failed.) After applying any relevant modifiers (e.g. due to the complexity of a lock), the result is compared to the target value listed on the Thief Skills table below for the appropriate skill. A result that is greater than or equal to the value listed for the proficiency throw that corresponds to the thief's level is a success. A roll of 20 is always a success, and a roll of 1 is always a failure.

Opening Locks: With the aid of thieves' tools, a thief may pick mechanical locks. He may only try to pick a particular lock once, and if he fails, he may not try the same lock again until he reaches a higher experience level. The Judge may apply bonuses or penalties to the roll, depending on the complexity of the lock.

Finding and Removing Traps: Through careful inspection and probing, a thief may find hidden traps and then attempt to disable or discharge the trap harmlessly. A thief may only try to find or remove a trap once in any given area. The Judge may apply bonuses or penalties to the roll, depending on the complexity of the trap. If the thief fails, he may not try again until he reaches a higher experience level. Note that these are separate skills, for a thief must find a trap before he can remove it.

Picking Pockets: This skill is the bread and butter of non-adventuring thieves for it is a quick source of income - though not without peril. A throw that is less than half the target value means that the intended target notices the thieving attempt. The Judge will then make a reaction roll with a -3 penalty to determine the intended victim's reaction.

Moving Silently: Thieves may move with total silence. When successful, even keen eared guards will not hear the movements of a thief. However, the thief always thinks he is successful in this skill, and will not know otherwise unless and until others react to his presence. Thieves may move silently at 1/2 their standard combat movement rate without penalty. If they move greater than 1/2 speed, they take a -5 penalty to the proficiency throw. If they run, they take a -10 penalty.

Climbing Walls: Thieves are adept at scaling sheer surfaces, including walls or steep cliffs. They require a proficiency throw for each 100' they intend to climb. If the roll fails, they fall a distance equal to half the attempted distance, plus the distance covered by any previous throws, taking 1d6 points of damage per 10 feet. Thieves climb at 1/4 their standard combat movement rate.

Hiding in Shadows: A thief may attempt to skulk unseen in the cover of darkness. A thief will always think he is successful in this skill, and will not know otherwise until others react to his presence. A thief will remain hidden so long as he stays motionless. If he moves, he must make a new proficiency throw to hide.

Hearing Noises: Thieves can attempt to listen for noises in a cave or hallway and at a door or other locations. The thief must be quiet and in a quiet environment.

Upon attaining 4th level, a thief gains the ability to read languages (including ciphers, treasure maps, and dead languages, but not magical writings) with a proficiency throw of 5+ on 1d20. If the roll does not succeed, the thief may not try to read that particular piece of writing until he reaches a higher level of experience.

When a thief attains 9th level (Master Thief), he can establish a hideout, and 2d6 thief apprentices of 1st level will come to work with the character. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for ruffians. A successful character might use these followers to start a Thieves' Guild. Additional rules for hideouts are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

At 10th level, a thief can read and cast magic from arcane scrolls with a proficiency throw of 3+ on 1d20. However, a failed throw means the spell does not function as expected, and can create a horrible effect at the Judge's discretion.

Template: Tomb Raider
Proficiencies: Trap Finding, Mapping
Starting Equipment: 10' pole, short sword, 2 throwing daggers, crossbow, case with 20 quarrels, sturdy leather armor, tanned brown cloak, thick tunic and leggings, high boots, backpack, 2 large treasure sacks, thieves' tools, 50' rope, tinderbox, lantern, hammer and 12 iron spikes, 2 flasks of military oil, wineskin, 2 week's iron rations, 20sp

This pre-generated template represents a bold tomb raider. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your thief's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Thief Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Backstab
0 Footpad 1 1d4 x2
1,250 Hood 2 2d4 x2
2,500 Robber 3 3d4 x2
5,000 Burglar 4 4d4 x2
10,000 Rogue 5 5d4 x3
20,000 Scoundrel 6 6d4 x3
40,000 Pilferer 7 7d4 x3
80,000 Thief 8 8d4 x3
180,000 Master Thief 9 9d4 x4
280,000 Master Thief, 10th level 10 9d4+2* x4
380,000 Master Thief, 11th level 11 9d4+4* x4
480,000 Master Thief, 12th level 12 9d4+6* x4
580,000 Master Thief, 13th level 13 9d4+8* x5
680,000 Prince of Thieves 14 9d4+10* x5

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Thief Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 13+ 13+ 16+ 14+ 15+ 10+
3-4 12+ 12+ 15+ 13+ 14+ 9+
5-6 11+ 11+ 14+ 12+ 13+ 8+
7-8 10+ 10+ 13+ 11+ 12+ 7+
9-10 9+ 9+ 12+ 10+ 11+ 6+
11-12 8+ 8+ 11+ 9+ 10+ 5+
13-14+ 7+ 7+ 10+ 8+ 9+ 4+

Thief Skills

Level Open Locks Find and Remove Traps Pick Pockets* Move Silently Climb Walls Hide in Shadows Hear Noise
1 18+ 18+ 17+ 17+ 6+ 19+ 14+
2 17+ 17+ 16+ 16+ 5+ 18+ 13+
3 16+ 16+ 15+ 15+ 5+ 17+ 12+
4 15+ 15+ 14+ 14+ 4+ 16+ 11+
5 14+ 14+ 13+ 13+ 4+ 15+ 10+
6 12+ 13+ 12+ 12+ 4+ 14+ 9+
7 10+ 11+ 10+ 10+ 3+ 12+ 8+
8 8+ 9+ 8+ 8+ 3+ 10+ 7+
9 6+ 7+ 6+ 6+ 3+ 8+ 6+
10 4+ 5+ 4+ 4+ 3+ 6+ 5+
11 3+ 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 4+ 4+
12 2+ 2+ -1+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+
13 1+ 2+ -3+ 1+ 1+ 2+ 2+
14 1+ 1+ -5+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+

*-1 penalty on the proficiency throw per each level the thief is lower than the victim.

Campaign Classes

Assassin

Prime Requisite: STR and DEX
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 14

Assassins are humans who train to kill by ambush and treachery. Assassins may be back-alley brawlers, violent thugs, or members of an organized guild. Some assassins are members of an order of Assassins, a religious brotherhood of trained killers, or are simply murders-for-hire or rogues with a taste for violence.

Assassins are expert combatants, though lacking somewhat in toughness (hit points). At first level, assassins hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws as fighters, by two points every three levels of experience. Assassins increase their base damage roll from successful missile and melee attacks by +1 at 1st level and by an additional +1 at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th level.

Assassins may use any weapon without limitation. Although assassins generally prefer fast, concealable, or quiet weapons, killing can occur under many circumstances. They may fight using a weapon two-handed, a weapon in each hand, or a weapon and shield.

Assassins may wear any type of armor, but most favor stealth over steel. When wearing leather armor or lighter garb, an assassin may move silently, hide in shadows, and backstab as a thief of the same level. If wear armor heavier than leather, these abilities are not available.

Upon reaching 9th level (Assassin), an assassin may construct a hideout. When an assassin builds a hideout, he will gain 2d6 1st level assassin apprentices, come to learn under a master. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for ruffians. These thugs will serve the character with some loyalty, though at least one will be an infiltrator working for the assassin's local rivals, sent to keep an eye on the character. Additional rules for hideouts are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Bravo
Proficiencies: Fighting Style (Two-Weapon Fighting), Intimidation
Starting Equipment: Serrated sword, left-hand dagger, black leather armor, armiger's tunic, duelist's cloak, high boots, belt pouch with bone dice made from last foe, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, 36gp

This pre-generated template represents a swaggering killer-for-hire. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your assassin's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Assassin Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Damage Bonus Backstab
0 Thug 1 1d6 +1 x2
1,700 Enforcer 2 2d6 +1 x2
3,400 Torturer 3 3d6 +2 x2
6,800 Slayer 4 4d6 +2 x2
14,000 Destroyer 5 5d6 +2 x3
28,000 Executioner 6 6d6 +3 x3
55,000 Blackguard 7 7d6 +3 x3
110,000 Assassin 8 8d6 +3 x3
230,000 Master Assassin 9 9d6 +4 x4
350,000 Master Assassin, 10th level 10 9d6+2* +4 x4
470,000 Master Assassin, 11th level 11 9d6+4* +4 x4
590,000 Master Assassin, 12th level 12 9d6+6* +5 x4
710,000 Master Assassin, 13th level 13 9d6+8* +5 x5
830,000 Grandfather of Assassins 14 9d6+10* +5 x5

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Assassin (Fighter) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1 15+ 14+ 16+ 16+ 17+ 10+
2-3 14+ 13+ 15+ 15+ 16+ 9+
4 13+ 12+ 14+ 14+ 15+ 8+
5-6 12+ 11+ 13+ 13+ 14+ 7+
7 11+ 10+ 12+ 12+ 13+ 6+
8-9 10+ 9+ 11+ 11+ 12+ 5+
10 9+ 8+ 10+ 10+ 11+ 4+
11-12 8+ 7+ 9+ 9+ 10+ 3+
13 7+ 6+ 8+ 8+ 9+ 2+
14 6+ 5+ 7+ 7+ 8+ 1+

Bard

Prime Requisite: DEX and CHA
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 14

Successful adventurers live forever in the sagas and songs about their deeds. Remembering and recounting these sagas is the profession of bards. Most bards are content to recite the deeds of others, but some bold few participate in the dangers themselves and become inspiring heroes in their own right. A bard might be an adventuring minstrel with a sword in his hand and a song at his lips, a warrior-skald, or haughty aristocrat.

Bards advance in attack throws and saving throws as a thief, by two points every four levels of experience. At first level, bards hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They may fight with any missile weapons and any one-handed melee weapons, and may wield a weapon in each hand if desired. They cannot wear armor heavier than leather, and cannot use shields.

All bards can sing, recite poetry, or play a group of instruments in a skilled manner. The bard chooses the type of performance that his character knows. A bard may take the Perform proficiency to learn other types of performances (see Chapter 4, Proficiencies).

By reciting heroic lays and epic poems, bards can inspire courage. Inspiring courage requires a few moments of oration before a battle (one round), and grants the bard's allies within a 50' radius a +1 bonus to attack throws, damage rolls, morale rolls (for monsters or NPCs allied with the caster), and saving throws against magical fear. The bonus lasts for 10 minutes (1 turn). A bard can inspire courage in any given character once per day per class level. (Even the most inspiring epic gets old if you hear it twice in the same day.) A bard cannot inspire courage on characters who are already engaged in combat.

Because of their study of ancient annals and legends, bards possess loremastery. This knowledge allows them to decipher occult runes, remember ancient history, identify historic artifacts, and similar tasks. At 1st level, a bard must make a proficiency throw of 18+ on 1d20 to succeed in these tasks. The proficiency throw required reduces by 1 per level.

This same knowledge allows bards to dabble in the arcane. They may attempt to use wands, staffs, and other magic Items only useable by mages. At 1st level, the character must make a proficiency throw of 18+ on 1d20 or the attempt backfires in some desultory way (Judge's discretion). The proficiency throw required reduces by 2 per level, to a minimum of 3+.

Upon attaining 4th level (Annalist), the bard gains the ability to read languages, including ciphers, treasure maps, and dead languages, but not magical writings. A proficiency throw of 5+ on 1d20 is required. If the roll does not succeed, the bard may not try to read that particular piece of writing until he reaches a higher level of experience.

When a bard reaches 5th level (Chronicler), his chronicles of battle inspire his hirelings to strive for glory. Any henchmen and mercenaries hired by the bard gain a +1 bonus to their morale score if the bard is there to witness and record their deeds. This bonus stacks with any modifiers from the bard's Charisma or proficiencies.

Upon reaching 9th level (Bard), a bard can build a hall and become a ruler. When he does so, up 1d4+1 x10 0th level mercenaries and 1d6 bards of 1st-3rd level will come to apply for jobs and training. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for mercenaries. Additional rules for halls are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

At 10th level, the bard can read and cast magic from arcane scrolls with a proficiency throw of 3+ on 1d20. However, a failed throw means the spell does not function as expected, and can create a horrible effect at the Judge's discretion.

Template: Wandering Minstrel
Proficiencies: Magical Music, Diplomacy
Starting Equipment: Crossbow, quiver with 20 bolts, short sword, dagger, well-maintained leather armor, traveler's tunic and sturdy boots, backpack, musical instrument, 2 week's iron rations

This pre-generated template represents a wandering minstrel with magic in his song. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your bard's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Bard Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Arcane Dabbling Loremastery
0 Reciter 1 1d6 18+ 18+
1,400 Versifier 2 2d6 16+ 17+
2,800 Archivist 3 3d6 14+ 16+
5,600 Annalist 4 4d6 12+ 15+
11,200 Chronicler 5 5d6 10+ 14+
22,400 Panegyrist 6 6d6 8+ 13+
45,000 Skald 7 7d6 6+ 12+
90,000 Rhapsodist 8 8d6 4+ 11+
190,000 Bard 9 9d6 3+ 10+
290,000 Bard, 10th level 10 9d6+2* 3+ 9+
390,000 Bard, 11th level 11 9d6+4* 3+ 8+
490,000 Bard, 12th level 12 9d6+6* 3+ 7+
590,000 Bard, 13th level 13 9d6+8* 3+ 6+
690,000 Master Bard 14 9d6+10* 3+ 5+

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Bard (Thief) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 13+ 13+ 16+ 14+ 15+ 10+
3-4 12+ 12+ 15+ 13+ 14+ 9+
5-6 11+ 11+ 14+ 12+ 13+ 8+
7-8 10+ 10+ 13+ 11+ 12+ 7+
9-10 9+ 9+ 12+ 10+ 11+ 6+
11-12 8+ 8+ 11+ 9+ 10+ 5+
13-14+ 7+ 7+ 10+ 8+ 9+ 4+

Bard Skills

Level Arcane Dabbling Loremastery
1 18+ 18+
2 16+ 17+
3 14+ 16+
4 12+ 15+
5 10+ 14+
6 8+ 13+
7 6+ 12+
8 4+ 11+
9 3+ 10+
10 3+ 9+
11 3+ 8+
12 3+ 7+
13 3+ 6+
14 3+ 5+

Bladedancer

Prime Requisite: WIS and DEX
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 14

Bladedancers are human women who have dedicated themselves to the service of a goddess of war. They belong to military clerical orders, where they are trained in fighting and casting spells. Most bladedancers are trained to the art from a young age at the Temples of the Goddess of Love and War. A fully trained bladedancer is highly coveted as a bodyguard and escort by the great noble houses.

Bladedancers are skilled combatants. At first level, bladedancers hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance like clerics in attack throws and saving throws, by two points every four levels of experience. By religious doctrine, bladedancers are forbidden from debasing themselves with the fighting implements of the peasantry, or dishonorably firing missiles from a distance. A bladedancer may only use piercing and slashing melee weapons, such as daggers, swords, spears, and polearms. This eliminates weapons such as clubs, maces, and warhammers, as well as bows, slings, and crossbows.

A bladedancer may wield a weapon in each hand, or fight with a two-handed weapon, but may not resort to shields. Bladedancers are only trained to fight in leather or lighter armor. However, they gain a +1 bonus to initiative and a +1 bonus to Armor Class if able to move freely. At level 7, the AC bonus increases to +2, and at level 13 the AC bonus increases to +3.

A bladedancer may turn undead like a cleric. Starting at 2nd level, a bladedancer may cast divine spells. Bladedancers follow the same spell progression as clerics and use the same rules for learning and casting spells. However, a bladedancer's spell list is slightly different than a cleric's; see the Spells chapter for details. Like clerics, bladedancers must uphold the doctrines of their faith and god, and suffer penalties if they violate them.

When a bladedancer reaches 5th level (Blade-Sister), she may begin to research spells, scribe scrolls, and brew potions. At 9th level (Blade-Mistress), she is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs. At 11th level, a bladedancer may learn and cast ritual divine spells of great power (6th and 7th level), and craft magical constructs such as golems and animated statues. If chaotic, the bladedancer will become able to create necromantic servants and even become undead herself. These activities are explained in the Campaigns chapter.

When a bladedancer reaches 9th level (Blade-Mistress), she may choose to construct a temple as a stronghold. If she has not lost the favor of her deity, the cost of building the temple will be half the normal amount due to miraculous assistance from the bladedancer's honored deity. Once the temple is completed, fanatically loyal bladedancers called the "faithful," who need never check morale, will come to defend the Blade-Mistress. There will be 5d6x10 0th level soldiers armed with various weapons, plus another 1d6 bladedancers of 1st-3rd level to serve the order. While in the bladedancer's service, her followers must be provided food and lodging, but need not be paid wages. Additional rules for temples are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Temple Bladedancer
Proficiencies: Swashbuckler, Performance (Dance)
Starting Equipment: Pair of gracefully curved swords, polished leather armor, golden silk cloak, bladedancer's head dress (20gp value), holy symbol, backpack, 2 week's iron rations

This pre-generated template represents a temple-trained bladedancer. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your bladedancer's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Bladedancer Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice AC Bonus 1 2 3 4 5
0 Blade-Initiate 1 1d6 +1 0 0 0 0 0
1,500 Blade-Daughter 2 2d6 +1 1 0 0 0 0
3,000 Blade-Singer 3 3d6 +1 2 0 0 0 0
6,000 Blade-Weaver 4 4d6 +1 2 1 0 0 0
12,000 Blade-Sister 5 5d6 +1 2 2 0 0 0
24,000 Blade-Adept 6 6d6 +1 2 2 1 1 0
50,000 Blade-Dancer 7 7d6 +2 2 2 2 1 1
100,000 Blade-Priestess 8 8d6 +2 3 3 2 2 1
200,000 Blade-Mistress 9 9d6 +2 3 3 3 2 2
300,000 Blade-Mistress, 10th level 10 9d6+1* +2 4 4 3 3 2
400,000 Blade-Mistress, 11th level 11 9d6+2* +2 4 4 4 3 3
500,000 Blade-Mistress, 12th level 12 9d6+3* +2 5 5 4 4 3
600,000 Blade-Mistress, 13th level 13 9d6+4* +3 5 5 5 4 3
700,000 Mistress of All Blades 14 9d6+5* +3 6 5 5 5 4

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Bladedancer (Cleric) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 13+ 10+ 16+ 13+ 15+ 10+
3-4 12+ 9+ 15+ 12+ 14+ 9+
5-6 11+ 8+ 14+ 11+ 13+ 8+
7-8 10+ 7+ 13+ 10+ 12+ 7+
9-10 9+ 6+ 12+ 9+ 11+ 6+
11-12 8+ 5+ 11+ 8+ 10+ 5+
13-14+ 7+ 4+ 10+ 7+ 9+ 4+

Explorer

Prime Requisite: STR and DEX
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 14

Explorers are scouts and trackers, adept at both woodcraft and archery. Few adventuring parties would dare the wilderness without an experienced explorer to guide them. An explorer might be a long range scout, a barbarian hunter from the northern forests, or a settler pushing past the borders civilization.

While they prefer to evade foes where possible, explorers are cunning warriors when they need to be. Like fighters, they advance in attack throws and saving throws by two points every three levels of experience. At first level, explorers hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. In addition, they gain an accuracy bonus of +1 to all attack throws with missile weapons. Due to their careful aim, they increase their base damage roll from successful missile and melee attacks by +1 at 1st level, and by an additional +1 at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th level. Explorers are trained to fight with any missile weapons and any one-handed melee weapons, and may wear chain mail or lighter armor. They may fight wielding a weapon and shield, wielding a weapon two-handed, and wielding a weapon in each hand.

Explorers have animal reflexes, gaining +1 bonus to initiative and a +1 bonus to surprise rolls. Outdoors, explorers are difficult to spot, having the ability to seemingly disappear into woods and underbrush with a proficiency throw of 3+ on 1d20. In dungeons, an explorer who is motionless and quiet in cover can escape detection with a proficiency throw of 14+ on 1d20.

Parties guided by explorers gain significant advantages on wilderness adventures. Any time the explorer's party is in country familiar to the explorer, they get a +4 bonus on proficiency throws to avoid getting lost. In any terrain except clear and grassland terrain, the explorer's party receives a +5 bonus to proficiency throws to evade wilderness encounters.

A party guided by an explorer can evade wilderness encounters even when surprised on a proficiency throw of 19+. See the Wilderness Adventures and Evasion and Pursuit sections of Chapter 6 for more details on getting lost and evading encounters.

When an explorer reaches 5th level (Guide), his experience and hardiness reassures those who follow him into the wild. Hirelings on a wilderness adventure led by the explorer gain a +1 bonus to their morale score. This bonus stacks with any modifiers from the explorer's Charisma or proficiencies.

When an explorer reaches 9th level (Warden), he may decide to build a border fort in the borderlands or wilderness. When he does so, up to 1d4+1 x10 0th level mercenaries and 1d6 explorers of 1st - 3rd level will come to apply for jobs and training. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for mercenaries. The character becomes the warden of any nearby settlers, and will attract more settlers over time. These people will look to the Warden as their leader, responsible for the growth and safety of their settlement. Additional rules for border forts are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Pathfinder
Proficiencies: Precise Shot, Tracking
Starting Equipment: Sturdy longbow, quiver with 20 arrows, spear, short sword, dagger, chainmail armor, wind-battered fur cloak, boots, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, wineskin, lantern, tinderbox, 2 flasks of common oil, blanket, 50' rope, 12 iron spikes, small hammer and 20sp

This pre-generated template represents a keen-eyed archer and tracker. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your explorer's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Explorer Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Damage Bonus
0 Scout 1 1d6 +1
2,000 Outrider 2 2d6 +1
4,000 Forester 3 3d6 +2
8,000 Explorer 4 4d6 +2
16,000 Guide 5 5d6 +2
32,000 Tracker 6 6d6 +3
65,000 Pathfinder 7 7d6 +3
130,000 Ranger 8 8d6 +3
250,000 Warden 9 9d6 +4
370,000 Warden, 10th level 10 9d6+2* +4
490,000 Warden, 11th level 11 9d6+4* +4
610,000 Warden, 12th level 12 9d6+6* +5
730,000 Warden, 13th level 13 9d6+8* +5
850,000 Lord Warden 14 9d6+10* +5

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Explorer (Fighter) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1 15+ 14+ 16+ 16+ 17+ 10+
2-3 14+ 13+ 15+ 15+ 16+ 9+
4 13+ 12+ 14+ 14+ 15+ 8+
5-6 12+ 11+ 13+ 13+ 14+ 7+
7 11+ 10+ 12+ 12+ 13+ 6+
8-9 10+ 9+ 11+ 11+ 12+ 5+
10 9+ 8+ 10+ 10+ 11+ 4+
11-12 8+ 7+ 9+ 9+ 10+ 3+
13 7+ 6+ 8+ 8+ 9+ 2+
14+ 6+ 5+ 7+ 7+ 8+ 1+

Demi-Human Classes

Dwarven Vaultguard

Prime Requisite: STR
Requirements: CON 9
Hit Dice: 1d8
Maximum Level: 13

Dwarves are stout, short, bearded demi-humans who average a height of approximately 4' and weigh about 150lb. Perhaps not surprisingly, they have skin, hair and eye colors in earth tones. Dwarves have a reputation for having surly attitudes, and are particularly gruff with elves. They value precious metals and stones, and live in deep underground vaults, where they endure constant raids from the orcs, trolls, and even worse denizens of the darkness below.

Dwarves trained to defend their race's underground vault from the endless hordes that threaten it are called vaultguards. Though most vaultguards are born, live and die in the vault, from time to time a young vaultguard will be dispatched to foreign realms on a warrior's pilgrimage. The few vaultguards who return from such pilgrimages bring gold and glory to their clans, often leading them to found new vaults and become great lords. The dwarven vaultguard class represents such a dwarf.

Dwarven vaultguards are highly trained combatants. At first level, dwarven vaultguards hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws as fighters, by two points every three levels of experience. They increase their base damage roll from successful missile and melee attacks by +1 at 1st level, and by an additional +1 at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th level. Due to their short height, dwarven vaultguards cannot use human-sized two-handed weapons (such as two-handed swords or pole arms) or longbows, but they can use any other weapon or armor. They are trained to fight wielding a weapon and shield, wielding a weapon two-handed, and wielding a weapon in each hand.

Dwarves gain a +1 bonus to surprise rolls when underground due to sensitivity to the rock and stone around them. Because of their experience underground, dwarves may detect traps, false walls, hidden construction, or sloped passages with a proficiency throw of 14+ on 1d20. Dwarves must be actively searching for these abilities to function.

In addition to these abilities, dwarves are particularly hardy people. The target values for all their saving throws versus Blast/Breath are reduced by 3, while the target values for all their other saving throws are reduced by 4. These adjustments are already factored into the saving throws on the Dwarven Vaultguard Attack and Saving Throws table below. Dwarf characters will speak the Common and Dwarvish tongue and, because of their frequent interaction underground with these monsters, dwarves can also speak Goblin, Gnome, and Kobold.

When a dwarven vaultguard reaches 9th level (Vaultlord), he can attract dwarves from far and wide by constructing his own underground vault. Dwarves usually live in clans, so dwarves of the character's clan will be the first to live under his roof, but dwarves from other clans will also come and live nearby to be ruled by the character. A total of 3d6x10 1st level NPCs of the same race will move in to help maintain and defend the vault at no cost to the character. A dwarven vaultguard is expected to employ only soldiers of dwarven descent, but may hire members of other races for other tasks. Additional rules for dwarven vaults are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Goblin Slayer
Proficiencies: Goblin-Slaying, Caving
Starting Equipment: Dwarven battle axe, brace of 3 hand axes, rust-free banded plate armor, large steel shield with painted vault insignia, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, lantern, 2 flasks of military oil, 3 flasks of common oil, tinder box

This pre-generated template represents a dwarven vaultguard specializing in fighting goblins, kobolds, and other denizens of the darkness below. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your dwarven vaultguard's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Dwarven Vaultguard Level Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Damage Bonus
0 Sentry 1 1d8 +1
2,200 Warden 2 2d8 +1
4,400 Shieldbearer 3 3d8 +2
8,800 Defender 4 4d8 +2
17,500 Sentinel 5 5d8 +2
35,000 Guardian 6 6d8 +3
70,000 Champion 7 7d8 +3
140,000 Vaultguard 8 8d8 +3
270,000 Vaultlord 9 9d8 +4
400,000 Vaultlord, 10th lvl 10 9d8+3* +4
530,000 Vaultlord, 11th lvl 11 9d8+6* +4
660,000 Vaultlord, 12th lvl 12 9d8+9* +5
790,000 Vaultlord, 13th lvl 13 9d8+12* +5

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Dwarven Vaultguard (Fighter) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1 11+ 10+ 13+ 12+ 13+ 10+
2-3 10+ 9+ 12+ 11+ 12+ 9+
4 9+ 8+ 11+ 10+ 11+ 8+
5-6 8+ 7+ 10+ 9+ 10+ 7+
7 7+ 6+ 9+ 8+ 9+ 6+
8-9 6+ 5+ 8+ 7+ 8+ 5+
10 5+ 4+ 7+ 6+ 7+ 4+
11-12 4+ 3+ 6+ 5+ 6+ 3+
13 3+ 2+ 5+ 4+ 5+ 2+

Dwarven Craftpriest

Prime Requisite: WIS
Requirements: CON 9
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 10

Nothing is so revered among the dwarven people as craftsmanship. A dwarf's work is his life, and the spirits of great dwarven artisans are believed to live on forever in their masterpieces. The veneration of these relics falls to the care of a caste of dwarves known as craftpriests. While most craftpriests attend to the shrines and monuments of their clan, young craftpriests are sometimes sent forth to recover monuments to the glorious past from the ancient ruins and wastelands of the world. This class represents such a craftpriest.

At first level, dwarven craftpriests hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. Dwarven craftpriests advance in attack throws and saving throws as clerics, by two points every four levels of experience. Dwarven craftpriests may wear any armor and may use any of the traditional weapons of their people, including the battle axe, great axe, hand axe, flail, mace, morning star, and warhammer. They are trained to fight wielding a weapon and shield or wielding a weapon two-handed, but may not dual wield weapons.

A dwarven craftpriest may turn undead like a cleric. Starting at 2nd level (Craft-Acolyte), a craftpriest may cast divine spells. Craftpriests follow the same spell progression as clerics, use the same rules for learning and casting spells, and select their spells from the same spell list. See the Spells chapter for details. Because of their religious training, a craftpriest can automatically identify religious symbols, trappings, and holy days of the dwarven faith, and recognizes those of other faiths with a proficiency throw of 8+ on 1d20.

In addition, each dwarven craftpriest is a journeyman in a particular type of craft, such as armor-making, leatherworking, weapon-smithing, etc. With access to craftsman's tools, the character can produce 20gp worth of items per month, and supervise 3 apprentices in his craft. When examining works of his craft, the craftpriest can identify masterwork items, rare materials, and famous artisans with a proficiency throw of 8+ on 1d20. Their attention to detail gives craftpriests a +3 bonus on proficiency rolls for other proficiencies they learn as well.

Dwarves gain a +1 bonus to surprise rolls when underground due to sensitivity to the rock and stone around them. Because of their experience underground, dwarves may detect traps, false walls, hidden construction, or sloped passages with a proficiency throw of 14+ on 1d20. Dwarves must be actively searching for these abilities to function. In addition to these abilities, dwarves are particularly hardy people. The target values for all their saving throws versus Blast/Breath are reduced by 3, while the target values for all their other saving throws are reduced by 4. These adjustments are already factored into the saving throws on the Dwarven Craftpriest Attack and Saving Throws table below. Dwarven characters speak the Common and Dwarvish tongue and, because of their frequent interaction underground with these monsters, also speak Goblin, Gnome, and Kobold.

Starting at 5th level (Craft-Vicar), a craftpriest may begin to research spells, scribe scrolls, and brew potions. At 9th level (Craft-Lord), he is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs, and craft magical constructs such as golems. At 9th level, he also can construct a vault that will attract dwarves from far and wide. Dwarves of the character's clan will be the first to live under his roof, but dwarves from other clans will also come and live nearby to be ruled by the character. A total of 3d6x10 1st level NPCs of the same race will move in to help maintain and defend the vault at no cost to the character. A Craft-Lord is expected to employ only soldiers of dwarven descent, but may hire members of other races for other tasks. Additional rules for dwarven vaults are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Reclaimer
Proficiencies: Magical Engineering, Knowledge (History)
Starting Equipment: Warhammer with carved head, engraved banded plate armor, steel shield with craft insignia, steel holy symbol (craft insignia), backpack, 2 week's iron rations, craftsman's tools

This pre-generated template represents a craftpriest focused on reclaiming lost artifacts from evil forces. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your dwarven craftpriest's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Craftpriest Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5
0 Dwarven Craft-Catechist 1 1d6 0 0 0 0 0
2,400 Dwarven Craft-Acolyte 2 2d6 1 0 0 0 0
4,800 Dwarven Craftpriest 3 3d6 2 0 0 0 0
9,600 Dwarven Craft-Curate 4 4d6 2 1 0 0 0
19,200 Dwarven Craft-Vicar 5 5d6 2 2 0 0 0
38,400 Dwarven Craft-Rector 6 6d6 2 2 1 1 0
75,000 Dwarven Craft-Prelate 7 7d6 2 2 2 1 1
150,000 Dwarven Craft-Bishop 8 8d6 3 3 2 2 1
280,000 Dwarven Craft-Lord 9 9d6 3 3 3 2 2
410,000 Dwarven Craft-Lord, 10th lvl 10 9d6+2* 4 4 3 3 2

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Dwarven Craftpriest (Cleric) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 9+ 6+ 13+ 9+ 11+ 10+
3-4 8+ 5+ 12+ 8+ 10+ 9+
5-6 7+ 4+ 11+ 7+ 9+ 8+
7-8 6+ 3+ 10+ 6+ 8+ 7+
9-10 5+ 2+ 9+ 5+ 7+ 6+

Elven Spellsword

Prime Requisite: STR and INT
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 10

Elves are lithe, fey beings with pointed ears, delicate features, and graceful movement. They typically weigh about 130lb and stand between 5 1/2 ' and 6' tall. Humans envy their long lifespans and seeming agelessness. Though elves are a peaceful people that enjoy poetry and art, they are also very talented fighters and skilled mages. The elven spellsword class represents one such remarkable elf, trained in the arts of both fighters and mages.

Elven spellswords learn an elegant, deadly style of fighting. At first level, elven spellswords hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. They advance in attack throws and saving throws as fighters, by two points every three levels of experience. They increase their base damage roll from successful missile and melee attacks by +1 at 1st level, and by an additional +1 at 3rd, 6th, and 9th level. Elven spellswords can wield any weapon and wear any armor. They are trained to fight wielding a weapon and shield, wielding a two-handed weapon, and wielding a weapon in each hand.

In addition to their fighting prowess, elven spellswords cast spells like a mage, using the same spell list and the same rules for learning and casting spells. Elven spellswords follow the same spell progression as mages up to 10th level. Unlike (human) mages, elven spellswords can also cast spells while wearing armor. They can use any magic item available to fighters or mages.

Elves gain a +1 bonus to surprise rolls when in the wilderness due to their attunement to nature. Elves have keen eyes that allow them to detect hidden and secret doors with a proficiency throw of 8+ on 1d20 when actively searching, or 14+ on casual inspection. Because of their connection to nature, elves are completely unaffected by the paralysis ghouls can inflict, and the target values for all their saving throws versus Petrification/Paralysis and Spells are reduced by 1. Elves can speak the Common, Elven, Gnoll, Hobgoblin, and Orc languages.

Starting at 5th level (Thaumaturge-Exemplar), elven spellswords may begin to research spells, scribe scrolls, and brew potions. When an elven spellsword reaches 9th level (Wizard-Lord), he is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs. These activities are explained in the Campaigns chapter.

At 9th level (Wizard-Lord), elven spellswords can also establish a fastness in a natural setting, such as a forest or glen. Rather than impose upon nature, this keep must blend seamlessly with it. A total of 3d6x10 1st level elven NPCs will move in to help with it and defend the fastness at no cost to the character. Additional rules for elven fastnesses are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

Template: Fighter-Mage
Proficiencies: Battle Magic, Military Strategy
Starting Equipment: Gracefully curved sword and dagger, elven composite bow, quiver with 20 arrows, chainmail armor, embroidered cloak, boots, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, spell book with magic missile

This pre-generated template represents a traditional fighter-mage of elven heritage. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your elven spellsword's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies and starting Spells before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4 and Spell Repertoire in Chapter 5).

Spellsword Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice 1 2 3 4 5
0 Arcanist-Guardian 1 1d6 1 - - - -
4,000 Warrior-Seer 2 2d6 2 - - - -
8,000 Theurgist-Swordmaster 3 3d6 2 1 - - -
16,000 Magician-Hero 4 4d6 2 2 - - -
32,000 Thaumaturge-Exemplar 5 5d6 2 2 1 - -
64,000 Myrmidon-Enchanter 6 6d6 2 2 2 - -
130,000 Sorcerer-Champion 7 7d6 3 2 2 1 -
260,000 Epic Hero-Mage 8 8d6 3 3 2 2 -
430,000 Wizard-Lord 9 9d6 3 3 3 2 1
600,000 Wizard-Lord, 10th level 10 9d6+2* 3 3 3 3 2

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Elven Spellsword (Fighter) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1 14+ 14+ 16+ 16+ 16+ 10+
2-3 13+ 13+ 15+ 15+ 15+ 9+
4 12+ 12+ 14+ 14+ 14+ 8+
5-6 11+ 11+ 13+ 13+ 13+ 7+
7 10+ 10+ 12+ 12+ 12+ 6+
8-9 9+ 9+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 5+
10 8+ 8+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 4+

Elven Nightblade

Prime Requisite: DEX and INT
Requirements: None
Hit Dice: 1d6
Maximum Level: 11

Elves are a subtle race, and never does their gift for finesse and subtlety so reveal itself as in the practice of death-dealing. Cunning, deadly, and rarely seen, the elven nightblade is an assassin and sorcerer whose art is murder. Most nightblades practice their work in the courts of elven nobility.

At first level, elven nightblades hit an unarmored foe (AC 0) with an attack throw of 10+. Elven nightblades advance in attack throws and saving throws as thieves, by two points every four levels of experience. They may use any missile weapons and any one-handed melee weapons. They may fight with a one-handed weapon in each hand, or wielding a one-handed weapon with two hands. They cannot wear armor heavier than leather, and cannot use shields or exclusively two-handed melee weapons such as great axes or polearms.

Elven nightblades may move silently, hide in shadows, climb walls, and backstab as a thief of the same level. In addition, they may perform feats of acrobatics. In lieu of moving during a round, the nightblade may attempt a proficiency throw of 20+ to tumble behind an opponent in melee. The proficiency throw required for the tumble is reduced by 1 per level of experience the character possesses. If successful, the nightblade is now behind his opponent. The opponent loses the benefit of his shield, if any, and the nightblade can backstab his opponent (gaining +4 to his attack throw and bonus damage based on his level). Nightblades also gain a +2 bonus to saving throws where agility would help avoid the situation, such as tilting floors and pit traps.

Elven nightblades cast spells as mages of one-half their level, using the same spell list and the same rules for learning and casting spells. Unlike (human) mages, elven nightblades can also cast spells while wearing armor. They can use any magical items available to mages or thieves.

Elves gain a +1 bonus to surprise rolls when in the wilderness due to their attunement to nature. Elves have keen eyes that allow them to detect hidden and secret doors with a proficiency throw of 8+ on 1d20 when actively searching, or 14+ on casual inspection. Because of their connection to nature, elves are completely unaffected by the paralysis ghouls can inflict, and the target values for all their saving throws versus Spells, Paralysis, and Petrification are reduced by 1. Elves can speak Common, Elven, Gnoll, Hobgoblin, and Orc languages.

When they reach 9th level (Nightblade), elven nightblades may construct a hideout. When a nightblade builds a hideout, he will gain 2d6 1st level nightblades as apprentices, come to learn under a master. If hired, they must be paid standard rates for ruffians. These nightblades will serve the character with some loyalty, though at least one will be an infiltrator working for the elven nightblade's local rivals, sent to keep an eye on the character. Additional rules for hideouts are detailed in the Campaigns chapter.

When they reach 10th level, elven nightblades may begin to research spells, scribe magical scrolls, and brew potions, as if they were 5th level mages.

Template: Silent Slayer
Proficiencies: Skulking, Alchemy
Starting Equipment: Crossbow, case with 20 quarrels, sword, dagger, leather armor, dark hooded cloak, backpack, 2 week's iron rations, grappling hook, 50' rope, crowbar, flask of military oil, tinder box

This pre-generated template represents a silent killer with a penchant for poisons and potions. The template is ready for adventure. However, if your elven nightblade's INT is 13 or greater, you may pick one or more additional general proficiencies and starting spells before play if you'd like (see Starting Proficiencies in Chapter 4).

Nightblade Level and Spell Progression

Experience Title Level Hit Dice Acrobatics 1 2 3
0 Arcanist-Avenger 1 1d6 20+ - - -
2,775 Seer-Enforcer 2 2d6 19+ 1 - -
5,550 Theurgist-Torturer 3 3d6 18+ 2 - -
11,100 Magician-Slayer 4 4d6 17+ 2 - -
22,200 Thaumaturge-Destroyer 5 5d6 16+ 2 1 -
45,000 Enchanter-Executioner 6 6d6 15+ 2 1 -
90,000 Sorcerer-Blackguard 7 7d6 14+ 2 2 -
180,000 Mage-Assassin 8 8d6 13+ 2 2 -
330,000 Nightblade 9 9d6 12+ 2 2 1
480,000 Nightblade, 10th level 10 9d6+2* 11+ 2 2 1
630,000 Nightblade, 11th level 11 9d6+4* 10+ 2 2 2

*Hit point modifiers from constitution are ignored

Elven Nightblade (Thief) Attack and Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells Attack Throw
1-2 12+ 13+ 16+ 14+ 14+ 10+
3-4 11+ 12+ 15+ 13+ 13+ 9+
5-6 10+ 11+ 14+ 12+ 12+ 8+
7-8 9+ 10+ 13+ 11+ 11+ 7+
9-10 8+ 9+ 12+ 10+ 10+ 6+
11 7+ 8+ 11+ 9+ 9+ 5+

Alignment

In the Adventurer Conqueror King System, your character will enter a world of ceaseless violent struggle, where civilization is ever-assailed by forces intent on its destruction. In this perilous realm, he will be called to choose a side: Will he pledge to defend civilization and its allies against those who seek to destroy it? Will he sell his sword to any who can offer fame or fortune? Or will he become an agent of entropy and destruction undermining peace and order? This choice is called Alignment, and the three choices are Lawful, Neutral, and Chaotic.

Law: Lawful beings believe that civilization is worth fighting for. Despite its vices and villainies, civilization must be defended against those who would destroy it. Lawful beings tend to see wars among civilizations as aiding the cause of Chaos, and so they seek peace among Lawful civilizations where possible. However, Lawful characters are not pacifists, nor are they necessarily altruists. Indeed, most would think something was wrong with a hero who turned down fame and fortune; chests of gold, magnificent weapons, comely consorts, and grants of land are, after all, the rightful rewards for great deeds of valor on behalf of Law.

Neutrality: Neutral beings generally enjoy the benefits of law and civilization, but it is not something they directly fight for. They tend to focus on their own ends, whether those are family, fame, fortune, pleasure, or power. A Neutral mercenary might be found fighting on behalf of Law or Chaos; a neutral farmer tends his crops and pays his taxes, whether to the Patriarch or the Lich-King.

Chaos: Chaotic beings actively seek to destroy civil society. Chaotic characters are often madmen or cultists of forgotten, chthonic gods. To the extent they have any order at all, societies of Chaotic characters are ruled by force and fear, and are often characterized by all manner of corruption and vice. Even decadent Lawful civilizations at least pay homage to civilizing virtue, but chaotic civilizations embrace their corruption.

Note that a character's choice of Alignment doesn't determine whether or not he takes care of his children, cheats on his wife, or steals from the merchant's guild. It is concerned only with the weighty issue of where his allegiance lies in the grand struggles of existence. To have an alignment of Lawful or Chaotic is to have chosen a side in this perpetual struggle. Many people, choosing no side, are Neutral, although it is important to remember that most Neutrals still want the protection of Law even though they are not willing to die for it. (To paraphrase George Orwell, Neutral humans sleep peaceably in their beds at night only because Lawful heroes stand ready to do violence on their behalf.)

Human vices, such as greed, lust, and vanity, are widespread and common even in Lawful societies. But Chaotic societies are characterized by their monstrous vices: Genocide, human sacrifice, wanton destruction, cannibalism, necrophilia, and so on. Evil is all-too-human in every civilization, but Chaotic is something both less and more than human.

Adventuring Parties

The worlds of Adventurer Conqueror King are dangerous and hostile. For the sake of survival, characters team up to undertake adventures because any number or type of monsters could lie in wait. Such groups, known as adventuring parties, are generally composed of a diverse array of classes, so that different characters are able to contribute their specific talents for any given situation. A thief can check for traps, for instance, and fighters are good for muscle. Clerics have spells for healing and divination, while mages are capable of powerful offensive and defensive magic.

Occasionally, there are not enough party members to take on the challenges of an adventure. The party may hire NPCs, such as henchmen or mercenaries, for extra hands. The rules for hiring henchmen and mercenaries are discussed in Chapter 3, Equipment.

When there are only a small number of players, the Judge may allow them to each play more than one character. Nevertheless, in these cases characters belonging to the same player cannot offer each other special treatment, such as trading or giving away riches or magical items, unless the Judge rules it acceptable.


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Chapter 3: Equipment

The Basics of Equipment

All characters are assumed to begin with sturdy clothes suitable for adventuring. Any other equipment desired should be purchased using the character's starting wealth of 3d6x10gp.

Each character should purchase equipment suitable for their class. For example, fighters should purchase arms and armor to fight monsters and survive blows, while thieves need rope, crowbars, lock picks, and other special tools to scale obstacles, find traps, and open locks. Clerics will require holy symbols to drive back undead and mages will need spellbooks to record their dweomers.

Coins and Money

Equipment is purchased using money. Paper currency is non-existent in the world of Adventurer Conqueror King, so money takes the form of coins of precious metal, the most important of which is the gold piece (gp). A gold piece is worth 2 electrum pieces (ep) or 10 silver pieces (sp). Each silver piece is worth 10 copper pieces (cp). In addition to copper, silver, electrum, and gold coins, there are also platinum pieces (pp), which are each worth 5gp.

Exchange Value

Coins = cp sp ep gp pp
Copper Piece (cp) = 1 1/10 1/50 1/100 1/500
Silver Piece (sp) = 10 1 1/5 1/10 1/50
Electrum Piece (ep) = 50 5 1 1/2 1/10
Gold Piece (gp) = 100 10 2 1 1/5
Platinum Piece (pp) = 500 50 10 5 1

What's a Gold Piece Worth?

To put the value of currency in perspective, the Standard of Living table, below, shows how far a gold piece will go towards cost of living at different standards of comfort. A single gold piece is enough for a peasant to subsist at a wretched quality of life. Early in their career, adventurers will typically live on a few dozen gold pieces per month, enough to eat and sleep at an inn. A dragon's treasure hoard of 50,000gp might keep a village of peasants alive for decade, but merely cover a prince's monthly budget. Wealth is assumed to be highly concentrated in ACKS campaign worlds.

Standard of Living

Standard of Living Monthly Cost Common Professions
Wretched 1gp Serfs and peasants
Meager 3gp-12gp Unskilled manual laborers
Adequate 12gp-40gp Skilled laborers or journeyman crafters, 1st level adventurers
Comfortable 40gp-100gp Master craftsmen or yeomen farmer (85 acres), 2nd level adventurers
Prosperous 100gp-450gp Master professionals or landed patrician (200 acres), 3rd-4th level adventurers
Affluent 450gp-2,000gp Barons or wealthy patricians, 5th-7th level adventurers
Sumptuous 2,000-12,000gp Marquis or counts, 8th-9th level adventurers
Luxuriant 12,000-80,000gp Dukes or princes, 10th-12th level adventurers
Lavishly Opulent 80,000gp+ Kings or emperors, 13th-14th level adventurers

Purchasing Equipment

The arms, armor, and mundane gear available for purchase are listed on the Weapons and Equipment tables. These lists will also be handy when characters need to restock supplies between adventures. The equipment and other items listed on the Weapons and Equipment table are described in detail in the Equipment Descriptions section.

Should the players wish to purchase items not provided in the equipment lists, the Judge may use the items available as guidelines for determining new items' characteristics and including prices.

All purchases should be recorded on the character sheet, noting how much money remains afterward. Most adventurers do not begin play with enough wealth to get everything they want - indeed, the quest for wealth is one of the primary motives for adventuring at all!

Regardless of class limitations, characters of any class may purchase, carry, and use any weapons or armor desired. However, characters who equip themselves with weapons and armor unusable by their class will fight as 0th level characters while so equipped. They also will receive no bonus on their attack throws or armor class from ability scores or equipment, may not use any of their class powers, and do not gain XP.

Example: Quintus, a mage, dons plate armor. While so equipped, he fights as a 0th level character, loses any attack throw or AC bonuses from his ability scores or equipment, cannot cast spells, and does not gain XP.

Equipment Availability

Adventurers may sometimes wish to purchase equipment in greater volume than the town they are in can handle. This is not normally a concern when characters are just beginning their career. But if experienced adventurers decide they want to use a dragon's hoard to equip all their followers with fur cloaks (15gp each) and purchase a dozen heavy warhorses (750gp each) with plate barding (600gp each), they may find such goods are simply unavailable in the quantities they desire!

The amount of equipment available for purchase is determined by the price of the equipment relative to the size of the market the adventurers are in. A market can be anything from a village's humble fair to a city-state's outdoor bazaar to the ports of a major metropolis. Markets are rated by market class from I to VI, which rate their size and importance.

The vast mercantile hubs of empires, with urban populations of 100,000 or more, constitute Class I. Major ports, national capitals, and other large cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants constitute Class II. Provincial capitals and medium-sized cities of 8,750 to 25,000 inhabitants make up Class III. Small cities and large towns of 3,000 to 8,750 inhabitants make up Class IV. Small towns and large villages of 1,250 to 3,000 inhabitants are Class V. Any village of 1,250 inhabitants or less is Class VI. Market classes are also important for hiring henchmen, as discussed in the Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists section below, and for trade and commerce, as discussed in the Mercantile Ventures section in the Campaigns chapter.

The Equipment Availability by Market Class table shows how many units of any piece of equipment are available in each type of market each month. Some values will indicate a percentage chance; this is chance of one unit being present at all in any given month.

Note that the values given are the number of each specific item, not the total number of items at that price level. For instance, a Class IV market will have 5 swords, 5 battle axes, and 5 of each other item priced at 2-10gp. Multiple small items sold as a bundle (such as 12 spikes, 6 torches, 20 arrows, etc) count as one item for purposes of the Equipment Availability by Market Class table.

Equipment Availability by Market Class

Price Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI
1gp or less 1,700 585 260 65 30 10
2gp-10gp 100 30 15 5 1 1
11-100gp 15 5 2 1 25% 10%
101-1,000gp 7 2 1 25% 10% 5%
1,001-10,000gp 2 1 25% 10% 5% 1%
10,001gp or more 10% 5% 2% NA NA NA

Example: Marcus is in a city of 20,000, a Class III market. He wants to buy a war galley (60,000gp), medium warhorse (250gp), 2 suits of plate armor (60gp each), 20 swords (10gp each), 100 bundles of 6 torches (1sp each) and 200 flasks of oil (3sp each). A Class III market has 260 units of any equipment priced 1gp or less, so he finds the 100 bundles of 6 torches and 200 flasks of oil without problem. A Class III market has only 15 units of any equipment priced 10gp or less, so only 15 swords are available. Since he needs the weapons to equip his men, he settles on 15 swords and 5 battle-axes. A Class III market has 2 units of equipment priced at 11-100gp and 1 unit at 101-1,000gp, so he is able to buy the 2 suits of plate armor and medium warhorse. There is only a 2% chance of a war galley being available, and the Judge rolls a 42; Marcus cannot find that type of ship in the city this month.

Commissioning Equipment

If equipment the adventurers desire to purchase is not available, they may commission it to be created. The advantage of commissioning equipment is that more equipment can be commissioned than is available as inventory; treat the equipment as if it were one price category less expensive to calculate the volume available. The disadvantage of commissioning equipment is that it is not immediately available. Buildings and vehicles, which can be built by large groups, are constructed at a rate of 1 day per 500gp value. Animals take 1 day per 1gp value to find and train. Other equipment takes 1 day per 5gp value.

Example: Marcus decides he'd like to commission a shipwright to build a war galley. Since Marcus is commissioning the war galley, the Judge checks for availability as if the war galley were one price category less expensive, putting it in the 1,001-10,00gp row. There is a 25% chance that a war galley could be commissioned in a Class III city this month. The Judge rolls a 17 on 1d100, so a shipwright is available. It will take 120 days for the war galley to be finished (60,000gp / 500gp per day).

Weapons and Equipment

Armor Cost AC
Clothing Only - 0
Hide and Fur Armor 10gp 1
Leather Armor 20gp 2
Ring Mail or Scale Armor 30gp 3
Chain Mail Armor 40gp 4
Banded Plate or Lamellar Armor 50gp 5
Plate Armor 60gp 6
Shield 10gp +1
Leather Barding 40gp 1
Scale Barding 75gp 2
Chain Barding 150gp 3
Lamellar Barding 300gp 4
Plate Barding 600gp 5
Weapons Cost Damage*
Axes - -
Battle Axe 7gp 1d6/1d8
Great Axe (two-handed) 10gp 1d10
Hand Axe 4gp 1d6
Bows and Crossbows - -
Arbalest 50gp 1d8
Crossbow 30gp 1d6
Case with 20 Bolts 2gp -
Composite Bow 40gp 1d6
Longbow 7gp 1d6
Shortbow 3gp 1d6
Quiver with 20 Arrows 1gp -
1 Silver-Tipped Arrow 5gp -
Catapults and Ballista - -
Ballista (800lb) 80gp 3d6
Ballista Shot 4gp -
Heavy Catapult (1,800lb) 200gp 4d6
Light Catapult (1,200lb) 100gp 3d6
Catapult Shot (25lb) 5gp -
Catapult Shot, Pitch (25lb) 25gp -
Flails, Hammers, and Maces - -
Club 1gp 1d4
Flail 5gp 1d6/1d8
Mace 5gp 1d6/1d8
Morning Star (two-handed) 10gp 1d10
War Hammer 5gp 1d6/1d8
Spears and Pole Arms - -
Lance (mounted) 1gp 1d10
Javelin 1gp 1d6
Pole Arm (two-handed) 7gp 1d10
Spear 3gp 1d6/1d8
Swords and Daggers - -
Dagger 3gp 1d4
Silver Dagger 30gp 1d4
Short Sword 7gp 1d6
Sword 10gp 1d6/1d8
Two-Handed Sword 15gp 1d10
Other Weapons - -
Bola 5gp 1d2
Darts (5) 2gp 1d4
Net 1gp -
Sling with 30 Sling Bullets 2gp 1d4
Sap 1gp 1d4
Staff 1gp 1d4/1d6
Whip 5gp 1d2

*Where two damage values are listed, the first is for one-handed and the second is for two-handed use.

Adventuring Equipment Cost
Backpack (holds 4 stone) 2gp
Barrel (20 gallon) 3sp
Belladonna (1lb) 10gp
Blanket (wool, thick) 2gp
Birthwort (1lb) 10gp
Candle (tallow, 1lb) 2sp
Candle (wax, 1lb) 6sp
Chest (ironbound, holds 20 stone) 22gp
Comfrey (1lb) 10gp
Crowbar 1gp
Flask of Oil (common, 1 pint) 3sp
Flask of Oil (military, 1 pint) 2gp
Garlic (1lb) 5gp
Goldenrod (1lb) 10gp
Grappling Hook 25gp
Hammer (small) 2gp
Holy Symbol 25gp
Holy Water (1 pint) 25gp
Ink (1 oz.) 8gp
Iron Spikes (12) 1gp
Lantern 10gp
Lock 20gp
Mirror (hand-sized, steel) 5gp
Musical instrument 25-100gp
Pouch/Purse (holds 1/2 stone) 5sp
Pole, Wooden (10' long) 1sp
Rations, Iron (one week) 1-6gp
Rations, Standard (one week) 3sp-3gp
Rope (50' length) 1gp
Sack (small, holds 2 stone) 3sp
Sack (large, holds 6 stone) 8sp
Spell Book (blank) 20gp
Stakes (4) and Mallet 3gp
Tent 20gp
Thieves' Tools 25gp
Tinder Box (flint & steel) 8sp
Torches (6) 1sp
Water/Wine Skin 6sp
Wolfsbane (1lb) 10gp
Woundwart (1lb) 10gp
Clothing Cost
Belt / Sash (leather) 4sp
Boots (leather, low) 6sp
Boots (leather, high) 3gp
Cassock (cleric / mage) 7gp
Cloak (fur-lined, winter) 15gp
Cloak (long, hooded) 1gp
Dress (crafter / freeholder) 4gp
Dress (armiger) 20gp
Gown (lady-in-waiting / noble) 100gp
Gown (duchess) 1000gp
Gloves 4sp
Hat (armiger) 10sp
Linen (cheap, 1 yard) 1gp
Linen (fine, 1 yard) 7gp
Robe (cleric / mage) 6gp
Silk (1 yard) 15gp
Sandals / Shoes (leather) 4sp
Tunic and Pants (serf) 2gp
Tunic and Pants (crafter / freeholder) 4gp
Tunic and Pants (armiger) 20gp
Tunic and Pants (noble) 100gp
Wool (cheap, 1 yard) 6sp
Wool (fine, 1 yard) 6gp
Foodstuffs Cost
Ale/Beer (cheap, 3 pints) 1cp
Ale/Beer (good, 1 pint) 2cp
Bread (white, 4lb) 1sp
Bread (wheat, 8lb) 1sp
Bread (coarse, 12lb) 1sp
Cheese (1lb) 5cp
Cinnamon (clover, pepper, sugar) (1lb) 3gp
Dried Fruit (1lb) 1sp
Eggs (1 dozen) 5cp
Meal (1 person, poor to feast) 1cp-10gp
Meat (beef, chicken, mutton, or pork, 1lb) 1sp
Saffron (1lb) 15gp
Wine (cheap, 1 pint) 2cp
Wine (good, 1 pint) 1sp
Wine (rare, 1 pint) 5sp
Lodging Cost
Cottage (wood) 300gp
Inn (one person, one night, slum) 1sp
Inn, one person, one night, average) 5sp
Inn (one person, one night, superb) 2gp
Hut (wattle) 25gp
Hut (wooden) 50gp
Townhouse (stone) 1,200gp
Livestock Cost
Chicken (3lb) 1sp
Cow (550lb) 10gp
Dog (hunting) 10gp
Dog (war) 75gp
Goat (125lb) 3gp
Hawk (trained) 20gp
Pig (125lb) 3gp
Sheep (80lb) 2gp
Land Transport Cost
Camel 100gp
Caparison (warhorse) 20gp
Cart (small) 25gp
Cart (large) 50gp
Donkey 8gp
Heavy Draft Horse 40gp
Heavy Warhorse 700gp
Medium Draft Horse 30gp
Medium Riding Horse 40gp
Medium Warhorse 250gp
Light Riding Horse 75gp
Light Warhorse 150gp
Mule 20gp
Ox (2,000lb) 40gp
Saddle and Tack (draft) 5gp
Saddle and Tack (riding) 10gp
Saddle and Tack (war) 25gp
Saddlebags (leather) 5gp
Stabling (draft/riding horse, one night) 2sp-5sp
Stabling (warhorse, one night) 5sp-1gp
Wagon 200gp
Maritime Transport Cost
Barge/raft 1gp/sq ft
Boat (river) 4000gp
Boat (sailing) 2000gp
Canoe 40gp
Galley (large) 30,000gp
Galley (small) 10,000gp
Galley (war) 60,000gp
Longship 15,000gp
Sailing Ship (large) 20,000gp
Sailing Ship (small) 10,000gp
Troop Transport (large) 30,000gp
Troop Transport (small) 15,000gp

Equipment Descriptions

Arbalest: An arbalest is a heavy crossbow, pulled with the mechanical assistance of a rack and pinion or windlass. Historical examples include the late medieval arbalest and the Three Kingdoms era Chinese heavy crossbow.

Axe, Battle: This is a single- or double-bitted axe with a 24" to 48" haft, designed for battle and useable with one or two hands. Historical examples include the Scythian sagaris, Viking bearded and skeg axe, Celtic war axe, medieval battle axe, and Persian tabarzin.

Axe, Great: This is a double-bitted axe or long-shafted single-bitted axe, with a 48" or longer haft, requiring two hands to use. Historical examples included the Greek double-bitted labrys, Viking long bearded axe, and the English longaxe. Great axes impose a -1 penalty on initiative rolls.

Axe, Hand: This is a single-bitted axe, with a 12" to 24" haft, balanced for throwing. Historical examples include the Frankish francisca, American tomahawk, and African mambele and kasuyu.

Backpack: A backpack has two straps and can be worn on the back, keeping the hands free. It holds up to 4 stone (40lb).

Ballista: A siege weapon, powered either by composite bow or torsion spring mechanisms, which hurls large bolts. Historical examples include the Greek oxybeles, Roman ballista, and medieval springald.

Barding: Barding is horse armor made from a variety of materials (see the descriptions of each type of Armor for details). Historical examples include Byzantine and Persian cataphract's barding and medieval destrier's barding.

Banded Plate Armor: Banded plate armor is made of overlapping horizontal strips of laminated metal sewn over leather. It is comparable in protection to lamellar armor, and superior to chain mail. Banded plate is commonly worn as a cuirass with shoulder protection, with reinforced leather protecting the arms and legs. The chief historical examples are Sumerian overlapping plate armor and Roman lorica segmenta.

Belladonna: Belladonna, also known as deadly nightshade, is a poisonous flower. A character who eats a pound of belladonna within one hour of being infected with lycanthropy may make a saving throw versus Poison to shake off the affliction. If the character fails the saving throw, however, he dies from the poison after one turn. Even if the poison is then neutralized or the character is raised from the dead, he will still be afflicted with lycanthropy, and further doses of belladonna will be of no use.

Birthwort: Birthwort, also known as snakeroot, is a healing herb used as a remedy for snake bites and other poisons. Birthwort can be applied as a poultice to a poisoned wound by an adventurer with the Healing proficiency. Used in this manner, it provides a +2 bonus on the Healing proficiency throw to neutralize poison.

Boat, River: This boat is 20' to 30' long, has a "beam" (width) of 10' to 15', and has a "draft," or surface depth, of between 2-3' when in the water. Riverboats are rowed, or poles are used to push it along. A river boat requires at least 1 rower as crew (see the Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists section, later in this chapter). The cost of the boat increases by 1,000gp if it has a roof. A riverboat can carry 600 stone (6,000lb) plus crew.

Boat, Sailing: This small boat has a single mast, with a length of 20' to 40', a beam of 10' to 15', and a draft of 2' to 3'. Sailing boats are primarily employed for fishing on lakes or coasts. A sailing boat requires at least 1 sailor as crew. A sailing boat can carry up to 400 stone (4,000lb) plus crew.

Bola: These are throwing weapons made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, designed to capture animals by entangling their legs. A character can use a bola to make a knock down or wrestling maneuver (as described in special maneuvers in Chapter 6) with a thrown attack.

Boots: Low boots come to mid-calf. High boots come to the knee or thigh and are popular for riding.

Bow, Composite: A composite bow is a recurved bow made of laminated wood, horn, and sinew. Composite bows are time consuming and expensive to craft but offer a better combination of mobility and power than longbows or shortbows. Historical examples include the Scythian horn bow, Chinese laminated bamboo bow, Greek and Roman composite bow, Mongolian composite bow, and Japanese yumi.

Bow, Long: A long bow is made from a single piece of wood, as tall as the person who uses it. Equal in range and power to more expensive composite bows, longbows require substantial strength (STR 9 or more) and cannot be used by mounted troops. Historical examples include the ancient Indian longbow, the Nubian longbow, and the Welsh and English longbow.

Bow, Short: A short bow is made from a single piece of wood, usually around 4' tall. Shortbows lack the range and power of either longbows or composite bows, but are cheap and fast to make. Historical examples include the Neolithic short bow and Comanche self bow.

Candles: A candle dimly illuminates a 5' radius and burns for 1 hour. Wax candles burn cleanly, but tallow candles produce a foul smelling smoke. Adventurers carrying tallow candles will never surprise creatures with keen olfactory senses.

Canoe: A canoe consists of frame of light wood wrapped with bark, hides, canvas, or other waterproofed covering. Canoes are primarily used on rivers and in swamps. Canoes have a 15' length, 5' beam, 1/2 ' draft, and can carry up to 60 stone (600lb) (plus crew). They can be carried overland by two people, at a cost of 5 stone of encumbrance.

Cart, Small: A small cart is an open, two-wheeled vehicle meant for personal transport. It may be pulled by one or two mules. If the cart is pulled by only one mule, it can transport up to 40 stone at 60' per turn, or up to 60 stone at 30' per turn. If pulled by two mules, it can transport up to 80 stone at 60' per turn, or up to 120 stone at 30' per turn. Carts may only move through deserts, mountains, forests, or swamps if a road is available.

Cart, Large: A large cart is an open, two-wheeled vehicle meant for shipment. It may be pulled by one or two heavy horses. 2 mules or medium horses can be substituted for 1 heavy horse. If the cart is pulled by only one heavy horse, it can transport up to 80 stone at 60' per turn, or up to 120 stone at 30' per turn. If pulled by 2 heavy horses, it can transport up to 160 stone at 60' per turn, or up to 240 stone at 30' per turn. Carts may only move through deserts, mountains, forests, or swamps if a road is available.

Catapult: A catapult is a siege weapon, powered by either torsion or fixed counter-weight mechanisms, which hurls rocks, burning pitch, or other projectiles. Light catapults inflict 3d6 damage in a 5' radius, while heavy catapults inflict 4d6 damage in a 10' radius. Historical examples include the Roman onager and medieval mangonel and couillard.

Chain Mail Armor: Chain mail is made of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. Chain mail is superior in protection to leather-based armors but inferior to metal scale or plate-reinforced armors. Chain mail is commonly worn as a shirt and coif, with lighter chain, ring mail, or hardened leather protecting the arms and legs. Historical examples include Viking byrnies, Norman mail, and Roman lorica hamata.

Cloak: A cloak is a cloth, fur, or leather garment of knee to ankle length, worn outdoors like an overcoat. Cloaks usually include a hood. Adventurers often favor military cloaks, generally worn pinned on one shoulder for ease of movement and access to a sword.

Club: A club is any simple bludgeon used to batter opponents.

Comfrey: Comfrey, also known as bruisewort and knitbone, is a powerful healing herb. An adventurer with Healing proficiency can use a poultice of comfrey to treat a wounded character immediately after a battle. This restores 1d3hp of damage. A character cannot be treated with comfrey more than once per day.

Cottage: A cottage is a 20' high, 30' square wooden building with a thatched roof and earthen floor, suitable for a wealthy peasant family.

Crossbow: A crossbow is a bow mounted cross-wise on a stock with a trigger. It fires squat projectiles called bolts. Crossbows are light enough to pull by hand or with a quick drawing lever and are much easier to use than bows. Historical examples are the Greek gastraphetes, Roman arcuballista, Chinese handheld crossbow, and medieval crossbow and cavalry cranequin.

Crowbar: A crowbar is 2' to 3' long and made of solid iron. This object can be used for forcing doors and other objects open.

Dagger: A dagger has a small 6" to 12" blade, either single-edged for cutting, or doubled edged for stabbing. Daggers may be used in melee or for throwing. Historical examples include the Asian kris, medieval poniard, Japanese tanto, Scottish dirk, and Renaissance stiletto. Some daggers have blades coated with silver for use against enchanted creatures.

Dart: A dart is any small projectile designed to be thrown. Most darts are fletched wooden shafts, ranging in length from 6" to 2' long, but they may also be metal spikes or stars. Historical examples include the Roman plumbata, Macedonian kestros, and Japanese shuriken.

Dog: Hunting dogs are fast, lean hounds trained to track and bring down prey by working in packs. Most hunting dogs can scent prey, giving them the equivalent of Tracking proficiency. War dogs are heavy, fierce mastiffs trained to kill on command. While dangerous, they are capable of great loyalty to their masters when properly trained. See the Monsters chapter for game statistics.

Donkey: A donkey can carry its normal load of 8 stone and move 120' per turn. A donkey can carry its maximum load of 16 stone and move 60' per turn.

Flail: This is a bludgeoning weapon derived from the agricultural flail with a striking head connected to the haft by a flexible chain. Flails are useable with one or two hands. Historical examples include the medieval ball-and-chain, Japanese rentsuru and nunchaku, and Chinese meteor hammer.

Galley, Large: This is a large fully decked ship with a single mast, one large square sail, and multiple banks of oars. Large galleys are 120' to 150' length, 15' to 20' beam, and 3' draft, and can carry up to 4,000 stone (40,000lb) cargo in addition to its crew. A large galley is generally crewed by a captain, 50 marines, 20 sailors, and 180 rowers. Large galleys may be equipped with up to 2 light catapults, one at the bow and one at the stern, and a naval ram. Catapults must be bought separately, while a naval ram increase the cost of the ship by 1/3. A heavy catapult can substitute for 2 light catapults. A historical example is the Mediterranean trireme.

Galley, Small: The small galley is similar to the larger model, but smaller and lighter; length is 60' to 100', beam is 10' to 15', and draft is 2' to 3'. A small galley is generally crewed with a captain, 20 marines, 10 sailors, and 60 rowers. Besides the crew, the ship can carry 2,000 stone (20,000lb) cargo. Small galleys may be equipped with up to 2 light catapults, one at the bow and one at the stern, and a naval ram (increase cost by 1/3). A historical example is the Mediterranean bireme or penteconter.

Galley, War: War galleys are built to serve as the flagship of a fleet. These mighty ships have two masts, full decks, a length of 120' to 150', a beam 20' to 30', and draft of 4' to 6'. Their crew consists of a captain, 75 marines, 30 sailors, and 300 rowers. All war galleys come with a naval ram, a full deck over the rowers, and light wooden towers rising over the bow and stern. These platforms are 10' to 20' square, rising 15' to 20' above the deck. A war galley can be fitted with up to 3 light catapults, and can carry 6,000 stone (60,000lb) in addition to its crew. A heavy catapult can substitute for 2 light catapults. A historical example is the Mediterranean quinquereme.

Garlic: Garlic causes a vampire to cringe for 1d4 rounds if presented with confidence.

Gloves: Gloves are garments covering the hands, worn for comfort, fashion, or protection. However, wearing gloves does not protect against curses or slime. Thief abilities such as picking pockets, opening locks, or removing traps cannot be performed while wearing gloves.

Goldenrod: Goldenrod is a healing herb used to treat diseases such as rheumatism, gout, and consumption. An adventurer with Healing proficiency can use a goldenrod tincture to treat sick characters. Used in this manner, it provides a +2 bonus on the Healing proficiency throw to cure disease.

Grappling Hook: These large hooks are made of sturdy iron and can be used for anchoring a rope. The hook may be thrown or attached manually by a climber. A successful attack throw is required to throw a grappling hook onto a target.

Hammer (small): The small hammer can be used for construction or as a mallet with iron or wooden spikes. If used to fight, the small hammer deals 1d4 points of damage.

Hat: A hat is a cap, fez, turban, or other headgear for protecting the head from the elements.

Holy Symbol: A cleric is required to own a holy symbol. These symbols will be different for each religion, but they are often worn as a necklace.

Holy Water: Holy water is water that has been blessed by a cleric of 7th level or higher. It is used in some church rituals, and is a formidable weapon against the undead, inflicting 1d8 points of damage for 2 rounds. Holy water cannot retain its holy power if it is stored in any other container than the special vials it is placed in when blessed.

Horse, Heavy: A heavy horse can carry its normal load of 40 stone and move 120' per turn. A heavy horse can carry its maximum load of 80 stone and move 60' per turn. Heavy horses are normally trained for draft. Only a small percentage of the otherwise placid heavy horses can be trained for war. A historical example is the medieval destrier (warhorse).

Horse, Light: A light horse can carry its normal load of 20 stone and move at 240' per turn. A light horse can carry its maximum load of 40 stone and move at 120' per turn. Light horses are trained for riding or war. Historical examples include the medieval palfrey and jennet (riding horse), medieval rouncey (warhorse), and Mongolian and Turkoman horse.

Horse, Medium: A medium horse can carry its normal load of 30 stone and move at 180' per turn. A medium horse can carry its maximum load of 60 stone and move at up to 90' per turn. Medium horses are trained for draft, riding, or war. Historical examples include the medieval hackney (draft or riding horse), medieval courser (warhorse), and Sarmatian medium horse.

Hut: A hut is a 10' square building with an earthen floor and thatched roof. Serfs, unskilled laborers, and other working poor generally live in such homely dwellings.

Ink: This is a small pot of black ink. Ink can be purchased in other colors, but it costs twice as much.

Inn: An inn is an establishment that offers food, drink, lodging, and stabling. They are a common meeting place for adventurers. Slum inns are gambling dens, whorehouses, and flophouses, frequented by gamblers, harlots, and ruffians. Average inns include coaching inns, hostels, and traveler's lodges designed for travelers and traders. Superb inns are the preserve of wealthy merchants and nobles.

Iron Spikes: These sturdy pitons can be used to wedge doors open or spike them shut or to provide belaying points for ropes.

Javelin: Javelins are short spears, 3' to 6' long, designed for throwing. Historical examples include the Greek javelin, Roman pilum and verutum, early medieval angon, and Zulu assegai.

Lamellar Armor: Lamellar armor is made of small bronze, iron, or steel plates laced together in parallel rows with silk, leather thongs, or cotton. It is similar to scale armor, from which it evolved, and comparable in protection to banded armor. Lamellar is generally worn as a cuirass over light chain or leather, and sometimes sewn to the backing. Lamellar would also include leather lames worn over chain. Historical examples include Mongolian lamellar, medieval brigandine and splinted armor, Japanese o-yori armor, and Roman lorica squamata.

Lance: Lances are long spears, 12' to 16' in length, designed for mounted warriors. Despite their length, they are used one-handed. Historical examples include the Greek xyston, Persian and Byzantine kontos, and medieval lance. Lances do double damage when used to charge, but impose a -1 penalty on initiative rolls.

Lantern: Lanterns are used in dungeon adventures to provide light. They burn one oil flask for each four hours, or 24 turns, and have an effective light radius of 30'. Lanterns can be closed to hide the light or protect it from wind.

Leather Armor: Leather armor is made of hardened leather or laminated linen. Leather armor usually consists of spaulders (shoulder armor), cuirass, and tassets (flaps covering the groin and thighs). It is lighter but less protective then more reinforced leather armors such as ring mail. A historical example is Macedonian linothorax armor.

Lifeboat: Lifeboats typically have a 20' length, 4' to 5' beam, and 1' to 2' draft. They are equipped with rations to feed 10 human-sized beings for 1 week. The mast folds down for storage of the lifeboat on large ships galleys, where there are typically 2 to 3 lifeboats. There are 1 or 2 lifeboats on small ships or galleys. Lifeboats weigh 50 stone (500lb) and will take up this much weight, each, on a vessel. The lifeboat itself is capable of holding a weight of 150 stone (1,500lb) in addition to crew.

Lock: This is a common iron lock with a key. More complex locks, made my highly skilled locksmiths, might be available (Judge's discretion); these impose penalties on a thief's proficiency throws to Open Locks.

Longship: The longship is a graceful, light ship with a single square-sailed mast, a 60' to 80' length, 10' to 15' beam, and 2' to 3' draft. Longships can operate equally well on oceans, coasts, or rivers, making them ideal raiding vessels. The standard crew is a captain and 75 sailors, of which 60 may row when the wind is low. Longship sailors are generally also marines (fighters). In addition to crew, longships are capable of holding a weight of 2,000 stone (20,000lb). A historical example is the Viking drakkar.

Mace: A mace is a bludgeoning weapon consisting of a 2' to 3' wood or metal shaft and a heavy stone or metal head, useable with one or two hands. Historical examples include the Egyptian bronze-headed mace, medieval flanged mace, Persian horseman's mace, Russian pernach, and Slavic bulawa.

Manacles: These are used to bind hands or feet. Characters bound with manacles can escape if they have the Contortionist proficiency (as described in Chapter 4), or by making a proficiency throw to Open Locks.

Morning Star: This is any type of large mace-liked weapon with a spiked metal head. Historical examples include the medieval morning star, German chain-morning star, English holy water sprinkler, Flemish goedendag, and Japanese tetsubo. Any flails and maces too large to be used one-handed can also be treated as morning stars. Morning stars impose a -1 penalty on initiative rolls.

Mirror: A mirror can be used to check around corners and defend against monstrous gaze attacks. A character using a mirror to see his target suffers a -2 penalty to attack throws, and cannot use a shield, second weapon, or two-handed weapon.

Mule: A mule is the infertile offspring of a horse and a donkey. It can carry its normal load of 20 stone and move 120' per turn. A mule can carry its maximum load of 40 stone and move 60' per turn.

Musical Instrument: A wide variety of instruments are available to bards and performers, including stringed instruments, percussion instruments, brass instruments, and woodwind instruments. Historical examples of stringed instruments are the cithara, harp, lyre, lute, psaltery, and zither. Historical percussion instruments include the castanet, chimes, drum, gong, sistrum, tambourine, and tympani. Historical brass instruments include the buccina, carnyx, cornu, and salpinx. Historical woodwind instruments include the aulos, flute, horn, pan pipe, and shawm. A common instrument costs 25gp. A superior instrument costs 50gp and adds +1 to Performance proficiency throws made with it. A masterpiece instrument costs 100gp and adds +2 to Performance proficiency throws made with it.

Net: This is a round, weighted cast net designed to entangle and entrap opponents. The chief historical example is the net of the Roman retiarius. A character using a net gets a +2 bonus on attack throws to wrestle opponents (as explained under special maneuvers in Chapter 6).

Oil: Common oil is burned in a lantern to give light. Common oil is usually olive oil, castor oil, or animal extract. Military oil is a weapon made of naphtha, and cannot be easily doused with water. Military oil may be thrown at monsters, dealing 1d8 points of damage for 2 rounds to the creature struck, or poured on the floor and ignited to delay pursuit.

Ox: An ox is a castrated bull, used for cart driving. An ox can carry its normal load of 45 stone and move 60' per turn. An ox can carry its maximum load of 90 stone and move 30' per turn.

Plate Armor: Plate armor is made from large metal plates worn over the chest and vital areas. Chain mail or other protective covering may cover exposed joints. Plate armor provides superior protection over banded plate and lamellar, having larger plates sewn onto a stronger backing. Historical examples include classical panoply (if worn with arm and leg armor), medieval plate and mail armor, Middle Eastern mirror armor, Eastern European plated mail, and Japanese tatami-do.

Pole, Wooden: This pole is a shaft of wood 10' long and 2" thick. Adventurers often carry 10' poles to prod and poke areas that might be trapped, test the strength of ledges or floors, or measure the depth of pools.

Pole Arm: Pole arms are two-handed slashing and piercing weapons with a metal head and a long wooden shaft. Pole arms range in length from 6' to 21'. Historical examples include the Thracian rhomphaia, Dacian falx, and Macedonian sarissa; the medieval bill, fauchard, glaive, guisarme, halberd, partisan, pike, ranseur, spetum, and voulge; the Chinese gun dao; and the Japanese bisento, nagamaki, and naginata. Pole arms can be used to attack from the second rank in melee, and inflict double damage when used in or against a charge, but impose a -1 penalty on initiative rolls.

Pouch/purse: These are 6" x 1' bags of cloth or leather that can contain half a stone (5lb). They can be carried on a shoulder strap or on a belt.

Raft: A raft is a floating platform usually used for river cargo. Professionally built rafts are called barges, and have raised edges to keep out water, small wooden huts for shelter, and steering oars. Barges can be 30' x 40' in size, and can carry 500 stone (5,000 lb) for each 10' square. Makeshift rafts are nothing more than crude platforms of up to 20' x 30'. Each 10' square section will only hold a weight of 250 stone (2,500lb). A makeshift raft can be built in 1 to 3 days for each 10' x 10' raft portion.

Rations, Iron: This food is dried and preserved to be carried on long voyages when securing other food may be uncertain. It will last two months in the wilderness and a week in the foul conditions of a dungeon. The cost for iron rations will vary depending on quality. The cheapest iron rations consist of hard, dried salted biscuits. Better rations included salted or pickled meat and dried, pickled, or preserved fruit and vegetables.

Rations, Standard: This food is fresh but untreated. It will last for a week in the wilderness; it spoils overnight in dank dungeons. The cost for this food will vary depending on quality. The cheapest standard rations include fresh bread, cheese, and lard. Better standard rations will include bacon or other meat, eggs, beans, and fresh fruit and vegetables.

Ring Mail Armor: Ring mail armor is leather or padded armor that has a large number of small rings sewn directly over the foundation garment. Unlike chain mail, the rings are not physically interlocked with each other, so protection is inferior. Ring mail is closely related to scale armor, which sews leather or horn scales onto the foundation garment, and provides comparable protection. Historical examples include Frankish ring mail, Asian ring armor on leather, and Renaissance eyelet doublets.

Rope, 50': This strong rope, made of animal hair, hemp, or similar fibers, can bear 45 stone, the weight of approximately three human-sized beings.

Sack, Large: This is a 2' x 4' burlap, cloth, or leather bag that can contain 6 stone (60lb). It is normally carried over the shoulder and dropped when combat begins.

Sack, Small: This is a 1' x 2' burlap, cloth, or leather bag that can contain 2 stone (20lb). It is often tied to a belt or spearhead.

Saddle Bag: This is a long pocketed leather sack that can contain 3 stone (30lb).

Saddle & Tack: This includes a leather and wooden saddle with metal fastenings, a leather and metal bridle and bit, and stirrups. Draft saddle and tack is used to harness to a cart or wagon or carry saddle bags; it cannot be used for riding. Riding saddle and tack is designed for the rider's comfort. Military saddle and tack is designed for stability during combat. A character in combat without a military saddle must save versus Paralysis every time he is dealt damage or be knocked off the horse.

Sailing Ship, Large: This large, seaworthy ship has as many as 3 square-sailed masts, with a 100' to 150' length, 25' to 30' beam, and 10' to 12' draft. It has at least one full deck and the bow and stern are raised "castles" that give archers a superior field of fire. The crew for a large sailing ship is a captain and 20 sailors. It can carry 30,000 stone (300,000lb) of cargo in addition to crew. Up to 2 light catapults can be mounted on a large sailing ship. Historical examples include the Roman cladivata and the medieval round ship.

Sailing Ship, Small: This ship is much like the larger version, but has one mast, a 60' to 80' length, 20' to 30' beam, and 5' to 8' draft. Crew consists of a captain and 12 sailors. In addition to the crew, it can carry 10,000 stone (100,000lb) of cargo. Historical examples include the Roman corbita, the Viking knarr, and the medieval cog.

Sap: A sap consists of a heavyweight material wrapped inside a leather sack. Used as a weapon, it provides a +2 bonus to attack throws made to incapacitate opponents (as described in Special Maneuvers in Chapter 6).

Scale Armor: Scale armor consists of many small leather, cuir bouilli, or horn scales attached to a backing material of cloth or leather. Scale armor usually consists of a corselet or hauberk worn with leather or padded cloth. It is lighter than lamellar armor, which uses metal scales or lames over leather, and comparable to ring mail. Historical examples include Scythian scale armor, Egyptian scale armor, and early medieval scale armor.

Shield: A character with a shield equipped has his Armor Class increased by 1 point. A shield does not protect a character that is surprised, retreating, or attacked from behind, however.

Shoes: Simple leather shoes or sandals are suitable for walking long distances.

Sling: A sling is a projectile weapon, made of braided flax, hemp or wool cord, used to hurl small stones or lead bullets. Slings were used by all armies of the ancient world. Historical examples include the Hebrew shepherd's sling and Greek peltast's sling.

Spear: Wooden shafts, 6' to 8' in length, with metal heads designed for thrusting, spears are the main weapon of the common soldier. Spears can be used one- or two-handed. Historical examples include the Hoplite doru, the medieval winged spear, and the Japanese yari. Characters armed with spears can attack from the second rank in melee and inflict double damage when used in or against a charge.

Spell Book (Blank): A spell book has 100 pages of parchment, and each spell takes up one page per spell level (one page each for 1st level spells). These books are used by arcane spellcasters to record the spells in their repertoire.

Staff: A staff is a common weapon made from a stick of hardwood 4' to 6' long, and used two-handed. (If used one-handed, treat as a club.) Historical examples include the English quarterstaff, Japanese bo stick, and Chinese gun.

Stakes and Mallet: These 18" sharpened wood shafts are carried by adventures to destroy vampires.

Sword: The classic weapon of knights and kings, the sword includes straight and curved slashing and thrusting blades of 30" to 40" in length useable with one or two hands. Historical examples include the Roman spatha, Viking sword, medieval knightly sword and falchion, Japanese katana, and Chinese jian and dao.

Sword, Short: The short sword includes straight and curved slashing and thrusting blades, generally less than 30" in length, meant to be used with one hand. Historical examples include the Egyptian khopesh, Greek xiphos, Roman gladius, Japanese wakizashi, Arab scimitar, Persian shamshir, Turkish yatagan, and Indian talwar.

Sword, Two-Handed: The two-handed sword includes straight and curved slashing and thrusting blades, 40" or more in length, requiring two hands to use effectively. Historical examples include the medieval longsword, the Renaissance zweih"ander, Scottish claymore, Japanese no-dachi, and Chinese zhanmadao. Two-handed swords impose a -1 penalty on initiative rolls.

Thieves' Tools: Thieves' tools include long metal picks and probes, fine wires, tiny saws, miniature hammers, and an assortment of skeleton keys. Thieves' tools are required to make proficiency throws to open locks and remove traps.

Tinderbox: This is a tinderbox used to start fires. Lighting a torch with flint and steel takes a full round, and lighting any other fire with them takes at least that long.

Torch: Torches are 1' to 2' long pieces of wood tipped with pitch. A torch burns for six turns (1 hour), clearly illuminating a 30' radius. If a torch is used in combat, it deals 1d4 points of damage.

Townhouse: A townhouse is a 30' square two-story building with a wooden floor and stairs and thatched roof. Wealthy yeomen, master craftsmen, merchants, and other professionals might live in such a dwelling.

Troop Transport, Large: This is a large sailing ship reinforced for war and modified to carry additional troops. It can carry 50 marines in addition to its normal complement of 20 sailors.

Troop Transport, Small: This is a small sailing ship reinforced for war and modified to carry additional troops. It can carry 25 marines in addition to its normal complement of 12 sailors.

Wagon: This is a four-wheeled, open vehicle for transporting heavy loads. Generally, two or four heavy horses draw a wagon. Two mules or medium horses can be substituted for one heavy horse. If the wagon is pulled by two heavy horses, it can transport up to 160 stone at 60' per turn, or 320 stone at 30' per turn. If the wagon is pulled by four heavy horses, it can transport up to 320 stone at 60' per turn, or up to 640 stone at 30' per turn. A wagon can move at a similar speed and conditions as a cart.

Warhammer: A warhammer is a bludgeoning weapon with a 2' to 3' wooden or metal shaft and a broad metal head shaped like a hammer. It is designed for crushing armor, and useable with one or two hands. The chief historical example is the late medieval warhammer.

Waterskin/Wineskin: This container, made of hide or preserved animal bladder, will hold 2 pints (1 quart) of fluid.

Whip: This is a long, single-tailed whip of the sort used to herd cattle. Used as a weapon, it provides a +2 bonus to attack throws made to disarm or knock down opponents (as described in Special Maneuvers in Chapter 6).

Wolfsbane: Wolfsbane (dried aconite flowers) may drive off werewolves and other lycanthropes if a character strikes the monster in hand-to-hand combat with the sprig. If the lycanthrope fails a saving throw versus Poison, it must flee as if turned. A character who eats wolfsbane must make a saving throw versus Poison or die after one turn.

Woundwart: Woundwart, also known as heal-all or lamb's ears, is a herbal medicine with curative properties. An adventurer with Healing proficiency can use a woundwart tincture to treat injured characters. Used in this manner, it provides a +2 bonus on proficiency throws to cure light wounds and cure serious wounds.

Encumbrance

Encumbrance measures how much equipment and treasure characters are carrying. Encumbrance is important because characters can only carry so much, and if they are heavily weighed down with equipment they cannot carry as much treasure, nor move as fast. Encumbrance is measured in stone. A stone is a historical unit of measure that varied from 8 to 14lb depending on what was being measured. ACKS assumes a stone weighs around 10lb, but it is left purposefully abstract to represent an amalgam of weight, bulk, and generally portability.

After characters purchase their equipment, they should calculate their encumbrance. To determine the number of stone encumbering a character, simply consult the table below.

When counting items, each weapon, scroll, potion, vial, wand, magic item, or other object counts as an item. Multiple small items sold as a bundle (such as 12 spikes, 6 torches, 20 arrows, etc.) count as one item for this purpose. Very small single items (such as 1 silver arrow) can be ignored for encumbrance purposes.

Item Encumbrance in Stone
Worn clothing 0 stone
Armor & Shield 1 stone per point of Armor Class*
Items 1 stone per 6 items
Heavy Item 1 stone per heavy item (8-14lb)
Treasure 1 stone per 1,000 coins or gems

*Magical armor and shields are lighter than mundane items. They reduce their encumbrance by 1 stone per point of magical bonus.

Heavy items include two-handed weapons (including bows, crossbows, and various large melee weapons); any item that is as tall as the carrying character (including spears, staffs, and 10' poles); any item that weighs around 8-14lb; and any item that requires two hands to carry (such as chairs or chests). Items weighing more than 14lb will weigh more than 1 stone.

For purposes of encumbrance, 1,000 coins are considered 1 stone. When a carrying device, such as a backpack, lists the weight it can carry in stone, this weight can be converted at 1:1000 from stone to coins to determine how many coins it can carry.

A character's speed will be affected based on encumbrance, as shown on the Character Movement and Encumbrance table, below. For additional information on movement, see the Time and Movement section in the Adventures chapter. The maximum any character can carry is 20 stone, plus his Strength adjustment.

Character Movement and Encumbrance

Encumbrance Exploration Movement Combat Movement Running Movement
Up to 5 stone 120' per turn 40' per round 120' per round
Up to 7 stone 90' per turn 30' per round 90' per round
Up to 10 stone 60' per turn 20' per round 60' per round
Up to max capacity 30' per turn 10' per round 30' per round

Example: Marcus is carrying a two-handed sword (1 heavy item), a crossbow (1 heavy item), a mace (1 item), 2 daggers (1 item each), 1 week's iron rations (1 item), a tinderbox (1 item), 2 flasks of oil (1 item each), 3 stakes and mallet (1 item), a small mirror (1 item), a pound of wolfsbane (1 item), a pound of garlic (1 item), and a case with 20 bolts (1 item). He is carrying 12 items, which counts as 2 stone. His two-handed sword and crossbow count as 2 stone. Finally, he is wearing plate armor (AC6), which counts as 6 stone. His total encumbrance is 10 stone, so his exploration movement is 60' per turn. Later, he picks up 8,000 silver pieces. This increases his encumbrance to 18 stone, and reduces his exploration movement to 30' per turn.

In order to carry more equipment and treasure, characters may purchase beasts of burdens and ground vehicles. Each animal or vehicle has a normal and maximum load it can carry in stone, as shown on the Animal/Vehicle Movement and Encumbrance table.

Animal/Vehicle Movement and Encumbrance

Animal/Vehicle Exploration Movement Normal Load Maximum Load
Camel 150' / 75' 30 60
Donkey 120' / 60' 8 16
Elephant 120' / 60' 120 240
Horse, Heavy 120' / 60' 40 80
Horse, Light 240' / 120' 20 40
Horse, Medium 180' / 90' 30 60
Mule 120' / 60' 20 40
Ox 60' / 30' 45 90
Cart, Small, 1 Mule 60' / 30' 35 70
Cart, Small, 2 Mules 60' / 30' 80 160
Cart, Large, 1 Horse 60' / 30' 80 160
Cart, Large, 2 Horses 60' / 30' 120 240
Wagon, 2 Horses 60' / 30' 160 320
Wagon, 4 Horses 60' / 30' 320 640

The figure to the left of the slash is the animal or vehicle's movement rate per turn when not encumbered (carrying its normal load limit or less), and the figure to the right of the slash is its movement rate per turn when encumbered (carrying more than a normal load but not more than a maximum load).

Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists

In addition to buying equipment, adventurers may also spend their money to hire various NPCs, known as hirelings, to assist them. There are three types of hirelings. Henchmen are NPC sidekicks, companions, and associates. Henchmen are typically very loyal and are willing to take reasonable risks; in particular, they are the only sort of hireling who will generally accompany an adventurer into a dungeon, lair, or ruin. Mercenaries are hired soldiers, and will guard, patrol, and otherwise serve in wilderness settings, but only as part of a larger force, not an adventuring party. Specialists are hired individuals who have a particular trade or who have special knowledge. These individuals are usually hired for a specific task.

While adventurers often wish to hire as many hirelings as they can afford, hirelings are not available in unlimited numbers. Indeed, in small villages or remote outposts, they may be not available at all. As with equipment, the amount available will be determined by the market class within which the adventurers are recruiting hirelings. The Hireling Availability by Market Class table shows how many of each type of henchman, mercenary or specialist is available in each type of market. Some values will indicate a percentage chance; this is chance of that type of hireling being present at all. One half of the hirelings (rounded up) become available within the first week the adventurers enter the market. One quarter (rounded down, minimum 1) become available during the second week. The remainder of the hirelings become available in the third week.

Example: Marcus is in a city of 20,000, a Class III market. He wants to hire a sage to decipher a strange book, and a company of heavy infantry. There is a 65% chance of 1 sage being present; unfortunately, the Judge rolls a 98, and Marcus can't find one available. His search for the heavy infantry goes better, as the Judge's roll of 3d8 yields 22. Marcus finds 11 of these in his first week of searching, 5 more in his second week, and the remaining 6 in his third week.

PCs may sometimes find potential hirelings while on adventures. Otherwise, in order to find hirelings, the PCs must carouse in pubs, post notices of help wanted, hand out fliers, and seek out adventuring companies, mercenary brotherhoods, or professional guilds. These activities cost money. Each week that the adventurers are in the market for hirelings, they must pay the fee listed on the table below. This fee is per type of hireling.

Hireling Availability by Market Class

Hireling Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI
Mercenaries - - - - - -
Light Infantry 4d100 5d20 5d10 3d4 1d6 1d2
Heavy Infantry 2d100 5d10 3d8 1d8 1d3 1 (85%)
Slinger 8d20 4d10 2d10 1d6 1d2 1 (70%)
Bowman 8d20 4d10 2d10 1d6 1d2 1 (70%)
Crossbowman 8d20 4d10 2d10 1d6 1d2 1 (70%)
Longbowman 4d20 2d10 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%)
Light Cavalry 4d20 2d10 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%)
Mounted Crossbowman* 3d20 4d4 2d4 1d2 1 (75%) 1 (25%)
Horse Archers 3d20 4d4 2d4 1d3 1 (70%) 1 (23%)
Medium Cavalry 3d20 4d4 2d4 1d2 1 (70%) 1 (23%)
Heavy Cavalry 4d10 1d10 1d6 1d2 (50%) 1 (50%) 1 (15%)
Cataphract Cavalry 3d10 1d8 1d4 1d2 (33%) 1 (40%) 1 (10%)
Beast Riders* 3d10 1d8 1d4 1d2 (33%) 1 (40%) 1 (10%)
Specialists - - - - - -
Alchemist 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%)
Animal Trainer - Common 5d10 2d6 1d6 1d2 1 (65%) 1 (20%)
Animal Trainer - Exotic 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%)
Armorer 3d10 2d4 1d4 1 1 (40%) 1 (15%)
Engineer 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%)
Healer 5d10 2d6 1d6 1d2 1 (65%) 1 (20%)
Healer - Physicker 3d10 2d4 1d4 1 1 (40%) 1 (15%)
Healer - Chirugeon 1d10 1d3 1 1 (33%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%)
Mariner - Captain 4d6 1d6 1d3 1 (80%) 1 (33%) 1 (10%)
Mariner - Navigator 5d10 1d12 1d6 1d2 1 (60%) 1 (45%)
Mariner - Sailor/Rower 4d100 5d20 5d10 3d4 1d6 1d2
Ruffian - Carouser 4d100 5d20 5d10 3d4 1d6 1d2
Ruffian - Footpad 5d20 4d6 2d6 1d3 1d2 1 (40%)
Ruffian - Reciter 5d20 4d6 2d6 1d3 1d2 1 (40%)
Ruffian - Spy 2d10 1d6 1d3 1 (65%) 1 (25%) 1 (10%)
Ruffian - Thug 5d20 4d6 2d6 1d3 1d2 1 (40%)
Sage 1d6 1d2 1 (65%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%) None
Spellcaster Varies by Spell Level - -
Henchmen - - - - - -
Normal Men 4d100 5d20 4d8 3d4 1d6 1d2
Level 1 5d10 2d6 1d4 1d2 1 (65%) 1 (20%)
Level 2 3d10 2d4 1d3 1 1 (40%) 1 (15%)
Level 3 1d10 1d3 1 (85%) 1 (33%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%)
Level 4 1d6 1d2 1 (45%) 1 (15%) 1 (5%) None

*Mounted crossbowmen are only found in Dwarven settlements. Beast Riders are only found in Chaotic-aligned settlements.

Market Class Cost Per Week Per Hireling Type
I 1d6+15gp
II 1d10+10gp
III 1d8+5gp
IV 1d6+3gp
V 1d6gp
VI 1d3gp

Hirelings are recruited through negotiation. The Judge plays the roles of the NPCs the PCs attempt to hire. The PCs will have to explain what the job entails and the rates of pay. Henchmen are typically hired for a share of treasure (at least 15% of the employer's income) and monthly fee for food, lodging and expenses (based on level, see below). Mercenaries and specialists are typically hired for a flat monthly fee, which varies depending on the type of specialist or mercenary (see below). Henchmen, mercenaries, and specialists will have equipment appropriate to their profession, class, or level. Adventurers may provide additional equipment to their hirelings.

Reaction to Hiring Offer

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Refuse and slander
3-5 Refuse
6-8 Try Again
9-11 Accept
12+ Accept with 'elan

After the offers are made, the Judge will make a reaction roll of 2d6 on the Reaction to Hiring Offer table to decide the potential hireling's reactions, modified by the prospective employer's Charisma bonus or penalty The Judge may apply any other adjustments he or she feels are appropriate (a bonus of +1 for higher-than-average pay, signing bonuses, or equipment; a -1 penalty if the adventurer offers poor terms or a very risky job).

Refuse and slander means that all further reaction rolls made toward that adventurer in the given town or region will be at a penalty of -1 due to unkind words said by the NPC to his fellows. If the adventurer tries again in a different town, the penalty does not apply. Refuse simply means the NPC declines the offer.

If a Try again result is rolled, the potential hireling is reluctant, and needs more convincing; the adventurer must "sweeten" the deal in order to get an additional roll, such as by offering more pay, a magic item, or other appealing suggestion. If the adventurer makes no better offer, treat Try again as a Refusal result.

Accept means that the NPC has agreed to become the character's hireling for the stated terms. Accept with 'elan means the offer is accepted with very good spirit, and the hireling's morale rolls receive a bonus of +1.

Henchmen

Henchmen should be rolled up with ability scores, classes, hit points, and equipment, just like player characters. Henchmen are typically hired for a share of treasure (at least 15% of the employer's income) and a monthly fee for food, lodging and expenses. A henchmen's monthly fee is based on his level, as noted on the Henchmen Monthly Fee table, below.

When they are hired, potential henchmen should be of lower level than their employer. A first level character can only hire normal men as henchmen; second level characters can only hire first level characters; and so on. There is no way for the henchmen to directly know the level of the PC employer, but if a henchman ever concludes he is more powerful than his employer, it is cause for an immediate Henchman Loyalty roll (see below). Note that henchmen of greater than 4th level are not generally for hire on the market, though they can sometimes be found on adventures.

Henchmen Monthly Fee

Class Level Monthly Wage (gp)
0 12
1 25
2 50
3 100
4 200
5 400
6 800
7 1,600
8 3,000
9 7,250
10 12,000
11 32,000
12 50,000
13 135,000
14 350,000

Morale: All henchmen have a morale score, which is generally 0 plus the employer's Charisma bonus or penalty. This rating can be adjusted at the Judge's discretion. It can be increased if the PC has been particularly good to the henchman, or reduced if the PC has been cruel or contrary to his word.

Morale rolls are made each time the henchman suffers a calamity. A calamity includes suffering an energy drain, a curse, a magical disease, or being nearly killed (Judge's discretion). In addition, the Judge should make a morale roll for each henchman at the end of each adventure whenever the henchman has leveled up, to determine if the henchman strikes off on his own or remains with the adventurer. The Judge will roll 2d6 on the Henchman Loyalty table, adding the henchman's morale, to decide how the henchman responds to the recent events. The Judge may apply adjustments to this roll, probably no more than +/-2, if the henchman is particularly well or poorly paid.

Henchman Loyalty

Adjusted Die Roll (2d6) Result
2- Hostility
3-5 Resignation
6-8 Grudging Loyalty
9-11 Loyalty
12+ Fanatic Loyalty

Hostility means that the henchman will leave the service of the character, and will consider him a rival and enemy in the future. The henchman can never be attracted to the character's employ again. A result of Resignation means the henchman will leave the character's employment, but he bears no ill will to his former master, and could be recruited to work for the character again in the future.

Grudging Loyalty means the henchman is reluctant to continue in the character's service, but sees no better options. If the character does not make any improvements to the terms of service, the henchman's next loyalty roll will be at a -1 penalty.

Loyalty means that the NPC will continue in the character's service with enthusiasm. Fanatic Loyalty means the henchman has become a dedicated and sworn servant of the character. All future morale rolls will be at +2.

A henchman's morale score is permanently decreased by 1 each time he suffers a calamity, and permanently increased by 1 each time he gains a level while in the adventurer's service.

A player character may hire at most 4 henchmen, adjusted by the character's Charisma bonus or penalty. Any attempts to hire more than this number of henchmen will cause the character to lose one of his existing henchmen. Mercenaries and specialists do not count toward a character's maximum number of henchmen, since they do not require the same level of personal loyalty.

Experience: Henchmen gain experience when they participate in an adventure; however, as they are under the command of a player character, only one-half of a share of XP is allocated to each henchman. See Earning Experience from Adventures for more information.

Mercenaries

Mercenaries are generally hired to garrison a stronghold or wage war in military campaigns. Mercenaries will not accompany their employers on highly dangerous adventurers such as dungeon exploration unless they become henchmen. The Judge should determine what constitutes a military campaign and what constitutes an adventure depending on the overall circumstances.

The Mercenary Troop Type table below list the typical wages of mercenary types based on type. The costs listed are the mercenaries' wages only. The cost of armorers to make and repair troop armor and weapons, stablehands to groom horses, caravans to provide supplies while in the field, and other miscellaneous expenses are not included. Mercenaries in garrison need only be paid their wages, but mercenaries on campaign will expect a share of military plunder in addition to wages.

Mercenary Troop Type

Gp Wage per Month Man Dwarf Elf Goblin Orc
Peasants (spear) 3 - - - -
Light Infantry (3 javelins, short sword, shield, leather armor) 6 - 10 3 6
Heavy Infantry (spear, sword, shield, banded plate armor) 12 18 24 - 9
Slingers (sling, short sword, shield, leather armor) 6 - - 3 -
Bowmen (shortbow, short sword, leather armor) 9 - 21 3 6
Crossbowmen (arbalest, short sword, chainmail) 18 21 - - 12
Longbowmen (longbow, sword, chainmail) 18 - 42 - -
Light Cavalry (3 javelins, sword, shield, leather armor, light warhorse) 30 - 60 - -
Mounted Crossbowmen (crossbow, short sword, chainmail, mule) - 45 - - -
Horse Archers (composite bow, scimitar, leather armor, light warhorse) 45 - 90 - -
Medium Cavalry (lance, sword, shield, lamellar, medium warhorse) 45 - - - -
Heavy Cavalry (lance, sword, shield, plate armor, chain barded medium warhorse) 60 - - - -
Cataphract Cavalry (composite bow, lance, sword, shield, plate, chain barded medium warhorse) 75 - 140 - -
Beast Riders (spear, short sword, shield, leather or scale armor, dire wolf or giant boar) - - - 15 35
Mercenary Type Base Morale
Peasants, Conscripts/Militia -2
Barbarians, Light Infantry, Bowmen, Slingers -1
Heavy Infantry, Longbowmen, Crossbowmen 0
Light Cavalry, Medium cavalry, Horse Archers +1
Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract Cavalry +2
Fanatics, Berserkers +4

Mercenaries have morale like henchmen, but mercenary morale is based on their training and equipment rather than the personal magnetism of their employers. Mercenaries may have additional bonuses or penalties to morale based on working conditions. If the mercenaries are being killed frequently or subjected to other abuses, morale will be low. If the mercenaries are enjoying riches and excitement, it might be higher. All of these factors are considered by the Judge.

Specialists

Below are several possible specialists and typical monthly pay rates. This list is not exhaustive, and the Judge may create more kinds of specialists as needed using the rules in the Proficiencies chapter. Player characters with appropriate proficiencies may act as specialists if desired.

Alchemist (250gp/month): Alchemists are valuable specialists because they dedicate their expertise to creating potions and other concoctions. They may work as assistants to mages to help them create potions. They may also research new potions as if they were 5th level mages, but at twice the base time and cost. See Magic Research in Chapter 7.

Animal Trainer (25gp to 250gp/month): Characters wishing to ride hippogriffs or employ carnivorous apes as guards will need the assistance of an animal trainer. The lowest cost above is for a standard animal trainer, able to train one type of "normal" animal such as warhorses; those able to train more than one sort of animal, or to train monsters such as hippogriffs, are more expensive to hire. The Judge decides how long an animal must be trained, based on the nature of the training. It will take a minimum of one month to tame a wild animal. Likewise it will take a minimum of one month to teach an already tame animal one behavior. After the first month, an animal has become accustomed to a trainer and can be taught additional behaviors at half the time per behavior. If training is interrupted, all time already spent on that particular behavior is lost.

If an animal is being tamed and the time is interrupted, the animal will rebel and cannot ever be tamed. In some cases, animal training may take years, a fact that adventurers may find inconvenient as well as expensive. A single animal trainer can train and manage no more than 6 animals at a time. Once an animal is fully trained and put into service the animal trainer won't be needed to handle it any longer.

Armorer (75gp/month): Each month, an armorer can make 40gp worth of weapons, armor, or shields. In addition to being hired for producing weapons and armor, armorers must be hired at the frequency of 1 per 60 troops in order maintain fix and armor and weapons. Armorers may be assisted by up to two journeymen (20gp/month) and four apprentices (10gp/ month). An armorer with one journeyman and two apprentices produces 100gp per month and can maintain 150 troops; an armorer with two journeymen and four apprentices produces 160gp per month and can maintain 240 troops.

Engineer (250gp/month): Engineers plan and oversee large construction projects, such as building strongholds. The number of engineers required is based on the value of the project. A minimum of 1 engineer is needed, with an additional engineer per 100,000gp value of the project. For example, if a project is 60,000gp it will require 1 engineer, and if it is 200,000gp it will require 2 engineers. Human engineers usually handle large aboveground structures, while dwarves are usually hired for underground construction.

Healer (healer 1gp/day/patient, physicker 2gp/day/patient, chirugeon 4gp/day/patient): Healers are trained to treat wounds and diagnose illnesses. Being treated by a healer requires clean, sanitary conditions and bed rest. A patient under treatment of any healer regains an extra 1d3 hit points per day. In addition, physickers can non-magically neutralize poison, cure disease, or cure light wounds with a proficiency throw of 18+ once per day per patient. Highly skilled chirugeons can non-magically neutralize poison, cure disease, or cure serious wounds with a proficiency throw of 14+ once per day per patient. A normal healer can treat up to three patients per day, a physicker can treat up to four patients per day, and a chirugeon can treat up to five patients per day.

Mariner (rowers, 3gp/month; sailors 6gp/month; navigator 25gp/month; captain 100gp/month): Rowers are unskilled normal humans who man oars of vessels. Sailors are skilled normal humans who can handle a ship. The navigator understands how to read charts and navigate based on instruments and the position of the stars. He is required any time a ship will venture beyond sight of a coast. A captain is required for any large ship, is skilled like a sailor, and has more intimate knowledge of the particular coasts he frequents. In general, all such characters are normal men, and are not armored; they will usually be armed with clubs, daggers, or short swords.

Ruffian (carousers, 6gp/month; footpads, 25gp/month; reciters, 25gp/month; spy 125gp/month; thug 25gp/month): Ruffians are specialists in petty crime. Carousers are 0th level brawlers and hoodlums that populate inns and taverns. Reciters are 1st level bards. Footpads are 1st level thieves. Spies are 4th level thieves. Thugs are 1st level assassins. Ruffians are hired on a monthly basis. They can be used as enforcers or muscle, or sent on various hijinks, such as assassinating, carousing, spying, stealing, or treasure-hunting. Ruffians hired for hijinks will expect their employer to bail them out of trouble should they be caught. (See the Hideouts and Hijinks section in Chapter 7 for more information.) Ruffians will not go on adventures unless recruited as henchmen, but may gain XP from hijinks. Ruffians who advance in level from successful hijinks will earn higher wages; use the Henchmen Monthly Fee table for high level ruffians. Ruffians may or may not be reliable, and could stab the hiring character in the back (maybe literally!).

Sage (500gp/month): Sages are rare; they usually specialize in a subject area, such as a sage specialist in dragons. Sages may be consulted for information. If the information is particularly difficult to obtain, it will cost the characters extra. Characters may have to pay the monthly rate in addition to any other supplies the sage needs to research their question. The Judge will decide these costs. Despite the special knowledge sages have, they are occasionally wrong when it comes to particularly obscure questions. The Judge will decide what questions are obscure and the probability of achieving a wrong answer. If the characters receive a wrong answer, they may not realize it!

Spellcaster (Various): Spellcasters are arcane and divine casters retained to cast a spell for an adventuring party. Most often these are clerics asked to cast cure disease, remove curse, restore life and limb, and so on, but mages may be sought out from time to time as well. The Spell Availability by Market table shows how many divine and arcane spellcasters capable of casting a given spell level can be found in any given market. Each spellcaster will be able to cast a spell of the given level once per day. The cost per casting is listed for each spell level as well. Just because a spellcaster can be found does not mean he will cast a spell for the adventurer - he must still be recruited through negotiation. Clerics will never cast spells for adventurers of opposite alignment, and may charge double if the adventurers do not belong to their faith.

Spell Availability by Market

Spell Type and Level Cost Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V Class VI
Divine-1st level 10gp 2d3x100 4d4x10 5d10 4d6 2d6 1d6
Divine-2nd level 40gp 8d10 4d6 2d6 2d3 1d3 1d2
Divine-3rd level 150gp 2d6 2d3 2d3 1d2 1d2-1 -
Divine-4th level 325gp 2d6 2d3 2d3 1d2 1d2-1 -
Divine-5th level 500gp 1d6 1d4 1d4 1d2-1 - -
Arcane-1st level 5gp 2d4x100 2d10x10 2d4x10 3d10 2d6 1d4
Arcane-2nd level 20gp 2d6x10 6d6 2d6 2d4 1d4 1d2
Arcane-3rd level 75gp 4d6 2d6 2d3 1d4 1d2 -
Arcane-4th level 325gp 2d4 2d3 1d4 1d2 1d2-1 -
Arcane-5th level 1,250gp 1d4 1d4 1d2 - - -
Arcane-6th level 4,500gp 1d3 1d3 1d2-1 - - -

Example: Quintus has been slain, while his companions (Balbus, Creven, and Marcus) have been infected with lycanthropy in a battle with wererats. The adventurers travel to a Class III market to seek restore life and limb for Quintus and cure disease for the rest of the party. The Judge rolls on the Spell Availability by Market table to determine the availability of these spells.

Cure disease is a 3rd level spell, so the Judge rolls 1d3 to determine how many spell castings are available. Unfortunately, he rolls a 1, so only one cure disease spell is available each day. Restore life and limb is a 5th level spell, so the Judge rolls 1d2-1. He scores another 1, -1, yielding 0. No restore life and limb spells are available in town at all! The adventurers must decide whether to stay in town the three days necessary to get everyone cured of lycanthropy, or to press on immediately to try to find a cleric who can raise Quintus.


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Chapter 4: Proficiencies

The Basics of Proficiencies

Proficiencies represent particular areas of expertise that your character has developed due to his background, homeland, and training. Each class has a class list of proficiencies, representing training that is particularly useful to the particular profession. In addition, there is a general list of proficiencies, which represent trade skills and knowledge that is widely available to all. Characters will learn proficiencies from both lists over time.

Starting Proficiencies

All characters begin with the Adventuring proficiency as well as one proficiency chosen from their class list and one proficiency chosen from the general list. Characters with an Intelligence bonus may choose to begin the game knowing one or more additional proficiencies from the general list. The number of additional general proficiencies that may be learned is equal to the Intelligence bonus (+1, +2, or +3). The player may choose to leave one or more bonus proficiency "slots" open, to be filled during play as circumstances suggest appropriate choices. However, bonus proficiencies from high Intelligence may only be used to select proficiencies from the general list.

Note that some proficiencies appear on both the general list and the class lists. For example, Performance appears on both the general list and the Bard class list. This is because Performance is both a common trade skill (general list) and training that is useful to bards (class list).

Gaining Proficiencies

All characters may choose one additional proficiency from the general list at levels 5, 9, and (if maximum level permits) 13. Characters may choose one additional proficiency chosen from their class list each time they complete a full (2-point) saving throw progression. Thus, fighters get a new proficiency from their class list at level 3, 6, 9, and 12; clerics and thieves get a new proficiency from their class list at 4, 8, and 12; and mages get a new proficiency from their class list at 6 and 12. This is summarized on the Proficiencies Gained per Level table, below. Levels exceeding a class's maximum level are marked with a "*".

Unless its description says otherwise, a proficiency may only be selected once. If a proficiency can be selected more than once, then the proficiency throw value required for success is reduced by 4 each time the proficiency is selected. Unless otherwise noted, all proficiency throws use 1d20.

The Judge may impose limitations on the selection of certain proficiencies depending on his campaign or setting. Otherwise, characters may take any proficiency on the appropriate list.

Proficiencies Gained per Level

(C=class proficiency, G=general proficiency)

Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Assassin C+G - C - G C - - C+G - - C G -
Bard C+G - - C G - - C G - - C G -
Blade Dancer C+G - - C G - - C G - - C G -
Cleric C+G - - C G - - C G - - C G -
Dwarven Craftpriest C+G - - C G - - C G - * * * *
Dwarven Vaultguard C+G - C - G C - - C+G - - C G *
Elven Nightblade C+G - - C G - - C G - - * * *
Elven Spellsword C+G - C - G C - - C+G - * * * *
Explorer C+G - C - G C - - C+G - - C G -
Fighter C+G - C - G C - - C+G - - C G -
Mage C+G - - - G C - - G - - C G -
Thief C+G - - C G - - C G - - C G -

Proficiency Lists

General Proficiency List: Adventuring, Alchemy, Animal Husbandry, Animal Training, Art, Bargaining, Caving, Collegiate Wizardry, Craft, Diplomacy, Disguise, Endurance, Engineering, Gambling, Healing, Intimidation, Knowledge, Labor, Language, Leadership, Lip Reading, Manual of Arms, Mapping, Military Strategy, Mimicry, Naturalism, Navigation, Performance, Profession, Riding, Seafaring, Seduction, Siege Engineering, Signaling, Survival, Theology, Tracking, Trapping

Assassin Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Alchemy, Alertness, Arcane Dabbling, Blind Fighting, Bribery, Cat Burglary, Climbing, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, incapacitate), Contortionism, Disguise, Eavesdropping, Fighting Style, Gambling, Intimidation, Mimicry, Precise Shooting, Running, Seduction, Skirmishing, Skulking, Sniping, Swashbuckling, Trap Finding, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Bard Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Art, Bargaining, Beast Friendship, Combat Trickery (disarm), Command, Diplomacy, Eavesdropping, Elven Bloodline, Fighting Style, Healing, Knowledge, Language, Leadership, Lip Reading, Magical Engineering, Magical Music, Mimicry, Mystic Aura, Performance, Precise Shooting, Prestidigitation, Running, Seduction, Skirmishing, Swashbuckling, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Bladedancer Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Apostasy, Battle Magic, Beast Friendship, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (knock down), Contemplation, Diplomacy, Divine Blessing, Divine Health, Fighting Style, Laying on Hands, Magical Music, Martial Training, Performance, Prestidigitation, Prophecy, Quiet Magic, Righteous Turning, Running, Seduction, Skirmishing, Swashbuckling, Theology, Unflappable Casting, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Cleric Proficiency List: Apostasy, Battle Magic, Beast Friendship, Combat Trickery (force back, overrun, sunder), Command, Contemplation, Diplomacy, Divine Blessing, Divine Health, Fighting Style, Healing, Knowledge (history), Laying on Hands, Leadership, Loremastery, Magical Engineering, Martial Training, Prestidigitation, Profession (judge), Prophecy, Quiet Magic, Righteous Turning, Sensing Evil, Sensing Power, Theology, Unflappable Casting, Weapon Focus

Dwarven Craftpriest Proficiency List: Alchemy, Art, Battle Magic, Caving, Collegiate Wizardry, Contemplation, Craft, Diplomacy, Divine Blessing, Divine Health, Dwarven Brewing, Endurance, Engineering, Fighting Style, Goblin-Slaying, Healing, Illusion Resistance, Knowledge, Laying on Hands, Loremastery, Magical Engineering, Mapping, Performance (chanting), Prestidigitation, Profession (judge), Prophecy, Quiet Magic, Righteous Turning, Sensing Evil, Siege Engineering, Theology, Unflappable Casting, Weapon Focus

Dwarven Vaultguard Proficiency List: Alertness, Berserkergang, Blind Fighting, Caving, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (force back, knock down, overrun, sunder, wrestle), Command, Craft, Dungeon Bashing, Dwarven Brewing, Endurance, Engineering, Fighting Style, Gambling, Goblin-Slaying, Illusion Resistance, Intimidation, Land Surveying, Leadership, Mapping, Manual of Arms, Military Strategy, Mountaineering, Siege Engineering, Weapon Focus

Elven Nightblade Proficiency List: Alchemy, Alertness, Battle Magic, Beast Friendship, Black Lore, Blind Fighting, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, incapacitate), Contortionism, Elementalism, Familiar, Fighting Style, Intimidation, Magical Engineering, Mystic Aura, Passing Without Trace, Precise Shooting, Prestidigitation, Quiet Magic, Running, Sensing Power, Skirmishing, Skulking, Sniping, Swashbuckling, Unflappable Casting, Trap Finding, Wakefulness, Weapon Focus, Weapon Finesse

Elven Spellsword Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Alertness, Battle Magic, Beast Friendship, Black Lore, Blind Fighting, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, knock down), Command, Elementalism, Familiar, Fighting Style, Leadership, Loremastery, Magical Engineering, Magical Music, Mystic Aura, Naturalism, Passing Without Trace, Quiet Magic, Precise Shooting, Prestidigitation, Running, Sensing Power, Skirmishing, Soothsaying, Swashbuckler, Unflappable Casting, Wakefulness, Weapon Focus, Weapon Finesse

Explorer Proficiency List: Alertness, Ambushing, Beast Friendship, Blind Fighting, Climbing, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, knock down), Eavesdropping, Endurance, Fighting Style, Land Surveying, Mapping, Mountaineering, Naturalism, Navigation, Passing Without Trace, Precise Shooting, Riding, Running, Seafaring, Skirmishing, Sniping, Survival, Swashbuckling, Trapping, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Fighter Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Alertness, Berserkergang, Blind Fighting, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, force back, knock down, overrun, sunder), Command, Dungeon Bashing, Endurance, Fighting Style, Gambling, Intimidation, Leadership, Manual of Arms, Military Strategy, Precise Shooting, Riding, Running, Siege Engineering, Skirmishing, Survival, Swashbuckling, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Mage Proficiency List: Alchemy, Battle Magic, Beast Friendship, Black Lore, Collegiate Wizardry, Craft, Diplomacy, Elementalism, Elven Bloodline, Engineering, Familiar, Healing, Illusion Resistance, Knowledge, Language, Loremastery, Magical Engineering, Mapping, Mystic Aura, Naturalism, Quiet Magic, Performance, Prestidigitation, Profession, Sensing Power, Transmogrification, Soothsaying, Unflappable Casting

Thief Proficiency List: Acrobatics, Alertness, Arcane Dabbling, Blind Fighting, Bribery, Cat Burglary, Combat Reflexes, Combat Trickery (disarm, incapacitate), Contortionism, Diplomacy, Fighting Style, Gambling, Intimidation, Lip Reading, Lockpicking, Mapping, Precise Shooting, Riding, Running, Seafaring, Skirmishing, Skulking, Sniping, Swashbuckling, Trap Finding, Weapon Finesse, Weapon Focus

Proficiency Descriptions

For ease of reference, proficiencies that appear on the general list are marked with (G). Other proficiencies appear only on one or more class lists.

Acrobatics: The character is trained to jump, tumble, somersault, and free-run around obstacles. The character gains +2 to saving throws where agility would help avoid the situation, such as tilting floors and pit traps. In lieu of moving during a round, the character may attempt a proficiency throw of 20+ to tumble behind an opponent in melee. The proficiency throw required for the tumble is reduced by 1 per level of experience the character possesses. If successful, the character is behind his opponent. The opponent can now be attacked with a +2 bonus to the attack throw, and gains no benefit from his shield. Thieves and others eligible to backstab an opponent gain their usual +4 on the attack throw and bonus to damage. Characters with an encumbrance of 6 stone or more may not tumble. Note that elven nightblades automatically begin play with this ability as part of their class.

Adventuring (G): The character is well-equipped for a life of adventure. He knows how to clean and sharpen weapons, saddle and ride a horse, set up a camp, and search for a secret door. He has a rough idea of the value of common coins, trade goods, gems, and jewelry. All player characters are assumed to have Adventuring for purposes of the proficiency throws of standard adventuring tasks.

Alchemy (G): The character can identify common alchemical substances, potions, and poisons with a proficiency throw of 11+. If the character takes this proficiency twice, he can work as an apothecary or alchemical assistant. If the character takes this proficiency three times, he is an alchemist himself, as described under Hiring Specialists.

Alertness: The character gains a +4 bonus on any proficiency throws to hear noises and detect secret doors. With a proficiency throw of 18+ he can notice secret doors with just casual observation. He gains a +1 bonus to avoid surprise.

Ambushing: When the character attacks with surprise, he gets a +4 bonus on his attack throws and deals double damage on the attack. This proficiency does not stack with the ability of thieves (or related classes) to backstab.

Animal Husbandry (G): The character has the ability to treat wounds and diagnose illnesses in animals. A proficiency throw of 11+ enables the character to identify whether a disease is magical or mundane, and if mundane, diagnose it. With clean, sanitary conditions and bed rest, an animal under treatment of the character automatically regains an extra 1d3 hit points perday. If the character selects Animal Husbandry twice, he can neutralize poison or cure disease, or cure light wounds with a proficiency throw of 18+, attempting once per day per animal. If the character selects Animal Husbandry three times, he can neutralize poison, cure disease, or cure serious wounds with a proficiency throw of 14+, once per day per animal, and can cure mortal wounds with a proficiency throw of 18+, once per day per animal. At any one time, a character can treat three animals, plus an additional one each time Animal Husbandry is selected.

Animal Training (G): The character knows how to breed, groom, and train a particular type of animal. The animal can be taught simple tricks or orders. A character who wants to train two or more different animal types must choose this proficiency more than once. A character with proficiency in training an animal may choose a fantastic creature of a similar type with this proficiency. For example, a bear trainer could learn to train owlbears, or a horse trainer learn to train pegasi. Regardless of the type, animals must begin their training while still young. It take a minimum of one month to tame a wild animal. It takes a minimum of one month to teach a tame animal one trick. Thereafter additional tricks can be taught at half the time per trick. An animal can be taught a maximum of 2d4 different tasks or tricks. The animal trainer will only learn the animal's limit when he reaches it.

Apostasy: The character has learned knowledge forbidden to his order. He may select 4 divine spells not normally available to worshippers of his god and add them to his repertoire.

Arcane Dabbling: The character may attempt to use wands, staffs, and other magic items only useable by mages. At level 1, the character must make a proficiency throw of 18+ or the attempt backfires. The proficiency throw required reduces by 2 per level, to a minimum of 3+. Note that bards automatically begin play with this ability as part of their class.

Art (G): The character can create a particular type of art (e.g., painting, sculpture, mosaic). The character must choose the type of art at the time he chooses the proficiency. He can spend more proficiency selections to have several types of art proficiencies. The character is considered an apprentice in his field. He can create 10gp per month of artwork, and can identify masterwork items, rare materials, and famous artisans with a proficiency throw of 11+. If a character selects the same field of art twice, he is considered a journeyman in his trade. He can create 20gp per month of artwork, and supervise up to 3 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. If he selects the same craft three times, he is considered a master of his field. He can create 40gp per month of artwork, and supervise up to 2 journeymen and 4 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. He could work as a specialist in this field of art (as described in the Hiring Specialists section).

Art Proficiency Progression

Title Rank (# of times taken) Gp Earned/Month Number of Workers Allowed
Apprentice 1 10gp N.A.
Journeyman 2 20gp 3 Apprentices
Master Artist 3 40gp 2 Journeymen, 4 Apprentices

Bargaining (G): The character gets the best deals available for goods, services, and information. Any items the character purchases costs 10% less than the listed price and any items he sells go for 10% more than the listed price. If both the buyer and seller have the Bargaining proficiency, the opposed Bargainers should make reaction rolls. Whichever character scores the higher result gets the discount. A character may select Bargaining multiple times if desired. Each time the proficiency is selected, the character receives a +2 bonus on his reaction roll when negotiating with other bargainers.

Battle Magic: The character gains a +1 initiative bonus when casting spells. He is considered 2 class levels higher than his actual level of experience for purposes of dispelling magic or penetrating a target's magic resistance.

Beast Friendship: The character is well-schooled in the natural world. He can identify plants and fauna with a proficiency throw of 11+, and understands the subtle body language and moods of birds and beasts (though they may not understand the character). He gains +2 to all reaction rolls when encountering normal animals, and can take animals as henchmen.

Berserkergang: The character may enter a berserker rage. While enraged, he gains a +2 bonus to attack throws and becomes immune to fear. However, the character has a -2 penalty to AC and cannot retreat from combat. Once it has begun, a berserker rage cannot be ended until combat ends.

Black Lore: The character has studied the terrible necromancies of ancient sorcerers. He can control undead as a Chaotic cleric of one half his class level. If the character casts spells that require a saving throw versus Death, his targets suffer a -2 penalty on the save. When the character casts necromantic spells (such as animate dead), the spell effects are calculated as if he were two class levels higher than his actual level of experience. He may also conduct necromantic research (see Necromancy in Chapter 7) as if he were two class levels higher than actual.

Blind Fighting: The character can fight a target without being able to see it. Blind Fighting is typically used when the character is in darkness or when the target is outside the range of his sight. A character with this proficiency suffers only a -2 penalty on attack throws when blinded or fighting invisible enemies instead of the base -4 penalty.

Bribery: The character is exceptionally skilled at bribing officials with gifts of money or merchandise. Offering a bribe permits an additional reaction roll during encounters, with the throw modified by the size of the bribe. As a general rule, a bribe equal to one day's pay for the target provides a +1 bonus, a week's pay provides a +2 bonus, and a month's pay provides a +3 bonus. Only one bribe can be attempted per target in any given situation.

Caving (G): The character has learned to keep a map in his head of where he is when exploring underground caves, cavern complexes, and rivers. On a proficiency throw of 11+, the character with this proficiency will be able to automatically know the route he has taken to get where he is, if he was conscious at the time.

Cat Burglary: The thief knows how to deftly move across narrow and precarious surfaces. He may balance on thin ledges or tight ropes by making a proficiency throw to climb walls. If the thief falls while climbing, the player may make a second proficiency throw with a -4 penalty in order to catch himself and prevent any damage.

Climbing: The character can climb cliffs, branchless trees, walls, and other sheer surfaces, without climbing aids, as a thief of his class level.

Collegiate Wizardry (G): The character has received formal magical education from a wizard's guild. He can automatically identify arcane symbols, spell signatures, trappings, and grimoires of his own order, and can recognize those of other orders or traditions with a proficiency throw of 11+. Rare or esoteric traditions may be harder to recognize (Judge's discretion). A character may select this proficiency additional times.

Combat Reflexes: True warriors never hesitate in combat. The character gains a +1 bonus to surprise rolls and initiative rolls. This bonus does not apply when casting spells.

Combat Trickery: The character is a cunning and tricky fighter. Pick a special maneuver from any one of the following: Disarm, Force Back, Incapacitate, Knock Down, Overrun, Sunder, or Wrestle. When the character attempts this special maneuver in combat, the normal penalty for attempting the maneuver is reduced by 2 (e.g. from -4 to -2), and his opponent suffers a -2 penalty to his saving throw to resist the special maneuver. See Special Maneuvers in Chapter 6 for more details. A character may take Combat Trickery multiple times, selecting an additional special maneuver to learn each time.

Command: The character has mastered the art of command. His authority inspires men to follow him into danger. The character's henchmen and mercenaries receive a +2 bonus to morale. Morale is explained in Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists.

Contemplation: The character may enter a meditative trance and re-gain the ability to cast a spell of a level he had previously expended. Contemplation requires one hour (6 turns) of undisturbed meditation. A character may not regain the same level of spell more than once per day through contemplation.

Contortionism: The character is extremely flexible, able to squeeze or fold his body in ways that seem humanly impossible, including squeezing between bars and escaping chains and restraints. He may make a proficiency throw of 18+ each round to escape from bonds or to slip between the bars of a portcullis.

Craft (G): The character has studied under a guild craftsman, such as an armorer, bowyer, jeweler, leatherworker, smith, shipwright, or weaponsmith. The character is considered an apprentice in his trade. He can manufacture 10gp per month of goods, and can identify masterwork items, rare materials, and famous artisans with a proficiency throw of 11+. The character must choose the craft at the time he chooses the proficiency. He can spend more proficiency selections to have several types of craft proficiencies. If a character selects the same craft twice, he is considered a journeyman in his trade. He can manufacture 20gp per month of goods, and supervise up to 3 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. If he selects the same craft three times, he is considered a master craftsman. He can manufacture 40gp per month, and supervise up to 2 journeymen and 4 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. He could work as a specialist in this craft (as described in the Hiring Specialists section). Note that dwarven craftpriests automatically begin play with this proficiency at the "journeyman" rank as part of their class.

Craft Proficiency Progression

Title Rank (# of times taken) Gp Earned/Month Number of Workers Allowed
Apprentice 1 10gp N.A.
Journeyman 2 20gp 3 Apprentices
Master Craftsman 3 40gp 2 Journeymen, 4 Apprentices

Diplomacy (G): The character is smooth tongued and familiar with protocol. He receives a +2 bonus on all reaction rolls when he attempts to parley.

Disguise (G): The character can make someone look like someone else through make-up and clothing. A successful Disguise requires a proficiency throw of 11+. Someone who is intimately familiar with the subject of the disguise may throw 14+ to see through it, adding their Wisdom modifier to their die roll.

Divine Blessing: The character knows how to propitiate the gods and gain their favor. He gains a +2 bonus to all saving throws.

Divine Health: The character knows how to purify his body and soul. He is immune to all forms of disease, including magical diseases caused by spells, mummies, or lycanthropes.

Dungeon Bashing: The character is hardened to the heavy lifting and physical labor involved in dungeon exploration. The character receives a +4 bonus on throws to open doors and similar acts of brute strength.

Dwarven Brewing: The character knows the secrets of the famed beer and ale of the dwarves. Because of his familiarity with mixology, he may make a proficiency throw of 11+ to determine the magical properties of a potion or oil on taste. He gains a +4 bonus to proficiency throws to craft alcoholic beverages.

Eavesdropping: The character can hear noises as a thief of his class level.

Elementalism: Choose an element (air, earth, fire, water). Spells using this element do +1 damage per die and impose a -2 saving throw penalty on the target. Elementals summoned from this element gain +1 hp per Hit Die. The character's magic missiles can be considered to be of this element, if he desires.

Elven Bloodline: The character has the blood of the ageless elves in his ancestry. His lifespan is three times longer than normal for his race, and he shows no signs of aging. He also enjoys the elf's immunity to paralysis. The character's ancestry must manifest somehow in his appearance (pointed ears, golden eyes, a strange birthmark, or other unusual trait.)

Endurance (G): The character is nearly tireless. He does not need to rest every 6 turns. He can force march for one day without penalty, plus one additional day for each point of Constitution bonus.

Engineering (G): The character is skilled in planning, designing, and constructing castles, towers, roads, and so forth. Any character with this skill can evaluate constructions the party is passing through to assess what shape they are in, when and by whom they were built, etc., with a proficiency throw of 11+. Each time this proficiency is taken, the character can supervise 25,000gp worth of permanent construction. A character who has taken this proficiency four times is the equivalent of the engineer specialist described in the Specialists section.

Familiar: The character gains a familiar, a magical animal companion. The familiar will be a creature appropriate to the character's alignment and other powers (as determined by the Judge). The familiar always has a number of Hit Dice and maximum hit points equal to 1/2 its master's own; Intelligence equal to its master's Intelligence; and a number of general and class proficiencies equal to its masters, selected from its master's class list. The familiar can always understand any languages spoken by its master, and the character will be able to understand the familiar's speech, though no one else will without resorting to speak with animals. The familiar is utterly loyal to its master and will fight for him, perform services, and generally obey his commands. While the familiar is within 30', the character receives +1 on saving throws, but if the familiar is ever killed, the character must save versus Death or instantly take damage equal to the familiar's maximum total hit points. A character does not gain a new familiar if it is slain until he has gained a level of experience.

Fighting Style: The character chooses to become proficient in a particular fighting style, such as two weapon fighting or weapon and shield. Because of his familiarity with the fighting style, a proficient character may draw his weapon(s) and/or ready his shield without having to give up an opportunity to move or attack. In addition, each fighting style provides a special bonus when the character is fighting in that style. The fighting styles and their bonuses are listed below.

Fighting Styles

Style Bonus
Pole weapon +1 to initiative rolls
Missile weapon +1 to attack throws
Single weapon +1 to attack throws
Two weapons +1 to attack throws
Two-handed weapon +1 to damage rolls
Weapon and shield +1 to armor class

Bonuses are in addition to the standard bonuses for fighting in the given manner. For instance, a character with weapon and shield fighting style proficiency gains a total improvement to his AC of 2 points. A character may take this proficiency multiple times, selecting an additional fighting style each time. If a character has two fighting styles that might be applicable in a given fight, he may only apply the bonus for one style in any given round. For example, if a character armed with a spear and a shield has both the pole weapon and weapon and shield fighting style proficiencies, he must choose between +1 initiative rolls or +1 to AC, but not both.

Gambling (G): The character has the ability to win money in games of skill (competitive card games) and betting. He can earn 1d6gp per month as a professional gambler. The character can select Gambling additional times if desired, increasing his monthly income by 1d6gp with each selection. If multiple characters with Gambling proficiency face each other in a game of skill and betting, they should each roll the appropriate number of d6s as if measuring their monthly gambling income. Whichever gambler rolls the higher total has won the first round (hand, trick, etc.) Losers must either exit the game or increase their bet by rolling the dice again and adding it to the total. This continues until no gambler is willing to increase the bet, at which time the gambler with the highest cumulative total wins the game. The losers must each pay the winner the total amount of their rolls. If all gamblers agree, the game can be for higher stakes. This can be as simple as multiplying the total rolled by 5, 10, or even 1,000+, or as complex as requiring the loser to turn over domains and castles.

Goblin-Slaying: The character has been trained to ruthlessly cut down his race's humanoid foes. He receives +1 on attack throws against kobolds, goblins, orcs, gnolls, hobgoblins, bugbears, ogres, trolls, and giants. At level 7, this bonus increases to +2, and at level 13 it increases to +3.

Healing (G): The character is especially skilled at treating wounds and diagnosing illnesses among humans and demi-humans. A proficiency throw of 11+ enables the character to identify whether a disease is magical or mundane, and if mundane, diagnose it. A patient under treatment of Healing naturally heals an extra 1d3 hit points each day. If the character selects Healing twice, he can neutralize poison, cure disease, or cure light wounds with a proficiency throw of 18+, once per day per patient. If the character selects Healing three times, he can neutralize poison, cure disease, or cure serious wounds with a proficiency throw of 14+, once per day per patient. A character with Healing proficiency can use the healing herbs listed in the Equipment chapter (e.g. blackwort, comfrey, goldenrod, and woundwort) to heal additional damage or gain a bonus on his proficiency throws. In any one day, a character can supervise three different patients, plus an additional one each time Healing is selected.

Healing Proficiency Progression

Title Rank (# of times taken) Gp Earned/Month Patients/Day Skills
Healer 1 25gp 3 Identify 11+, extra 1d3 hit points per day
Physicker 2 50gp 4 Identify 7+, neutralize poison, cure disease, cure light 18+
Chirugeon 3 100gp 5 Identify 3+, neutralize poison, cure disease, cure serious 14+

Illusion Resistance: The character is as hard to fool as the most cynical dwarf. The character receives +4 bonus on saving throws to disbelieve magical illusions.

Intimidation (G): The character knows how to bully others to get what he wants. He receives a +2 bonus on all reaction rolls when implicitly or explicitly threatening violence or dire consequences. The targets must be 5 HD or less, or the character and his allies must outnumber or grossly outrank the targets.

Knowledge (G): The character has made a specialized study of a particular field, such as architecture, astrology, geography, history, mathematics, metaphysics, natural history, natural philosophy, or political economy. The character can usually make his living by acting as an expert on the subject. With a proficiency throw of 11+, the character can recall expert commentary or information relating to his area of knowledge. The character must choose his area of knowledge at the time he chooses the proficiency. He can spend more proficiency selections to have several different areas of knowledge. If a character selects the same knowledge twice, he is an expert in the subject and can train students and write books on the topic. If he selects the same subject three times, he could work as a sage of the subject (as described in Specialists in Chapter 3).

Labor (G): The character is highly proficient at a particular type of physical labor, such as bricklaying, farming, mining, or stonecutting. The character can make his living off his labors, earning 3-12gp per month. With a proficiency throw of 11+, the character can interpret information in light of his skill. A character may learn other labor proficiencies by taking this proficiency multiple times. Labor does not require enough skill to be able to be improved by taking this proficiency multiple times.

Land Surveying: The character is an expert at surveying the land around him. With a proficiency throw of 11+, the character can predict dangerous sinkholes, deadfalls, collapses, or rock slides when the character enters the area. In dungeons, an explorer with Land Surveying gains a +4 bonus to his throws to escape detection due to his ability to find the best cover.

Language (G): This proficiency enables the character to learn to speak, read, and write an additional language (pick one). The character's level of literacy with the new language is determined by his Intelligence. Characters with an Intelligence of 8 or less are generally illiterate. However, this proficiency can be taken by a character with a low Intelligence (8 or less) in order to become literate in a language the character already speaks.

Laying on Hands: The character can heal himself or another by laying on hands once per day. The character can restore 2 hit points per experience level. A character may take this proficiency multiple times. Each time it is taken, the character may lay on hands an additional time per day.

Leadership (G): The character is an inspirational authority figure who earns great loyalty. The character may hire one more henchman than his Charisma would otherwise permit, and the base morale score of any domain he rules is increased by 1. Domain morale is explained in the Campaigns chapter.

Lip Reading (G): The character can "overhear" conversations spoken in a language he understands. If the subject of his lip reading is not speaking clearly in bright light, the character may need to make a successful proficiency throw to hear noise in order to determine if he gleans the appropriate information. Characters with Lip Reading proficiency receive a +1 bonus to carousing and spying hijinks. See Hideouts and Hijinks in Chapter 7 for more information on carousing and spying.

Lockpicking: The character is an expert with locks and receives a +2 bonus on proficiency throws to open locks. He may open a lock in one round (rather than one turn) by making a successful proficiency throw to open locks with a -4 penalty.

Loremastery: The character is knowledgeable on a variety of esoteric subjects. At level 1, the character may make a proficiency throw of 18+ to decipher occult runes, remember ancient history, or identify a historic artifact. The proficiency throw required reduces by 1 per level. Note that bards automatically begin play with this proficiency as part of their class.

Magical Engineering: The character has specialized knowledge of magical items. He gains a +1 to magical research throws. He can recognize most common magical items after careful investigation with a proficiency throw of 11+, but is unable to recognize uncommon or unique magical items, to divine command words, to distinguish trapped or cursed items from safe ones, or to assess the specific bonus or number of charges remaining in an item. This proficiency can be selected multiple times, each time adding an additional +1 bonus to magical research throws and reducing the proficiency throw required to recognize common items by 4.

Magical Music: The character can perform music that can serenade those who are potentially attracted to the character (as a charm person spell) or tame savage beasts (as a sleep spell). The character must succeed on an appropriate Performance proficiency throw to use Magical Music. If successful, the charm or sleep effect begins immediately and lasts until the character stops performing. If the character performs for a full turn (10 minutes), the effect has the duration of the spell. Magical music has no effect if used against creatures that are already in combat.

Manual of Arms (G): The character has the ability to train soldiers in military discipline, physical fitness, and weapon drill. If the character selects Manual of Arms once, he can earn 30gp per month training light infantry. It takes 1 month to turn raw recruits into light infantry. If the character also selects Riding, he can also train light cavalry (taking 3 months). If he also selects Weapon Focus (bows & crossbows), he can train crossbowmen (1 month), bowmen (2 months), or longbowmen (3 months). Manual of Arms combined with Riding and Weapon Focus (bows & crossbows) allows the character to train horse archers (6 months). If the character selects Manual of Arms twice, he earns 60gp per month and can train heavy infantry (1 month). Two ranks of Manual of Arms combined with Riding allow the character to train heavy cavalry (6 months). Two ranks of Manual of Arms combined with Riding and Weapon Focus (bows & crossbows) allows the character to train cataphract cavalry (12 months). The character can train up to 60 soldiers during each training period.

Mapping (G): The character can understand and make maps, even if he cannot read or write. With a proficiency throw of 11+, the character can interpret or draft complicated layouts or map an area by memory. This proficiency can be selected multiple times.

Martial Training: As a crusader of the faith, the character has had training that supersedes the normal religious strictures of his order. Select one of the following types of weapons and add these to the list of weapons permitted to the character: (1) axes; (2) bows/crossbows; (3) flails/hammers/maces; (4) swords/daggers; (5) spears/pole arms; (6) bolas/nets/slings/saps/staffs.

Military Strategy (G): The character has studied the art of war and the methods of the great captains. He can recognize famous historical battles, generals, and weapons with a proficiency throw of 11+. Forces under his command receive a +1 bonus to initiative rolls in mass combat. This proficiency may be selected multiple times, each time adding an additional +1 bonus to mass combat initiative, to a maximum of +3.

Mimicry (G): The character can imitate animal calls and foreign language accents. With a proficiency throw of 11+, the character's mimicry (e.g. imitating the screech of a hoot owl or a noise from some other animal) is so authentic as to fool listeners into believing they have heard the actual animal. This proficiency can be selected multiple times.

Mountaineering: The character can use mountaineering gear to climb difficult mountains and cliff faces, and to rig lines to enable non-climbers to tackle those faces as well, as a thief of their class level. This proficiency does not allow the character to climb sheer surfaces during combat or without extensive gear.

Mystic Aura: The character has learned to project his magical powers in a way that causes awe in those that share the character's presence. He gains a +2 bonus to reaction rolls to impress and intimidate people he encounters. If this bonus results in a total of 12 or more, the subjects act as if charmed while in his presence.

Naturalism (G): The character is knowledgeable of common plant and animal life forms in terrain typical to his background. The character is familiar with edible and poison foods, healing herbs, and signs of unnatural danger (such as unusual quiet, atypical animal behavior, etc.) in his known terrain with a proficiency throw of 11+. This proficiency can be selected multiple times.

Navigation (G): The character can take the position of the sun and stars to determine roughly where he is. He gains a +4 bonus on proficiency throws to avoid getting lost in the wilderness. He can serve as a navigator on a seagoing vessel as described in Specialists.

Passing Without Trace: The character leaves no sign of his passing over wilderness terrain, and may not be tracked. For every 3 levels of experience, the character may cover the tracks of an additional traveling companion.

Performance (G): The character can act, dance, sing, recite poetry, tell stories, or play musical instruments in a skilled manner. The character chooses the type of performance that his character knows, and the character can take the proficiency several times in order to know multiple types of performance. The character is considered an apprentice in his style. He can earn 10gp per month from his performances, and can identify famous performers, masterpieces, and rare instruments with a proficiency throw of 11+. If a character selects the same type of performance twice, he is considered a journeyman in his trade. He can earn 20gp per month from his performances, and lead a troupe of up to 3 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. If he selects the same type of performance three times, he is considered a master of his field. He can earn 40gp per month from his performances, and lead a troupe of up to 2 journeymen and 4 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. Note that bards automatically begin play with this ability at the apprentice level as part of their class.

Performance Proficiency Progression

Title Rank (# of times taken) Gp Earned/Month Number of Workers Allowed
Apprentice 1 10gp N.A.
Journeyman 2 20gp 3 Apprentices
Master Performer 3 40gp 2 Journeymen, 4 Apprentices

Precise Shooting: The character may conduct missile attacks against opponents engaged in melee at a -4 penalty to his attack throw. A character may take this proficiency multiple times. Each time the proficiency is taken, the penalty to attack opponents in melee is reduced by 2. Characters without this proficiency cannot attack opponents engaged in melee with missile attacks.

Prestidigitation: The character can magically accomplish simple illusions and sleight of hand tricks suitable for impressing peasants, such as lighting a candle or shuffling cards, at will. The character must be able to perform the task physically, and be free to speak and gesture. He may use magical sleight-of-hand to pick pockets as a thief of one half his class level.

Profession (G): The character is highly skilled at a civil profession, such as actuary, banker, chamberlain, judge, lawyer, librarian, merchant, restaurateur, scribe, or seneschal. The character is considered an apprentice in his profession. He can earn 25gp per month for his services, and can make expert commentary on subjects pertaining to his profession with a proficiency throw of 11+. The character must choose the profession at the time he chooses the proficiency. He can spend more proficiency selections to have several types of profession proficiencies. If a character selects the same profession twice, he is considered a licensed practitioner of his profession. He can earn 50gp per month for his services, and supervise up to 3 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%. If he selects the same profession three times, he is considered a master of his profession. He can earn 100gp per month, and supervise up to 2 practitioners and 4 apprentices, increasing their productivity by 50%.

Profession Proficiency Progression

Title Rank (# of times taken) Gp Earned/Month Number of Workers Allowed
Apprentice 1 25gp N.A.
Licensed Practitioner 2 50gp 3 Apprentices
Master of Profession 3 100gp 2 Journeymen, 4 Apprentices

Prophecy: The character is subject to premonitions and dreams of the past and future. The Judge will make these visions both cryptic and useful. Once per week, the character can commune (as the spell).

Quiet Magic: The character can cast spells with minimal words and gestures. A successful proficiency throw to hear noise is required to hear the character cast spells. Full gagging is necessary to prevent the character from working magic.

Riding (G): The character knows not only the care and feeding of a riding animal, but also how to handle it under difficult circumstances, such as using a weapon from its back. For each type of animal, this proficiency must be selected separately. This proficiency is not required to simply ride a domesticated animal under non-combat conditions.

Righteous Turning: When turning undead, the character adds his Wisdom bonus to both the turning throw and to the number of HD turned on a successful throw.

Running: The character's base movement speed is increased by 30' when wearing chainmail or lighter armor.

Seafaring (G): The character can crew large sailing ships or galleys. If a character selects this proficiency twice, he can serve as a captain on a seagoing vessel, as described in Specialists. If he selects this proficiency three times, he is a master mariner. When tacking, a master mariner's ship has its movement rate reduced by only one category rather than by two (as described in the Wilderness Adventures section), and his ship's chance to evade is increased by +5.

Seduction (G): The character is either naturally alluring or a practiced seducer. He always receives a +2 bonus on reaction rolls with others who are potentially attracted to the character.

Sensing Evil: At will, the character can detect evil (as the spell) up to 60' away by concentrating. Each use takes a turn.

Sensing Power: The character can detect spellcasters within 60' and estimate their level of power relative to his own. He can tell when arcane magic has been used within the last 24 hours within the same vicinity. (The character cannot necessarily sense whether an item is magic, unless it has been used in the last 24 hours.) Each use takes a turn.

Siege Engineering (G): The character is highly skilled in the construction and placement of temporary defensive works such as ditches, pits, fields of stakes, and simple wooden and earthen barricades. He also knows how to operate heavy war machines and siege engines such as ballistae, catapults, rams, bores, and siege towers. If the proficiency is taken a second time, then the character has the knowledge to construct heavy war machines, siege engines, and siege towers as well as use them.

Signaling (G): The character knows how to transmit messages to other signaling specialists of the same military force, culture, trade guild, or other organization. This is similar to learning an additional language. The character must specify the style and culture of signals that he has learned when he takes this proficiency. Examples of signals include naval flags, cavalry trumpets, or smoke signals.

Skirmishing: The character may withdraw or retreat from melee combat without declaring the intention to do so at the start of the melee round. Characters without this proficiency must declare defensive movement before initiative dice are rolled. See Defensive Movement in Chapter 6.

Skulking: The character excels at moving furtively and finding concealment. He receives a +2 bonus on proficiency throws to hide in shadows and move silently.

Sniping: If otherwise eligible to ambush or backstab his opponent, the character may do so using ranged weapons at up to short range.

Soothsaying: The character is subject to premonitions and dreams of the past and future. The Judge will make these visions both cryptic and useful. Once per week, the character can contact higher plane (as the spell).

Survival: The character is an expert at hunting small game, gathering fruits and vegetables, and finding water and shelter. The character forages enough food to feed himself automatically, even when on the move, so long as he is in a fairly fertile area. If he is trying to supply more than one person, he must make a proficiency throw (as described in Wilderness Adventures), but gains a +4 bonus on the roll.

Swashbuckling: The character gains a +1 bonus to Armor Class if wearing leather armor or less and able to move freely. At level 7, this bonus increases to +2, and at level 13 the bonus increases to +3.

Theology (G): The character has received formal religious instruction at a seminary or monastery, and is a member of the church hierarchy. He can automatically identify religious symbols, spell signatures, trappings, and holy days of his own faith, and can recognize those of other faiths with a proficiency throw of 11+. Rare or occult cults may be harder to recognize (Judge's discretion). Note that dwarven craftpriests automatically begin play with this ability as part of their class. This proficiency can be selected multiple times.

Trap Finding: The character is an expert trap finder, receiving a +2 bonus on proficiency throws to find and remove traps. He may find a trap in one round (rather than one turn) by making a successful proficiency throw with a -4 penalty.

Tracking (G): The character can follow tracks with a proficiency throw of 11+. The Judge should increase or decrease the chance of success depending on the circumstances: +2 if tracking 2-4 creatures; +4 if tracking 4-8 creatures; +6 if tracking 8-16 creatures; +8 if tracking 17+ creatures; +4 if trail is through soft/muddy ground; -8 if the trail is through hard/rocky ground; -4 for bad lighting; -1 per 12 hours of good weather since trail was made; -4 per hour of rain/snow since trail was made. Characters move at half speed while tracking.

Transmogrification: The character has mastered grotesque arts of transformation. When the character casts polymorph spells (such as polymorph other), the spell effects are calculated as if he were two class levels higher than his actual level of experience. He may also create magical crossbreeds (see Crossbreeding in Chapter 7) as if he were two class levels higher than actual. Targets of his polymorph other spells suffer a -2 penalty to their saving throw.

Trapping (G): The character can build simple pits, snares, and deadfalls capable of capturing creatures up to the size of an elephant (such as giants, ogres, wyverns, etc). With a proficiency throw of 11+ the snare is built properly. The character can also detect and disable simple wilderness pits, snares, deadfalls, etc., as a thief of his class level. This proficiency provides no abilities with regard to mechanical traps in a dungeon, or magical traps of any sort.

Unflappable Casting: When the character loses a spell by being interrupted or taking damage during the round, he does not lose his action for the round. While he still loses the spell, he may now move and attack normally. Characters without this proficiency lose the opportunity to act at all if they are interrupted while casting a spell. See Casting Spells in Chapter 5 and Casting Spells in Chapter 6.

Wakefulness: The character requires only four hours of sleep to be rested each night.

Weapon Finesse: When attacking with one-handed melee weapons, the character may use his Dexterity modifier instead of his Strength modifier on his attack throw.

Weapon Focus: When using a favored type of weapon, the character is capable of devastating strikes. On an attack throw scoring an unmodified 20 when using his favored weapon, the character inflicts double normal damage. A character may take this proficiency multiple times, selecting an additional Weapon Focus each time. The available Weapon Focuses are: axes; maces, flails and hammers; swords and daggers; bows and crossbows; slings and thrown weapons; spears and polearms. Weapon Focus does not allow a character to use weapons not available to his class.

Proficiencies of Normal Humans and Demi-Humans

Normal humans and demi-humans (non-adventuring 0th level characters) do not begin with the Adventuring proficiency or any class proficiencies. Instead they begin their careers with four general proficiencies. If their Intelligence is 13 or greater, they gain additional general proficiencies equal to their Intelligence bonus. A character may not select the same proficiency more than once with his four starting proficiencies, but may use bonus proficiencies from high INT to do so. Normal humans gain an additional general proficiency after 5 years, 15 years, and 35 years of work. Normal dwarves and elves gain an additional general proficiency after 5, 15, 35, and 70 years of work. Adventurers learn much faster - or die.

Example: Tavus is a highly intelligent (INT 16) 0th level young man. He begins his career at age 18 with six general proficiencies - four base + two more from his high INT. He selects Craft (Carpenter), Engineering, Labor (Stonecutting), and Mapping with his four starting proficiencies. With his bonus proficiencies he takes two additional ranks in Engineering. At age 23, he gains an additional proficiency, which he uses to take a fourth rank in Engineering. He is now qualified to serve as an Engineer specialist (see Specialists in Chapter 3), making him among the youngest engineers in his guild. A character of average Intelligence might take a lifetime to gain that same level of proficiency.


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Chapter 5: Spells

Spells and Spellcasters

Spells are powerful invocations that use esoteric hand gestures combined with eldritch spoken words to bring about otherwise impossible effects. Like characters, spells have levels that measure how powerful they are. For instance, some spells are 1st level spells, and some are 2nd level, and so on. Lower level characters can learn only lower level spells, while higher level characters can access more powerful, higher level spells.

Spells may be cast only by characters of special classes, collectively called spellcasters or casters. There are two types of spellcasters: divine spellcasters and arcane spellcasters. The divine spellcasters described in this rule book are clerics, bladedancers, and dwarven craftpriests, while the arcane spellcasters are mages, elven nightblades, and elven spellswords. Some rules will apply only to one type of spellcaster, while others apply to both types. If a rule does not specify a particular type of spellcaster, it applies to both divine and arcane spellcasters.

Casting Spells

During any single day, spellcasters can cast the number of spells of each level indicated on the Spells Progression table for their class. Unlike other fantasy games, in Adventurer Conqueror King, spellcasters do not have to "memorize" or "prepare" their spells in advance; they can choose which spells to cast at the time of casting from among any and all the spells in their repertoire (see below). Once spellcasters have cast all of their available spells for the day, they must have 8 hours of uninterrupted rest and one hour of concentrated study or prayer before they can cast again.

All spellcasters need to be able to move their hands and speak in order to make the gestures and say the magical phrases that bring magic effects into being. As a result, a spellcaster cannot cast spells if he is gagged, his hands are tied, or he is in an area under the effects of a silence spell. Spellcasters may take no other actions during the same round they intend to cast a spell. As described in the Initiative section of Chapter 6, a PC must announce the intention to cast a spell prior to initiative being determined at the beginning of a round. Should an opponent successfully deal damage to the character or if the character is required to roll a saving throw and fails prior to casting a spell, the spell is disrupted and fails. The spell still counts against the character's spells per day as if it had been cast. Finally, in most instances a spellcaster must have the intended target of a spell within visual range (unless otherwise noted), whether the target is a specific monster, character, or area of effect.

Spell Repertoire

The spells available to a spellcaster are called his spell repertoire. Despite the similarities in how they cast spells, arcane and divine spellcasters have very different spell repertoires and learn their repertoire in very different ways.

Divine Spell Repertoire

Divine spellcasters receive their spells directly from the deity they serve. Their spell repertoire automatically includes each spell of each level they can cast from the spell list made available to them by their deity (but not necessarily every divine spell in existence). Each day, generally in the morning, a well-rested divine spellcaster simply needs to pray for at least one hour in order to be able to cast these spells. Of course, the divine spellcaster may be expected to pray more than this in order to remain in his deity's good graces!

The Cleric Spell List represents a general list of spells that might be provided to clerics of powerful gods with broad spheres of influence. Because clerics gain their spells from a specific deity, however, the exact spells available for any given cleric could instead include a variant selection from this list combined with spells drawn from other sources; for instance, a deity devoted to healing may refuse to grant their cleric's reversed healing spells, but might offer special curative spells available only to her clerics. Just because a spell is listed below as a divine spell does not necessarily mean it is available to every cleric. The Judge will determine which spells are appropriate for any given cleric based on the power he serves.

The Bladedancer Spell List is an example of a spell list for a divine spellcaster designed around a specific deity (the Goddess of Love and War).

Arcane Spell Repertoire

Arcane spellcasters have only a limited repertoire of spells. The base number and level of spells in an arcane spellcaster's repertoire is equal to the number and level of spells he can cast per day. The number of spells of each level in the repertoire is increased by the caster's Intelligence bonus. For instance, a 3rd level mage is able to cast two 1st and one 2nd level spell per day. His repertoire is two 1st and one 2nd level spells. If he has 16 INT (+2 modifier), then his spell repertoire is increased to four 1st level and three 2nd level spells.

A formula for each spell in an arcane spellcaster's repertoire is recorded in his spell books. Periodically the caster reviews his spell books to refresh himself on the various taboos, rituals, and star signs he must remember about each spell in his repertoire. A blank spell book costs 20gp and has 100 pages. Each spell formula in the repertoire takes up one page per spell level in a spell book. Spell formula are accumulated over time and are useful if the caster wishes to change his repertoire (see below).

While a mage generally has the formula for every spell in his repertoire, the reverse is not true; an arcane caster might have possession of a spell formula without having it in his repertoire. For an arcane spellcaster to have a spell in his repertoire, he must keep track of complex astrological movements and star signs that are constantly changing; he must daily appease various ghosts and spirits that power certain dweomers; he must remember and obey special taboos that each spell dictates. All of these strictures, and they are many, can vary with the season, the lunar cycle, the caster's location, and more. Having a spell in the repertoire is thus an ongoing effort, like maintaining a friendship or remembering a song. Mages may collect spell formula from many sources, but only the most intelligent and learned arcane spellcasters can maintain a repertoire of more than a few spells at a time.

Starting Spell Repertoire

A 1st level arcane spellcaster starts the game with a base of one 1st level spell in his repertoire. The Judge should select an appropriate spell for the arcane spellcaster to begin with. Charm person, light, magic missile, protection from evil, or sleep are good choices. If the mage has an INT of at least 13, he may start the game with additional 1st level spells in his repertoire, up to his Intelligence bonus. For each point of Intelligence bonus, the player should roll 1d12 to randomly select another other spell from the arcane spell list. If the character rolls any duplicates do not re-roll; he will begin play with less than the maximum permitted spells in his repertoire.

Example: Quintus is a 1st level mage with INT 16. His spell repertoire can be up to three 1st level spells. For Quintus' first spell, the Judge selects sleep. Quintus then rolls 1d12 on the arcane spell list and scores a "9". He adds read languages to his spell repertoire. Quintus then rolls 1d12 again and scores an "11", learning sleep. Quintus already knows sleep, but he doesn't get to roll again. Instead, Quintus will begin play with just sleep and read languages in his repertoire. He can add the extra 1st level spell to his repertoire once play begins.

Adding New Spells to the Repertoire

As they advance in level, arcane spellcasters can add new spells to their repertoire in a few different ways. All mages and elven spellswords are assumed to be members of the local mages' guild, or apprenticed to a higher level NPC. When they gain a level of experience, they may return to their masters and be out of play for one game week per spell while they are adding new spells to their repertoire. Their masters will teach them spells equal to the number and level of spells the caster can use in a single day. Characters of 9th level or above do not have masters to teach them spells, so they must find or research them. When a master is not available, mages and elven spellswords depend entirely on finding spell scrolls, finding other spell books with new spells in them, or conducting spell research.

If a new spell is found on a scroll, or another arcane spellcaster's spell book, it may be added to the arcane spellcaster's repertoire if the character can still learn new spells of that level. If the spell is of too high level to be cast, it cannot be put into the repertoire, but it may be saved to be put into the repertoire in the future. It takes one week of study to add a spell to the character's repertoire. Scribing a spell from a scroll uses it up in the process, but copying spells from a spell book does not erase spells from the book.

Scrolls and spell books are complex and esoteric, and usually written in obscure or dead languages. A scroll or spell book can be read only by the spellcaster who created it, or by an arcane spellcaster who can read the language the scroll or spell book is written in. An arcane spellcaster can use read languages to read a scroll or spell book in an unfamiliar language.

Example: Quintus can understand the Common, Classical, and Archaic languages. While on an adventure, he finds two scrolls, one written in Draconic and one written in Archaic. Quintus can read the scroll written in Archaic, but he cannot read the scroll written in Draconic except through the read languages spell. Quintus gives the Draconic scroll to his friend Thord, a dwarven craftpriest who reads Draconic. Unfortunately, Thord cannot read the scroll either, because he is not an arcane caster.

Sometimes an arcane spellcaster's spell book will either be lost or destroyed. Each week he goes without access to his spell books, an arcane spellcaster loses one spell level from his repertoire, until eventually he knows none at all. An arcane spellcaster can rewrite the spells through research and memory at a cost of 1 week of game time and 1,000gp for each spell level. For instance, if two 1st level spells and one 2nd level spell are replaced, it will take 4 weeks and 4,000gp. This activity requires complete concentration, and a character doing this work may not engage in any other activity for the time required.

An arcane spellcaster who already has a full repertoire of spells may sometimes wish to replace one spell in his spell repertoire with another of equal level. It costs 1 week of game time and 1,000gp for each spell level to replace a spell in the repertoire with another. For instance, if one 3rd level spell is replaced, it will take 3 weeks and 3,000gp. This activity requires complete concentration, and a character doing this work may not engage in any other activity for the time required. The mage must have a copy of the spell formula for the new spell. Replacing a spell in the repertoire does not cause the character to lose the formula of the replaced spell.

This practice commonly occurs when a spellcaster gets access to more useful spells than what he currently knows, or when a particular adventure requires a spell the caster doesn't normally use. Powerful arcane spellcasters generally build large libraries of spell formula and scrolls so that they can replace the spells in their repertoire with new spells when the situation calls for it. For instance, an arcane spellcaster confronting a pack of gorgons might wish to learn stone to flesh in preparation for the encounter. Given enough time, an arcane spellcaster can prepare for almost any challenge.

Example: Quintus is a 1st level mage with INT 16. He is eligible to have three 1st level spells in his spell repertoire. Over time, he has added read languages, shield, and sleep into his repertoire. He finds a grimoire holding magic missile and decides to replace shield with his new find. (That is, Quintus decides to stop actively monitoring the various stars, spirits, or taboos associated with shield so he can instead pay attention to those associated with magic missile). This costs 1 week of game time and 1,000gp. In game terms, he now has read languages, magic missile, and sleep in his repertoire, but no longer has shield in his repertoire, and therefore cannot cast it. However, he still possesses a copy of the formula for shield, so should it prove necessary he can replace one of his 1st level spells with shield at a later time following the same procedure by which he just replaced shield with magic missile.

The Arcane Spell List, below, is a sample of the more common spells known to the practitioners of the arcane arts. It is by no means a complete list, for arcane spellcasters are a secretive lot that do not share their knowledge easily; and many spells that were once known have been forgotten, existing only in dusty tomes and rare grimoires, or in the minds of slumbering undead lords.

Reversible Spells

Some spells, marked with an asterisk (*) on the spell lists, can be cast reversed. A reversed spell results in an effect that is opposite to the effect the spell normally causes. For example, when a mage casts flesh to stone, he can turn a flesh-and-blood creature into stone. But when a mage casts the reverse spell, stone to flesh, he can restore a creature that has been petrified back to life. Where it is not self-evident, the spell descriptions below will explain what reversed spells do. If a spell name is not marked with an asterisk, the spell is not reversible.

Mages and other arcane spellcasters treat the normal and reversed version of a spell as separate spells. In general, divine spellcasters will know both the normal and reversed form of any spell on their spell list. However, Lawful divine spellcasters prefer to cast spells in their normal form, e.g. favoring bless over bane, and restore life and limb over finger of death, and will use the reversed forms only against Chaotic opponents. Conversely, Chaotic divine spellcasters will freely cast reversed spells such as finger of death, while using the normal version only to aid comrades and followers. Some divine spellcasters may be restricted entirely by their deity from using normal or reversed versions of particular spells (Judge's discretion).

Spell Signatures

While spells have general effects that are common to all who cast them, the specific sensory effects associated with the spell will vary from caster to caster. This specific sensory effect is known as the spell signature. A spellcaster should write a short description of the signature for each spell he can cast. For arcane spellcasters, the signature may be based on a particular school or style of magic, or simply be a reflection of the spellcaster's personal taste. For divine spellcasters, the signature reflects the caster's relationship with his deity. A character's choice of proficiencies can be suggestive of appropriate spell signatures.

Example: Sargon pursues necromantic magic and has the Black Lore proficiency. His player decides that all of Sargon's spell signatures will revolve around death. His magic missiles appear as shards of bone. His sleep spell places targets into a nightmarish slumber where they dream of Hell. His lightning bolt is crackling blue-black energy. His wall of stone has the appearance of tombstones graven with the names of the dead.

Characters with the Sensing Power proficiency will sense the spell signature of arcane casters up to 24 hours after a spell has been cast. Characters with Collegiate Wizard or Theology proficiency may be able to identify particular schools or faiths by their spell signature (proficiency throw 11+).

Arcane Spell List

First Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Charm Person
2 Detect Magic
3 Floating Disc
4 Hold Portal
5 Light*
6 Magic Missile
7 Magic Mouth
8 Protection from Evil*
9 Read Languages
10 Shield
11 Sleep
12 Ventriloquism

Second Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Continual Light*
2 Detect Evil*
3 Detect Invisible
4 ESP
5 Invisibility
6 Knock
7 Levitate
8 Locate Object
9 Mirror Image
10 Phantasmal Force
11 Web
12 Wizard Lock

Third Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Clairvoyance
2 Dispel Magic
3 Fireball
4 Fly
5 Haste*
6 Hold Person
7 Infravision
8 Invisibility 10' radius
9 Lightning Bolt
10 Protection from Evil, Sustained*
11 Protection from Normal Missiles
12 Water Breathing

Fourth Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Charm Monster
2 Confusion
3 Dimension Door
4 Growth of Plants*
5 Hallucinatory Terrain
6 Massmorph
7 Polymorph Other
8 Polymorph Self
9 Remove Curse*
10 Wall of Fire
11 Wall of Ice
12 Wizard Eye

Fifth Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Animate Dead
2 Cloudkill
3 Conjure Elemental
4 Contact Other Plane
5 Feeblemind
6 Hold Monster
7 Magic Jar
8 Passwall
9 Telekinesis
10 Teleport
11 Transmute Rock to Mud*
12 Wall of Stone

Sixth Level Arcane Spells

d12 Spell
1 Anti-Magic Shell
2 Control Weather
3 Death Spell
4 Disintegrate
5 Flesh to Stone*
6 Geas*
7 Invisible Stalker
8 Lower Water
9 Move Earth
10 Projected Image
11 Reincarnate
12 Wall of Iron

Divine Spell List (Cleric)

First Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Command Word
2 Cure Light Wounds*
3 Detect Evil*
4 Detect Magic
5 Light*
6 Protection from Evil*
7 Purify Food and Water
8 Remove Fear*
9 Resist Cold
10 Sanctuary

Second Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Augury
2 Bless*
3 Delay Poison
4 Find Traps
5 Hold Person
6 Resist Fire
7 Silence 15' radius
8 Snake Charm
9 Speak with Animals
10 Spiritual Weapon

Third Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Continual Light*
2 Cure Blindness
3 Cure Disease*
4 Feign Death
5 Glyph of Warding
6 Growth of Animals
7 Locate Object
8 Remove Curse*
9 Speak with Dead
10 Striking

Fourth Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Create Water
2 Cure Serious Wounds*
3 Dispel Magic
4 Divination
5 Neutralize Poison*
6 Protection from Evil, Sustained*
7 Smite Undead*
8 Speak with Plants
9 Sticks to Snakes
10 Tongues

Fifth Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Atonement
2 Commune
3 Create Food
4 Dispel Evil
5 Flame Strike
6 Insect Plague
7 Quest*
8 Restore Life and Limb*
9 Strength of Mind*
10 True Seeing

Divine Spell List (Bladedancer)

First Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Command Word
2 Cure Light Wounds*
3 Detect Evil*
4 Detect Magic
5 Faerie Fire
6 Fellowship
7 Light*
8 Protection from Evil*
9 Remove Fear*
10 Resist Cold

Second Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Bless*
2 Charm Animal
3 Find Traps
4 Hold Person
5 Holy Chant
6 Resist Fire
7 Silence 15' radius
8 Shimmer
9 Speak with Animals
10 Spiritual Weapon

Third Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Continual Light*
2 Cure Blindness
3 Cure Disease*
4 Glyph of Warding
5 Growth of Animals
6 Locate Object
7 Prayer
8 Remove Curse*
9 Speak with Dead
10 Striking

Fourth Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Create Water
2 Cure Serious Wounds*
3 Dispel Magic
4 Divination
5 Neutralize Poison*
6 Protection from Evil, Sustained*
7 Smite Undead*
8 Speak with Plants
9 Vigor
10 Tongues

Fifth Level Divine Spells

d10 Spell
1 Atonement
2 Commune
3 Create Food
4 Dispel Evil
5 Flame Strike
6 Insect Plague
7 Quest*
8 Restore Life and Limb*
9 Sword of Fire
10 True Seeing

Spell Index

Animate Dead

Range: touch
Arcane 5
Duration: special

This spell turns the bones or bodies of dead creatures into undead skeletons or zombies that follow the caster's spoken commands. The caster may animate a number of Hit Dice of undead equal to twice his caster level each time he casts this spell. Animated skeletons have Hit Dice equal to the number the monster had in life; for skeletons of humans or demi-humans, this means one Hit Die, regardless of the character level of the deceased. Zombies have one more Hit Die than the monster had in life. An animated skeleton can be created only from a mostly intact skeleton; a zombie can be created only from a mostly intact corpse. The caster must touch the remains to be animated. Animate dead normally lasts for just one day, but the spellcaster can make the spell permanent by sprinkling 1 vial of unholy water per Hit Die on each zombie or skeleton. If this is done, the undead remain animated until they are destroyed or dispelled.

Anti-Magic Shell

Range: 10' radius
Arcane 6
Duration: 12 turns

This spell creates a personal barrier about the caster that stops any spell or spell-like effects (including the caster's) from coming in or going out until the duration is up or until the caster decides to end the spell. Spell-like effects are all effects that duplicate a spell, or magical effects that are resisted with a saving throw versus Spells or Staffs & Wands (but excluding effects that do not duplicate a spell and are resisted with saving throws versus Poison, Breath, Paralysis, or Petrification). Spells with a range of "self," or "touch" spells used on the caster himself, are not blocked by an anti-magic shell. If a creature or item with an ongoing spell or spell-like effect enters an anti-magic shell, the spell or effect is dispelled as if by a dispel magic; effects which cannot be dispelled (such as magic weapon bonuses) are not affected. An anti-magic spell itself cannot be dispelled.

Atonement

Range: 0'
Divine 5
Duration: permanent

This spell removes the burden of unwilling evil acts or misdeeds from the subject. The creature seeking atonement must be truly repentant and desirous of setting right its misdeeds. Atonement may be cast to reverse magical alignment change. This complex spell takes 1 turn to cast.

Augury

Range: self
Divine 2
Duration: see below

An augury can tell the caster whether a particular action will bring good or bad results in the immediate future. The base chance for receiving a true reply is 70% + 1% per caster level; this roll is made secretly by the Judge. The augury can see into the future only 3 turns, so anything that might happen after that does not affect the result. Thus, the result will not take into account the long-term consequences of a contemplated action.

Bless*

Range: 0'
Divine 2
Duration: 6 turns

When cast before battle, bless gives the caster and his allies (within a 50' radius of the caster) a bonus of +1 to attack throws, damage rolls, morale rolls (for monsters or NPCs allied with the caster), and saving throws against magical fear. It may not be cast on creatures who are already engaged in melee.

Divine spellcasters of 7th level or higher may also use bless to create holy water. One casting of bless will transform 1 pint of ordinary water into holy water. Casting bless in this manner demands a sacrifice to the caster's deity worth at least 10gp. Once created, holy water will retain its potency indefinitely so long as it is kept in the vial it was blessed in. See the Equipment Descriptions in Chapter 3 for information on holy water.

The reverse of bless is called bane. It fills the caster's enemies (within a 50' radius) with fear and doubt, causing each affected character or monster to suffer a -1 penalty on attack throws, damage rolls, morale rolls, and saving throws against magical fear. Bane may also be used by chaotic divine casters of 7th level or higher, in conjunction with a sacrifice of at least 10gp, to create a vial of unholy water. Unholy water has beneficial effects when used in the animation of the dead. See Animate Dead, above.

Charm Animal

Range: 60'
Divine 2
Duration: special

This spell allows the caster to charm an animal (including normal and giant animals but excluding humans, demi-humans, humanoids, and fantastic creatures) in much the same fashion as charm person. Unintelligent animals receive no saving throw when the spell is cast, but intelligent animals such as great apes or whales are allowed a save versus Spells to resist. Once in effect, the charm lasts until removed by a dispel magic spell or until the animal makes a successful saving throw versus Spells. The charmed animal receives a saving throw to break the spell each day if it has 7+1 HD or more, every week if it has 5-6 HD, and every month if it has 4 HD or fewer. This spell does not grant the caster any special means of communication with the affected animal; if combined with speak with animals, this spell becomes significantly more useful.

Charm Monster

Range: 60'
Arcane 4
Duration: special

This spell functions like charm person, except that the effect is not restricted by monster type or size. Undead monsters are unaffected. This spell can affect up to 3d6 Hit Dice of creatures of 4 or fewer Hit Dice, or one creature of more than 4 Hit Dice. Calculate creatures with less than 1 HD as having 1/2 HD, and creatures with a bonus to HD as having the flat amount. The caster may decide which individual creatures out of a mixed group are to be affected first; excess Hit Dice of effect are ignored. Any creatures that make a successful saving throw versus Spells resist the effect. Once in effect, the charm lasts until removed by a dispel magic spell or until the creature makes a successful save. The charmed creature receives a saving throw to break the spell each day if it has 7+1 HD or more, every week if it has 5-6 HD, and every month if it has 4 HD or fewer. If the creature is highly intelligent (INT 9 or more), it may save more frequently than its HD would otherwise warrant, using the frequencies listed for charm person, below.

Charm Person

Range: 60'
Arcane 1
Duration: special

This spell makes a humanoid creature regard the caster as its trusted friend and ally. Humanoid creatures include bugbears, dryads, dwarves, elves, gnolls, gnomes, goblins, hobgoblins, kobolds, lizardmen, men, mermen, morlocks, neanderthal, naiads, ogres, pixies, sprites, and troglodytes, and other man-like creatures no larger than an ogre and possessing 4 or fewer Hit Dice. Humans and demi-humans may be affected regardless of character level. A save versus Spells will negate the effect. If the target of the spell is currently being threatened or attacked by the caster or his or her allies, it receives a +5 bonus on its saving throw. The spell does not enable the caster to control the charmed creature as if it were an automaton; rather, it perceives his words and actions in the most favorable way. The caster can try to give the subject orders, but it will not do anything it wouldn't ordinarily do, and further may receive an additional saving throw to overcome the magic (at the Judge's discretion). The caster must speak the charmed creature's language to communicate any commands, or else be good at pantomiming; of course, if the caster is attacked, the charmed creature will act to protect its "friend" (though that could mean attacking the caster's enemies, or attempting to carry off the caster to a "safe" place). The charmed creature receives a new saving throw each day if it is has an Intelligence of 13 or greater, every week if its Intelligence is 9-12, or every month it its Intelligence is 8 or less. A charm may be removed by a dispel magic spell.

Clairvoyance

Range: 60'
Arcane 3
Duration: 12 turns

This spell enables the caster to see into another area through the eyes of a living creature in that area. The caster must specify the direction and approximate distance, up to a maximum of 60' away, but the target area need not be in line of sight. A lead barrier between the caster and the subject creature will block the effect. If there is no appropriate creature in that area, the spell fails. No saving throw is allowed, and the subject is unaware that it is being so used. The caster may choose another subject creature after at least a turn has passed, enabling multiple locations to be viewed. If the subject creature moves out of range, contact is lost, though the caster may be able to choose another subject in this case.

Cloudkill

Range: special
Arcane 5
Duration: 6 turns

This spell creates a cloud of poison gas 30' in diameter that spreads out from the caster's fingertips. The cloud moves at a rate of 20' per round away from the caster. The poison gas is heavier than air and will sink down holes or slide downhill; it is broken up by trees or thick vegetation. Each round they are within the cloud, creatures of fewer than 5 Hit Dice or levels must save versus Poison or die, taking 1 point of damage even if the save is successful. Creatures having 5 or more Hit Dice or levels take 1 point of damage each round they are within the cloud. The cloud persists for the entire duration even if the caster ceases to concentrate upon it.

Command Word

Range: 10'
Divine 1
Duration: 1 round

When a cleric casts this spell, he may give the target a one word command, which it obeys to the best of its ability. The single word must make sense as a single command, such as approach, drop, fall, flee, halt, surrender, sleep, etc. Although a target could be instructed to "die," this will only make the target faint for a single round. Note that the caster must be able to speak the language of the target. Any intended target with more than 5 HD or an INT of over 12 is entitled to a saving throw versus Spells. This spell is ineffective against undead.

Commune

Range: self
Divine 5
Duration: 3 turns

This spell puts the caster in contact with the great powers he serves, who will answer three yes-or-no questions. The being contacted may or may not be omniscient, and further, though the being is technically allied with the caster, it may still not answer questions clearly or completely. These details are left to the Judge's discretion. The ritual to cast this spell takes 1 turn to complete, and may be performed but once per week. Once a year, possibly upon the patron deity's feast day, the divine spellcaster may ask twice the normal number of questions.

Confusion

Range: 120'
Arcane 4
Duration: 12 rounds

This spell causes up to 3d6 living creatures within a 30' radius circle around the target point to become confused, making them unable to independently determine what they will do. Creatures with 2 or fewer Hit Dice receive no saving throw. Those with more than 2 Hit Dice may make a saving throw versus Spells to resist the effect. A confused creature rolls 2d6 on the following table on its initiative each round to determine its actions:

2d6 Behavior
2-5 Attack the caster or allies with melee or ranged weapons (or move closer if attack is not possible).
6-8 Do nothing but babble incoherently.
9-12 Attack the creature's own party, if any.

A confused creature which can't carry out the indicated action does nothing but babble incoherently. Attackers are not at any special advantage when attacking a confused creature. Any confused creature who is attacked automatically retaliates on its next turn, as long as it is still confused when its turn comes.

Conjure Elemental

Range: 240'
Arcane 5
Duration: special

A portal to one of the Elemental Planes of Air, Earth, Fire, or Water is opened, allowing the arcane spellcaster to summon an elemental from that plane. At most one elemental of each type may be summoned by the caster in a given day. Once the elemental appears, it serves the conjurer indefinitely, provided that the caster concentrates on nothing but controlling the creature. Spell casting, combat, or movement over half the normal rate results in loss of concentration. See the entry under Elementals in the Monsters chapter for statistics for the conjured elemental. The conjurer, while in control of an elemental, can dismiss it to its native plane at will (doing so on his Initiative if in combat). If the arcane spellcaster loses concentration, control of the summoned elemental is lost and cannot be regained. The creature then seeks to attack the conjurer and all others in its path. Only dispel magic or dispel evil will banish the elemental once control has been lost. An uncontrolled elemental may, of course, choose to return to its home plane on its own; such creatures will never choose to remain on the Material Plane for long.

Contact Other Plane

Range: self
Arcane 5
Duration: special

The caster sends his mind to another plane of existence in order to receive advice and information from powers there. See the accompanying table for possible consequences and results of the attempt. The powers reply in a language the caster understands, but they resent such contact and give only brief answers to questions. All questions are answered with "yes," "no," "maybe," "never," "irrelevant," or some other one-word answer.

The caster must concentrate on maintaining the spell in order to ask questions at the rate of one per round. A question is answered by the power during the same round. The caster must choose how many questions to ask before the spell is cast. The number of questions to be asked determines the power and proximity of the contacted being. The more questions asked, the further away the contacted plane is and the more powerful the being is. First, roll on the table below to see if the power knows the answer. Then roll to see if the power answers truthfully. There is a probability that the caster will go insane after casting the spell, and the probability is related to the number of questions asked.

Questions Don't Know True Answer Insanity
3 75% 50% 5%
4 70% 55% 10%
5 65% 60% 15%
6 60% 65% 20%
7 50% 70% 25%
8 40% 75% 30%
9 30% 80% 35%
10 20% 85% 40%
11 10% 90% 45%
12 5% 95% 50%

Don't Know: The entity may or may not know the answer, and may or may not tell the caster the truth of whether it knows or not.

True Answer: The caster gets a true, one-word answer. Otherwise, the entity lies and the lie is undetectable.

Insanity: The chance that the caster goes insane at the effort of communication. A character that goes insane will remain that way for the same number of weeks as the total number of questions asked, and the player cannot play the character during this time. The base chance indicated on the table is reduced by 5% for every level the caster is above 11. For example, a 14th level caster receives -15% to the insanity roll.

Continual Light*

Range: 360'
Divine 3
Arcane 2
Duration: special

This spell creates a spherical region of light, as bright as full daylight up to a 30' radius, and with lesser intensity to a radius of 60'. Continual light can be cast on an object, into the air, or at a creature, just as with the light spell, up to a maximum range of 360' from the caster.

As with light, this spell can be used to blind a creature if cast on its visual organs. Creatures targeted by this spell are allowed a save versus Death; if the save is made, the spell is cast into the air just behind the target creature. A penalty of -4 is applied to the blinded creature's attack throws if the saving throw fails.

The reversed spell, continual darkness, causes complete absence of light in the area of effect, overpowering normal light sources. Continual darkness may be used to blind just as continual light can. Any blindness ends when the spell ends.

Continual light and continual darkness are not permanent effects, but are instead effects that are indefinitely sustained by the caster without need for concentration. A caster may indefinitely sustain one continual light or continual darkness spell per level of experience. A truly permanent light requires a permanency ritual.

Control Weather

Range: 0'
Arcane 6
Duration: see below

This spell allows the caster to create a special weather condition in his vicinity. The radius is limited to a localized 240 yards in an outdoor setting only. This spell has an indefinite duration so long as the caster is stationary and concentrating. Possible weather and their effects are detailed below.

Weather Effects
Calm Dissipates foul weather
Hot Will dry wet conditions, all movement divided by 2
Cold Water and mud freezes instantaneously, all movement divided by 2
Severe Winds All movement divided by 2, no flying or missile weapon use possible. Sandy conditions will reduce visibility to 20'. Ship speed increased or decreased depending on if sailing with or against the wind.
Tornado The caster can direct the tornado, which moves at 120' per round. The tornado can be directed to attack, using the characteristics of an air elemental with 12 HD. Sea vessels have a 75% chance of suffering 8+1d4 structural hit points damage.
Foggy Visibility drops to 20', and all movement is divided by 2.
Rainy Missile attacks at -2. Mud forms in 3 turns, and movement divided by 2.
Snowy Visibility drops to 20', and all movement is divided by 2

Create Food

Range: 10'
Divine 5
Duration: permanent

The food that this spell creates is simple fare of the caster's choice, highly nourishing, but rather bland. Up to 12 men and their mounts can be fed for one day with this spell. For every level of experience the divine spellcaster is above 8th, he is able to create food for 12 more men and their mounts. Food so created decays and becomes inedible within 24 hours, although it can be kept fresh for another 24 hours by casting purify food and water on it.

Create Water

Range: 10'
Divine 4
Duration: permanent

This spell summons forth an enchanted spring from the ground or wall that will provide enough water for 12 men and their mounts for one day (50 gallons). For every level the divine spellcaster is above 8th, 12 additional men and mounts can be supplied. Note that one or more vessels to contain the water must be available at the time of casting. The water created by this spell is just like clean rain water. Note: Water weighs about 1 stone (8lb, to be exact) per gallon, and one cubic foot of water is roughly 8 gallons.

Cure Blindness

Range: touch
Divine 3
Duration: instantaneous

With this spell the caster can cure a creature suffering blindness (whether caused by injury or by magic, including light or continual light). Blindness caused by a curse cannot be cured by this spell.

Cure Disease*

Range: touch
Divine 3
Duration: instantaneous

This spell cures all diseases that the subject is suffering from, including magical diseases as lycanthropy and mummy rot. Cure disease will also kill green slime and other parasites afflicting the target creature. Certain special diseases may not be countered by this spell or may be countered only by a caster of a certain level or higher. This spell does not prevent reinfection after a new exposure to the same disease.

The reverse of this spell, cause disease, infects the target with a horrific wasting plague unless a save versus Spells is made. While afflicted, the target suffers -2 on attack throws, cannot be magically healed, and will naturally heal at half the normal rate. The disease will be fatal in 2d12 days unless a cure disease spell is cast on the victim.

Cure Light Wounds*

Range: touch
Divine 1
Duration: instantaneous

With this spell the caster heals 1d6+1 points of damage by laying his hand upon the injured creature. This spell may also be used to cure paralysis, but does not then cure any points of damage. The spell will never increase a creature's hit points beyond the normal amount.

The reverse form of this spell, cause light wounds, causes 1d6+1 damage to the creature affected by it. A successful attack throw is required in this case.

Undead are affected by this spell and its reverse in opposite fashion; they are injured by cure light wounds and healed by cause light wounds.

Cure Serious Wounds*

Range: touch
Divine 4
Duration: instantaneous

This spell works exactly like cure light wounds, save that it heals 2d6 points of damage, plus 1 point per caster level. The reverse, cause serious wounds, also works exactly like cause light wounds, except that it inflicts 2d6 + caster level in damage.

Death Spell

Range: 240'
Arcane 6
Duration: instantaneous

This spell will kill a total of 4d8 Hit Dice of creatures in a 30' radius sphere centered wherever the caster wishes (within the range limit). If there are more Hit Dice of creatures present than the spell can kill, the death spell will slay the weakest creatures first. Hit dice that are not sufficient to affect a creature are wasted. Each creature affected is allowed a saving throw versus Death; those that fail the save die immediately. Creatures of 8 or more Hit Dice or levels are immune to the spell, as are undead monsters, golems, and any other creature that is not truly alive.

Delay Poison

Range: touch
Divine 2
Duration: 1 turn per level

The subject becomes temporarily immune to poison. Any poison in its system or any poison to which it is exposed during the spell's duration does not affect the subject until the spell's duration has expired. Unless cured, saving throws and damage as appropriate are rolled once the spell ends. Delay poison does not cure any damage that poison may have already done. However, if the spell is cast on a subject who has recently died from poison, within 1 turn per caster level, life is restored until the spell duration ends. A revived character will have 1 hp for the duration of the spell, but if the spell ends prior to the poison being cured, the subject dies again.

Detect Evil*

Range: 60'
Divine 1
Arcane 2
Duration: 6 turns

This spell allows the caster to detect evil; specifically, the caster can detect creatures with evil intentions, magic items with evil enchantments, undead, sinkholes of evil, and summoned creatures of Chaotic alignment. Note that normal characters, even if Chaotic, are not detected by this spell unless they have actively evil intentions against the caster. Poisons, physical traps, and natural animals are neither good nor evil, so they are not detected by this spell. The caster sees the evil creatures or objects with a definite red glow around them, but the glow cannot be seen by anyone else.

Reversed, this spell becomes detect good, which works just as described above with respect to detecting good enchantments, summoned creatures of Lawful alignment, and good intentions.

Detect Invisible

Range: 60'
Arcane 2
Duration: 6 turns

By means of this spell the caster is able to see invisible characters, creatures or objects within the given range, seeing them as translucent shapes.

Detect Magic

Range: 60'
Divine 1
Arcane 1
Duration: 2 turns

The caster of this spell is able to detect enchanted or enspelled objects or creatures within the given range by sight, seeing them surrounded by a pale glowing yellow light. Only the caster sees the glow. Invisible creatures or objects are not detected by this spell, but the emanations of the invisibility magic will be seen as an amorphous glowing fog, possibly allowing the caster (only) to attack the invisible creature at an attack penalty of only -2.

Dimension Door

Range: 10'
Arcane 4
Duration: instantaneous

The caster of this spell instantly transfers himself, or any single target creature within range, to any spot within 360' of the caster's or creature's present location. The caster or target creature always arrives at exactly the spot desired, whether the caster visualizes the area or states direction and distance. An unwilling target may save versus Spells to avoid being transported. Anything worn or carried by the caster or target creature will be transported also, including another character or creature if the transportee can lift it. If the target area is within a solid object, the spell fails automatically.

Disintegrate

Range: 60'
Arcane 6
Duration: instantaneous

This spell causes a thin, green ray to spring from the caster's pointing finger. Any single creature or object (up to a 10' x 10' x 10' cube of material) is entirely disintegrated, leaving behind only a trace of fine dust. A disintegrated creature's equipment is unaffected.

A creature that makes a successful save versus Death is unaffected. The ray can target only one creature per casting; if that target saves, the spell is wasted.

Dispel Evil

Range: 30'
Divine 5
Duration: 1 turn

When this spell is cast, the caster can take no other action but concentrate on the spell for the entire duration. All undead or other enchanted creatures that come within 30' of the caster must succeed in a saving throw versus Death or be destroyed. Any creature that makes this saving throw will instead flee from the affected area. Instead of casting the spell in a 30' radius, the caster can direct the spell at one monster only, and that monster saves with a -2 penalty. Casting dispel evil upon an unholy place or shrine can sometimes rid the place of evil (Judge's discretion). In addition, dispel evil can be used to remove a cursed item from a being within the spell range; doing so discharges and ends the spell.

Dispel Magic

Range: 120'
Divine 4
Arcane 3
Duration: instantaneous

The caster can use dispel magic to end ongoing spells that have been cast on a creature or object, or to end ongoing spells (or at least their effects) within a cubic area 20' on a side. The caster must choose whether to cast dispel magic on a creature or object, or to affect an area.

If dispel magic is targeted at a creature, all spells and spell-like effects (including ongoing potion effects) may be canceled. If cast upon an area, all such effects within the area may be canceled. Any spell or effect cast by a character of equal or lower level than the dispel magic caster's level is ended automatically. Those created by higher level casters might not be canceled; there is a 5% chance the dispel magic will fail for each level the spell or effect exceeds the caster level. For example, a 10th level caster dispelling magic created by a 14th level caster has a 20% chance of failure.

Some spells cannot be ended by dispel magic; this specifically includes any magical disease, geas, quest, petrification from a flesh to stone spell, and any curse, including those created by bestow curse (the reverse of remove curse) as well as by cursed items.

Divination

Range: self
Divine 4
Duration: special

Similar to augury but more powerful, a divination spell can provide the caster with a useful piece of advice in reply to a question concerning a specific goal, event, or activity that is to occur within one week. The advice can be as simple as a short phrase, or it might take the form of a cryptic rhyme or omen. If the caster doesn't act on the information, the conditions may change so that the information is no longer useful. The base chance for a correct divination is 60% + 1% per caster level. The Judge should roll this secretly. If the dice roll fails, false information is delivered.

ESP

Range: 60'
Arcane 2
Duration: 12 turns

This spell permits the caster to detect the surface thoughts of one or more targets within range. The caster must designate a direction, and then concentrate for a turn in order to "hear" the thoughts. Each turn the caster may choose to "listen" in a different direction. The caster may stop listening, then resume again later, so long as the duration has not expired. A creature's thoughts are understood regardless of the language. The target creature is not normally aware of being spied upon in this way. If it is aware, it may make a saving throw versus Spells to clear its thoughts and avoid detection.

Rock more than 2 inches thick or a thin coating of lead or gold will block the spell. All undead creatures are immune to this effect, as are mindless creatures such as golems.

Faerie Fire

Range: 60'
Divine 1
Duration: 1 round per level

With this spell, the divine spellcaster can outline one or more creatures or objects with a pale, flickering greenish fire. The fire does not inflict any damage. The objects or creatures need only be detected in some way (such as by detect magic) to be the object of this spell. All attacks against the outlined creature or object gain a +2 bonus to attack throws, as it is more easily seen. The caster can outline 1 man-sized creature (about 12' of fire) for each 5 levels of experience, rounded up.

Feeblemind

Range: 180'
Arcane 5
Duration: permanent

If the target creature fails a saving throw versus Spells, it becomes a helpless idiot unable to cast spells, understand language, communicate coherently, or fight effectively. The victim does dimly remember who its friends are and may follow their simple instructions. The subject remains in this state until dispel magic is used to cancel the effect. A target creature that can cast arcane spells suffers a penalty of -4 on its saving throw against this spell.

Feign Death

Range: touch
Divine 3
Duration: 6 rounds plus 1 round per level

The caster of this spell causes a state of death-like paralytic arrest in himself or another willing creature. This physical state completely mimics death to any observer, even if the creature is physically examined. To affect another creature, physical contact must be made and the target must have equal or fewer levels or HD to the caster. No saving throw is permitted. Any being under the effect of this spell is conscious and can hear and smell, but cannot move and is completely numb. Thus, if the body is damaged or otherwise molested, there will be no discomfort to the spell recipient and no physical reaction. Damage inflicted to a creature in this state is reduced by 50%, and poison, paralysis, or energy drain attacks are ineffective. However, any poison that retains its effective duration after the spell ends will affect the creature once the spell ends or is negated. The caster may negate the spell before the duration ends, but 1 round must pass for the body to resume normal life functions.

Fellowship

Range: self
Divine 1
Duration: 1 turn per level

This spell causes the divine spellcaster to increase the feelings of camaraderie in those he interacts with. All creatures that socially interact with the spellcaster must make a saving throw versus Spells. All those failing the saving throw are very impressed by the caster and greatly desire to be his friend and assist him in any way they can, treating him as if his Charisma was 2d4 points higher than actual. Those who do not fail the saving throw are uneasy in the caster's presence and tend to find him irritating; they treat him as if his Charisma was 1d4 points lower. This spell has no effect on creatures of animal intelligence or lower.

Find Traps

Range: 30'
Divine 2
Duration: 3 turns

This spell permits the caster to detect a variety of traps, both mechanical and magical. When the caster moves within 30' of a trap, he will see it glow with a faint blue aura. The caster is not, however, able to detect certain natural hazards such as quicksand, a sinkhole, or unsafe walls of natural rock. The spell also does not bestow the caster with the knowledge needed to disarm the trap, nor any details about its type or nature.

Fireball

Range: 240'
Arcane 3
Duration: instantaneous

This spell creates an explosion of flame that detonates with a low roar and deals 1d6 points of fire damage per caster level to every creature within a spherical volume having a 20' diameter. A saving throw versus Blast for half damage is allowed. The explosion creates almost no pressure.

The caster points a finger and determines the range (distance and height) at which the fireball is to burst. A glowing, pea-sized bead streaks from the pointing digit and, unless it impacts upon a material body or solid barrier prior to attaining the prescribed range, blossoms into the fireball at that point. An early impact results in an early detonation. If the caster attempts to send the bead through a narrow passage, such as through an arrow slit, he or she must roll a missile attack throw (without range adjustments) to hit the opening, or else the bead strikes the barrier and detonates prematurely.

The fireball sets fire to combustibles and damages objects in the area. It can melt metals with low melting points, such as lead, gold, copper, silver, and bronze. If the damage caused to an interposing barrier shatters or breaks through it, the fireball may continue beyond the barrier in order to attain its full volume.

Flame Strike

Range: 60'
Divine 5
Duration: instantaneous

A flame strike produces a vertical column of divine fire 30' high and 10' in diameter that roars downward on a target. The spell deals 6d8 points of damage. A successful saving throw versus Spells reduces the damage to 3d8.

Flesh to Stone*

Range: 120'
Arcane 6
Duration: permanent

This spell causes the target creature, along with all its carried gear, to turn into a mindless, inert statue. A saving throw versus Petrification is allowed to resist the spell. If the statue resulting from this spell is broken or damaged, the target creature (if ever returned to its original state) suffers equivalent damage or deformities. Only creatures made of flesh can be targeted by this spell. A dispel magic does not undo flesh to stone.

The reverse spell, stone to flesh, acts as a counterspell for flesh to stone, restoring the creature just as it was when it was petrified. If applied to stone that is not the result of flesh to stone or similar petrification effects (such as a medusa's gaze), it will merely transform a man-sized volume of stone into a gooey pile of organic matter.

Floating Disc

Range: 10'
Arcane 1
Duration: 6 turns

This spell creates an invisible, slightly concave circular plane of force for carrying loads. It is about the size of a shield, being 3' in diameter and 1" deep at its center. It can hold a maximum of 50 stone (500lb) of weight. (Note that water weighs about 1 stone or 8lb per gallon.) The disc must be loaded so that the items placed upon it are properly supported, or they will (of course) fall off. For example, the disc can support just over 62 gallons of water, but the water must be in a barrel or other reasonable container that can be placed upon the disc. Similarly, a pile of loose coins will tend to slip and slide about, and some will fall off with every step the caster takes; but a large sack full of coins, properly tied, will remain stable.

The disc floats level to the ground, at about the height of the caster's waist. It remains still when within 10' of the caster, and follows at the caster's movement rate if he moves away from it. The floating disc can be pushed as needed to position it but will be dispelled if somehow moved more than 10' from the caster. When the spell duration expires, the disc disappears from existence and drops whatever was supported to the surface beneath.

Fly

Range: touch
Arcane 3
Duration: 1 turn per level

The subject of this spell can fly in any direction at a speed of up to 120' per round (360' per turn). Flying under the effect of this spell requires only as much concentration as walking, so the subject can attack or cast spells normally. The subject of a fly spell cannot carry aloft more weight than his maximum load. If a fly spell is dispelled, the subject will plummet from the air.

Geas*

Range: 30'
Arcane 6
Duration: special

This spell places a magical command on a creature to carry out some service or to refrain from some action or course of activity, as desired by the caster. The target creature must be able to understand the caster for this spell to take effect. While a geas cannot compel a creature to kill itself or perform acts that would result in certain death, it can cause almost any other course of activity.

A saving throw versus Spells will allow an unwilling target to resist a geas when it is first cast. However, the target may choose to accept the geas, typically as part of a bargain with the caster to perform some service.

The geased creature must follow the given instructions until the geas is completed, no matter how long it takes. A character who ignores a geas will suffer cumulative penalties (decided by the Judge) until the character obeys the geas or dies. Suitable penalties include penalties in combat, lowered ability scores, loss of spells, and pain and weakness ending in death. The penalties are removed 24 hours after the subject resumes obeying the geas.

If the instructions involve some open-ended task that the recipient cannot complete through his or her own actions, the spell remains in effect for a maximum of one day per caster level. A clever recipient can subvert some instructions.

A geas (and all effects thereof) can be ended by a remove curse spell, or by a wish, or by the reverse of this spell, remove geas. There is a 5% chance of failure for every level the caster is lower than the creature who cast the geas. Dispel magic does not affect a geas.

Glyph of Warding

Range: touch
Divine 3
Duration: special

This powerful inscription harms those who enter, pass, or open the warded area or object. A glyph of warding can guard a bridge or passage, ward a portal, trap a chest or box, and so on. The area of effect is up to 5' squared per caster level, and a maximum of 10' squared can be inscribed per round. A password is set when casting the spell, and any creature entering or touching the warded area or opening the warded object without speaking a password is subject to the magic it stores.

When casting the spell, the cleric weaves a tracery of faintly glowing lines around the warding sigil. A glyph can be placed to conform to any shape up to the limitations of the total square footage. When the spell is completed, the glyph and tracery become nearly invisible.

Depending on the version selected, a glyph either blasts the intruder or activates a spell.

Blast Glyph: A blast glyph deals 2 points of damage per caster level to intruders. This damage is fire or electricity, chosen by the caster at the time of casting. Each creature affected can attempt a saving throw versus Spell to take half damage.

Spell Glyph: The caster can store a harmful spell to be triggered. Spells may include those that cause blindness, paralysis, and energy drain, or similar effects. The cleric must be of a high enough level to cast these spells. A saving throw of the appropriate category (based on the spell) is allowed to avoid the effects of this kind of glyph.

Growth of Animals

Range: 120'
Divine 3
Duration: 12 turns

This spell causes an animal to grow to twice its normal size and eight times its normal weight. The affected creature will deal double normal damage with all physical attacks, and its existing natural Armor Class will increase by 2. The animal's carrying capacity is also doubled. Unfriendly animals may save versus Spells to resist this spell; normally, domesticated animals will not attempt to resist it, though they may become confused or panicked afterward (at the Judge's discretion).

All equipment worn or carried by an animal is similarly enlarged by the spell, though this change has no effect on the magical properties of any such equipment. Any enlarged item that leaves the enlarged creature's possession instantly returns to its normal size.

The spell gives no means of command or influence over the enlarged animals.

Growth of Plants*

Range: 120'
Arcane 4
Duration: permanent

This spell causes normal vegetation (grasses, briars, bushes, creepers, thistles, trees, vines, etc.) within range to become thick and overgrown. The dimensions of the growth are determined by the caster, but cannot exceed 3,000 square feet (a 30' x 100' area or equivalent). The plants entwine to form a thicket or jungle that is impassable to creatures of less than giant size. Such creatures may hack their way through the thicket at no more than 5' per round. Giant sized creatures are reduced to half normal movement rate. The area must have brush and/or trees in it for this spell to take effect.

The reverse form, shrink plants, may be used to render overgrown areas passable. The area of effect is identical to the normal version.

Growth of plants and its reverse are permanent until countered, either by the opposite form or by dispel magic. This spell has no effect on animated plant creatures of any sort.

Hallucinatory Terrain

Range: 240'
Arcane 4
Duration: special

This spell makes an area of outdoor terrain appear as a different type (e.g. field into forest, grassland into desert, or the like). The entire terrain feature must be within range of the spell. This spell requires a full turn to cast.

The affected terrain looks, sounds, and smells like another sort of natural terrain. A save versus Spells is allowed to see through the illusion, but only if the creatures or characters affected actively attempt to do so. The spell lasts until the illusion is touched by an intelligent creature moving into the hallucinatory terrain.

Haste*

Range: 240'
Arcane 3
Duration: 3 turns

This spell accelerates the actions of 1 creature per caster level within range of the spell. The hasted creatures move and act twice as quickly as normal, having double their normal movement rates and making twice the normal attacks per round, for the duration of the spell. Spellcasting is not accelerated, nor is the use of magic items such as wands, which may still be used just once per round. Multiple haste or speed effects don't combine; only apply the most powerful or longest lasting effect.

Reversed, haste becomes slow; affected creatures move at half speed, attacking half as often (generally, every other round) and making half a normal move each round. Target creatures may save versus Spells to avoid the effect. Haste and slow dispel each other.

Each time a creature is subject to a haste spell, it ages from the effect. Humans age by 1 year, dwarves by 2 years, and elves by 5 years with each casting. The aging is permanent unless reversed through various means e.g., a wish spell or potion of longevity.

Hold Monster

Range: 180'
Arcane 5
Duration: 2d8 turns

This spell functions like hold person, except that it affects any living creature that fails its save versus Paralysis.

Hold Person

Range: 180'
Divine 2
Arcane 3
Duration: 9 turns

This spell will render any living, non-undead humanoid creature paralyzed. Humanoid creatures include bugbears, dryads, dwarves, elves, gnolls, gnomes, goblins, hobgoblins, kobolds, lizardmen, men, mermen, morlocks, neanderthal, naiads, ogres, pixies, sprites, and troglodytes, and other creatures no larger than an ogre and possessing 4 or fewer Hit Dice. Humans and demi-humans may be affected regardless of character level. Targets of the spell are aware, and breathe normally, but cannot take any actions, including speech. A successful save versus Paralysis will negate the effect. The spell may be cast at a single person, who makes his or her save at -2, or at a group, in which case 1d4 of the creatures in the group may be affected.

A winged creature which is paralyzed cannot flap its wings and falls (if in flight at the time). A paralyzed swimmer can't swim and may drown.

Hold Portal

Range: 10'
Arcane 1
Duration: 2d6 turns

This spell magically holds shut a door, gate, window, or shutter of wood, metal, or stone. The magic affects the portal just as if it were securely closed and normally locked, though a thief may not attempt to Pick Locks upon it. A knock spell or a successful dispel magic spell can negate a hold portal spell.

Holy Chant

Range: 0'
Divine 2
Duration: special

This spell is intoned continuously, bringing about supernatural intervention centered on the divine spellcaster and affecting any party members within a 30' radius of the caster. All attack throws, damage rolls, and saving throws are made with a +1 bonus. Likewise, all of the rolls attempted by enemies suffer a -1 penalty. This effect continues so long as the caster does not move and focuses only on chanting. However, if he is successfully attacked and dealt damage, or otherwise physically distracted, the spell ends. The spell silence 15' radius also negates the spell.

Infravision

Range: touch
Arcane 3
Duration: 1 day

The subject is able to see in the dark to a distance of 60' for the duration of the spell.

Insect Plague

Range: 480'
Divine 5
Duration: 1 day

This spell summons a vast cloud of swarming insects (usually locusts) consisting of 4 insect swarms (as described in the Monsters chapter). Each swarm is 30' x 30' in size and possesses 4 Hit Dice. The swarms must be summoned so that each one is adjacent to at least one other swarm (that is, the swarms must fill one contiguous area). The caster may summon the swarms so that they share the area of other creatures. Each swarm attacks any creatures occupying its area, and the whole plague will obscure vision and automatically drive off creatures of less than 3 Hit Dice. The caster must concentrate for the duration of the spell to maintain control over the insect plague. The caster loses control of it if he is successfully attacked or if the insect plague leaves the range of the caster. While the caster has control over the insect plague, he can move its constituent swarms 20' per round. The swarms are stationary once the caster loses control of the insect plague.

Invisibility

Range: touch
Arcane 2
Duration: special

The creature or object touched becomes invisible, vanishing from sight, including Infravision. If the recipient is a creature carrying gear, that vanishes as well. If the spell is cast on someone else, neither the caster nor his allies can see the subject, unless they can normally see invisible things or employ magic to do so.

Items dropped or put down by an invisible creature become visible; items picked up disappear if tucked into the clothing or pouches worn by the creature. Light, however, never becomes invisible, although a source of light can become so (thus, the effect is that of a light with no visible source). Any part of an item that the subject carries but that extends more than 10' from it becomes visible. Of course, the subject is not magically silenced, and certain other conditions can render the recipient detectable (such as stepping in a puddle).

The spell ends if the subject attacks any creature or casts any spell. Actions (other than spellcasting) directed at unattended objects do not break the spell. Causing harm indirectly is not an attack. The spell lasts at most 24 hours.

Invisibility 10' Radius

Range: touch
Arcane 3
Duration: special

This spell functions like invisibility, except that this spell confers invisibility upon all creatures within 10' of the recipient. The center of the effect is mobile with the recipient.

Those affected by this spell can see each other and themselves as if unaffected by the spell. Any affected creature moving out of the area becomes visible, but creatures moving into the area after the spell is cast do not become invisible. Affected creatures (other than the recipient) who attack negate the invisibility only for themselves. If the spell recipient attacks, the invisibility sphere ends for all affected creatures.

Invisible Stalker

Range: 10'
Arcane 6
Duration: special

The caster summons an invisible stalker to do his bidding (see the Monsters chapter for details), which appears anywhere within range. The spell persists until dispel evil is cast on the creature, it is slain, or the task is fulfilled. The Judge is advised to review the monster entry for the invisible stalker when this spell is used, as they may not always be reliable servants.

Knock

Range: 60'
Arcane 2
Duration: special

The knock spell opens stuck, barred, locked, held, or wizard locked doors. It opens known secret doors, as well as locked or trick-opening boxes or chests. It also loosens welds, shackles, or chains, provided they serve to hold shut something which can be opened. If used to open a wizard locked door, the spell does not remove the wizard lock but simply suspends its functioning for one turn. In all other cases, the door does not relock itself or become stuck again on its own. Knock will not raise a portcullis or operate any other similar mechanism, nor will it affect ropes, vines, and the like. Each spell can undo a single means of preventing access.

Levitate

Range: touch
Arcane 2
Duration: 6 turns plus 1 turn per level

Levitate allows the caster to move himself, another creature, or an object up and down as desired. A creature must be willing to be levitated, and an object must be unattended or possessed by a willing creature. The caster can mentally direct the subject to move up or down as much as 20' each round, by concentration. The caster cannot move the subject horizontally, but the subject could clamber along the face of a cliff, for example, or push against a ceiling to move laterally (generally at half its normal land speed). A creature can carry its normal amount of weight when levitating (possibly including another creature).

A levitating creature that attacks with a weapon finds itself increasingly unstable; the first attack throw has a -1 attack penalty, the second -2, and so on, to a maximum penalty of -5. A full round spent stabilizing allows the creature to begin again at -1.

Light*

Range: 120'
Divine 1
Arcane 1
Duration: 6 turns plus 1 turn per level

This spell creates a light equal to torchlight which illuminates a 30' radius area (and provides dim light for an additional 20') around the target location or object. The effect is immobile if cast into an area, but it can be cast on a movable object. Light taken into an area of magical darkness does not function.

Reversed, light becomes darkness, creating an area of darkness just as described above. This darkness blocks out infravision and negates mundane light sources.

A light spell may be cast to counter and dispel the darkness spell of an equal or lower level caster (and vice versa). Doing so causes both spells to instantly cease, restoring the existing ambient light level.

Either version of this spell may be used to blind an opponent by means of casting it on the target's ocular organs. The target is allowed a saving throw versus Spells to avoid the effect, and if the save is made, the spell does not take effect at all. A light or darkness spell cast to blind does not have the given area of effect (that is, no light or darkness is shed around the victim).

Lightning Bolt

Range: 180'
Arcane 3
Duration: instantaneous

The caster releases a powerful stroke of electrical energy that is 60' long. The lightning bolt passes through an area 5' wide, arcing and jumping, so that, while it is not actually 5' wide, for game purposes treat it as if it is so. It deals 1d6 points of electricity damage per caster level to each creature within its area. Any creature caught in the area of effect receives a saving throw versus Blast. A successful save reduces damage by half.

The lightning bolt sets fire to combustibles and damages objects in its path. It can melt metals with a low melting point, such as lead, gold, copper, silver, or bronze. If the damage caused to an interposing barrier shatters or breaks through it, the bolt may continue beyond the barrier if the spell's range permits; otherwise, it may reflect from the barrier back toward the caster, or in a random direction at the Judge's option. Creatures already affected by the lightning bolt do not take additional damage if struck by the reflection of the same bolt.

Locate Object

Range: 120'
Divine 3
Arcane 2
Duration: 6 turns

This spell allows the caster to sense the direction of a well-known or clearly visualized object. He can search for general items, in which case the nearest one of its kind is located if more than one is within range. The caster cannot specify a unique item unless he or she has observed that particular item firsthand (not through divination). The spell is blocked by even a thin sheet of lead or gold. Creatures cannot be found by this spell.

Lower Water

Range: 240'
Arcane 6
Duration: 10 turns

This spell causes water or similar liquid to reduce its depth by as much as 2' per caster level (to a minimum depth of 1 inch). The water is lowered within a more or less square-shaped depression whose sides are up to 10' long per caster level. In extremely large and deep bodies of water, such as a deep ocean, the spell creates a whirlpool that sweeps ships and similar craft downward, putting them at risk and rendering them unable to leave by normal movement for the duration of the spell. When cast on water elementals and other water-based creatures, this spell acts as a slow spell (the reverse of haste); a save versus Spells is allowed, with success negating the effect. The spell has no effect on other creatures.

Magic Jar

Range: 30'
Arcane 5
Duration: special

By casting magic jar, the caster places his soul into an inanimate object within spell range (known as the magic jar), leaving the body lifeless. The caster may then attempt to take control of a nearby living creature within 120' of the magic jar, forcing its soul into the magic jar. The caster may move back to the jar (thereby returning the trapped soul to its body) and attempt to possess another body. The spell ends when the caster's soul returns to his own body, leaving the receptacle empty.

To cast the spell, the magic jar must be within spell range and the caster must know where it is, though he does not need to be able to see it. When the caster transfers his soul upon casting, the caster's body is, as near as anyone can tell, dead, but does not undergo decay as a normal dead body would.

Possession of a creature by means of this spell is blocked by protection from evil or a similar ward. The creature is allowed a save versus Death to resist. If the save is successful, the caster's life force remains in the magic jar, and that target creature is immune to further attempts for one game turn.

If the creature fails its saving throw, its body is possessed by the caster's life force, and the creature's life force is imprisoned in the magic jar. The caster keeps his or her Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma, level, class, attack bonus, saving throws, and mental abilities (including spellcasting ability). The body retains its Strength, Dexterity, Constitution, hit points, and natural abilities. A body with extra limbs does not allow the caster to make more attacks than normal. The caster does not have access to any special abilities of the body.

If the caster's spirit is in the magic jar, and the jar is broken (whether by dispel magic or physical damage) then there are two possible outcomes. If the jar is within 120' of the caster's body, then the caster's spirit returns to its body. Otherwise, the caster's spirit departs, and the caster dies. In either case, the spell ends.

If the caster's spirit is driven from the host body by dispel evil there are also two possibilities. If the magic jar is within 120' of the host body, then the caster's spirit returns to the jar, and the host's spirit returns to its body. The caster will not be able to possess the same host again for one full turn. If the magic jar is not in range of the host body, then the host's spirit is freed from the jar, both the caster's and the host's spirits depart, and the host's body dies. In either case, the spell ends.

If the host's spirit is in the magic jar, and the jar is broken then one of the following may happen. If the jar is in range of the host's body, then the caster's spirit departs, the host's spirit returns to its body, and the spell ends. Otherwise, the host's spirit departs, and the caster's spirit is stranded in the host body. Note here that the spell has not ended. Dispel evil can still be used to drive the caster's spirit from the body, which departs as noted, ending the spell.

In any case where the spell ends with the caster's body unoccupied by a spirit, that body does truly die.

Magic Missile

Range: 150'
Arcane 1
Duration: instantaneous

This spell causes a missile of magical energy to dart forth from the caster's fingertip and strike its target, dealing 1d6+1 points of damage. The missile strikes unerringly, even if the target is in melee combat, so long as the target has less than total cover or total concealment. Specific parts of a creature can't be singled out. Inanimate objects are not damaged by the spell.

For every five caster levels beyond 1st, an additional two missiles are fired - three missiles at 6th and the maximum of five missiles at 13th level. If the caster fires multiple missiles, he can target a single creature or several creatures. A single missile can strike only one creature. Targets must be designated before damage is rolled.

Magic Mouth

Range: 30'
Arcane 1
Duration: special

This spell imbues the chosen non-living object with an enchanted mouth that suddenly appears and speaks its message the next time a specified event occurs. The message, which may be up to three words per caster level long, can be in any language known by the caster and can be delivered over a period of 10 minutes, at any volume from a whisper to a yell. The voice will resemble the caster's, but will not be identical. The mouth cannot use command words or activate magical effects. It does, however, move according to the words articulated; if it were placed upon a statue, the mouth of the statue would move and appear to speak. Magic mouth can be placed upon a tree, rock, or any other object.

The spell functions when specific conditions are fulfilled according to the caster's command as set in the spell. Commands can be as general or as detailed as desired, although only visual and audible triggers can be used. Triggers react to what appears to be the case. Disguises and illusions can fool them. Normal darkness does not defeat a visual trigger, but magical darkness or invisibility does. Silent movement or magical silence defeats audible triggers. Audible triggers can be keyed to general types of noises or to a specific noise or spoken word. Actions can serve as triggers if they are visible or audible. A magic mouth cannot distinguish level, Hit Dice, or class except by external garb.

The range limit of a trigger is 10' per caster level, so a 6th level caster can command a magic mouth to respond to triggers as far as 60' away. Regardless of range, the mouth can respond only to visible or audible triggers and actions in line of sight or within hearing distance.

Massmorph

Range: 240'
Arcane 4
Duration: special

With this spell the caster causes up to 100 man-sized creatures to appear as if they are natural effects of the terrain (e.g., trees in a forest, stalagmites in a cave, coral underwater, boulders in a cavern, etc.). All creatures to be affected must be within a 120' radius of the caster at the time the spell is cast. Only those creatures the caster wishes to hide are affected, and then only if they are willing to be concealed. The caster may include himself among the affected creatures.

Those affected are thus concealed from other creatures passing through the area for so long as they remain still. If an affected creature chooses to move or attack, the illusion is dispelled for that creature, but those who remain still continue to be hidden. The caster may end the spell early if he wishes by speaking a single word. The illusion can also be ended by dispel magic.

Mirror Image

Range: self
Arcane 2
Duration: 6 turns

This spell creates several illusory duplicates of the caster. The images move through each other as well as the real caster more or less constantly, making it impossible for most creatures to determine which is real. A total of 1d4 images are created. These figments separate from the caster and remain in a cluster around him. The figments mimic the caster's actions, pretending to cast spells, drink potions, levitate, and so on, just as the caster does. Figments always look exactly like the caster.

Enemies attempting to attack or cast spells upon the caster will always hit a figment instead. Any attack against an image destroys it, whether the attack throw is successful or not; likewise, attack spells cast directly upon a figment will destroy it, with no saving throw allowed. Area-effect spells are not cast directly on the caster, and thus appear to affect all figments exactly as they affect the caster; for instance, if the caster is subjected to a fireball, all figments will appear to be injured just as the caster was.

Move Earth

Range: 240'
Arcane 6
Duration: 6 turns

With this spell, the caster can move large volumes of soil, even to the point of altering the surface features of areas within range. Earth in the area can be moved at 60' per turn, according to the spellcaster's desires. The spell's range will extend downwards through the earth until it reaches the limit (240') or solid rock. Move earth cannot affect stone, only soil.

Neutralize Poison*

Range: touch
Divine 4
Duration: instantaneous

This spell detoxifies any sort of venom in the creature or object touched. A poisoned creature suffers no additional effects from the poison; if cast upon a creature slain by poison in the last 10 rounds, the creature is revived with 1 hit point. If cast upon a poisonous object (such as a weapon, trap, etc.) the poison is rendered permanently ineffective.

Reversed, this spell becomes poison. The caster must make a successful attack throw; if the attack is a success, the target must save versus Poison or die. The caster's touch remains poisonous for 1 round per level of ability, or until discharged (i.e. only one creature can be affected by the reversed spell).

Passwall

Range: 30'
Arcane 5
Duration: 3 turns

This spell creates a passage through wooden, plaster, or stone walls, but not through metal or other harder materials. The passage is up to 10' deep. If the wall's thickness is more than the depth of the passage created, then a single passwall simply makes a niche or short tunnel. Several passwall spells can then form a continuing passage to breach very thick walls. When passwall ends (due to duration, dispel magic, or caster's choice), the hole closes; creatures within the passage are ejected out the nearest exit.

Phantasmal Force

Range: 240'
Arcane 2
Duration: concentration

This spell creates the visual illusion of an object, creature, or force, as visualized by the caster, up to a maximum size of 20'x20'x20'. The illusion does not create sound, smell, texture, or temperature. The caster can move the image within the limits of the size of the effect. The image persists so long as the caster concentrates upon it.

If used to create the illusion of one or more creatures, they will have an Armor Class of 0 and will disappear if hit in combat. If used to simulate an attack spell or an attacking creature, the illusory damage done will be equivalent to the normal damage for any attack form simulated. A successful save versus Spells, however, will allow victims to avoid all damage. Illusory damage is not real. Those "killed" or injured will realize they are unharmed (at least from this spell) after 1d3 rounds.

Polymorph Other

Range: 60'
Arcane 4
Duration: permanent

This spell allows the caster to change one target into another form of living creature. The assumed form can't have more Hit Dice than caster's level, and must have fewer than twice the Hit Dice of the old form. Incorporeal or gaseous forms cannot result from a polymorph other. Unlike polymorph self, the transformed target also gains the alignment, behavioral and mental traits, any physical attacks, and special, supernatural or spell-like abilities of the new form, in addition to the physical capabilities and statistics of such. If the new form is substantially less intelligent, the target may not remember its former life. The spell cannot create a duplicate of a specific individual.

The target creature will have the same number of hit points it previously had, regardless of the Hit Dice of the form assumed. Incorporeal or gaseous creatures are immune to this spell, as noted above. A creature with shape changing abilities such as a doppleganger can revert to its natural form in one round.

Unwilling targets that successfully make a saving throw versus Spells are not affected. The spell is permanent until dispelled by dispel magic or the creature is slain, at which time the target's corpse reverts to its original form.

Polymorph Self

Range: self
Arcane 4
Duration: 6 turns plus 1 turn per level

This spell allows the caster to change into another form of living creature. The assumed form can't have more Hit Dice than the caster's level. The caster can't assume an incorporeal or gaseous form. If slain, the caster reverts to his original form.

The caster gains the physical capabilities and statistics of the new form but retains his own mental abilities. He also gains all physical attacks possessed by the form but does not gain any special, supernatural or spell-like abilities. Dragon breath is a special ability, for instance, so were the caster to assume the form of a dragon he could use the dragon's normal claw, bite, and tail swipe attacks, but not the dragon's breath.

The caster can remain transformed for the full duration of the spell, or may choose to end the spell whenever he desires.

Prayer

Range: 60'
Divine 3
Duration: 1 round per level

By means of a prayer spell, the divine spellcaster brings great favor upon himself and his party, and causes harm to his enemies. Once the prayer spell is cast, all attack throws, damage rolls, and saving throws made by those in range who are friendly to the caster are at +1, while those of the cleric's enemies are at -1. The prayer spell does not require the caster to concentrate once cast.

Projected Image

Range: 240'
Arcane 6
Duration: 6 turns

This spell creates a quasi-real, illusory version of the caster. The intangible projected image looks, sounds, and smells like the caster, in addition to mimicking gestures and actions, including speech. Any further spells cast seem to originate from the illusion, not the actual caster. A line of sight between the caster and his illusory self must be maintained or the spell ends. Dimension door, teleport, or any similar spell that breaks the line of sight dispels the image, as does the illusionary caster being struck in combat. Note that this spell grants no special sensory powers to the caster; for example, if the illusory self is positioned so as to be able to see something the caster can't directly see, the caster does not see it. Also, all spell ranges are still figured from the caster's actual position, not the illusory self's position.

Protection from Evil*

Range: self
Divine 1
Arcane 1
Duration: concentration

This spell creates a magical barrier of protection around the caster with a 10' radius. The barrier surrounds the caster for the duration of the spell and provides some protection from attacks by "evil" creatures. For purposes of this spell, evil creatures include hostile creatures of an alignment other than the caster's alignment, and inherently evil creatures such as undead and summoned creatures of Chaotic alignment. All within the radius gain a +1 bonus to AC and a +1 bonus on saving throws against attacks made or effects created by evil creatures. Those who leave and then re-enter, or who enter after the spell is cast, receive the protection as well.

In addition, the spell prevents bodily contact by enchanted (constructed, summoned, or undead) creatures, regardless of whether they are "evil" or not. This causes the natural weapon attacks of such creatures to fail and the creatures to recoil if such attacks require touching the warded creature. The spell's protection against contact by enchanted creatures ends if the caster or any protected creature makes an attack against, casts a spell on, or tries to force the barrier against a blocked creature.

The protection lasts as long as the caster remains stationary and concentrates on it.

Reversed, this spell becomes protection from good. Like its counterpart, protection from good protects the caster from attacks by hostile creatures of an alignment other than the caster's and prevents bodily contact by enchanted creatures. However, instead of protecting the caster from inherently evil creatures (e.g. summoned creatures of Chaotic alignment), protection from good protects the caster from inherently good creatures (e.g. summoned creatures of Lawful alignment).

Protection from Evil, Sustained*

Range: 0'
Divine 4
Arcane 3
Duration: 12 turns

This spell functions exactly as protection from evil, but with a duration of 12 turns. The barrier will move with the caster, who does not need to concentrate to maintain its protection.

Reversed, this spell becomes protection from good, sustained, and functions exactly as the reversed form of protection from evil, except with a duration of 12 turns without the need for concentration.

Protection from Normal Missiles

Range: 30'
Arcane 3
Duration: 12 turns

The subject of this spell is completely protected from small sized, non-magical missile attacks. Therefore, magic arrows, hurled boulders, or other such are not blocked, but any number of normal arrows, sling bullets, crossbow bolts, thrown daggers, and the like will be fended off. Note that normal missiles projected by magic bows count as magical missiles for the purposes of this spell.

Purify Food and Water

Range: 10'
Divine 1
Duration: Instantaneous

This spell makes spoiled, rotten, poisonous, or otherwise contaminated food and water pure and suitable for eating and drinking. This spell will purify one ration of food, 6 skins of water, or enough normal food to feed a dozen people. This spell does not prevent subsequent natural decay or spoilage. Unholy water and similar food and drink of significance is spoiled by purify food and water, but the spell has no effect on creatures of any type, nor upon magic potions.

Quest*

Range: 30'
Divine 5
Duration: special

Quest places a magical command on a creature to carry out some service, or to refrain from some action or course of activity, as desired by the caster. The target creature must be able to understand the caster for this spell to take effect. While a quest cannot compel a creature to kill itself or perform acts that would result in certain death, it can cause almost any other course of activity.

A saving throw versus Spells will allow an unwilling target to resist a quest when it is first cast. However, the target may choose to accept the quest, typically as part of a bargain with the caster to perform some service.

The affected creature must follow the given instructions until the quest is completed, no matter how long it takes.

If the instructions involve some open-ended task that the recipient cannot complete through his own actions, the spell remains in effect for a maximum of one day per caster level. A clever recipient can subvert some instructions.

A character who ignores a quest will suffer cumulative penalties (decided by the Judge) until the character obeys the quest or dies. Suitable penalties include penalties in combat, lowered ability scores, loss of spells, and pain and weakness ending in death. The penalties are removed 24 hours after the subject resumes obeying the quest.

A quest (and all effects thereof) can be ended by a remove curse spell from a caster two or more levels higher than the caster of the quest, or by a wish, or by the reverse of this spell. Dispel magic does not affect a quest spell.

Restore Life and Limb*

Range: touch (120')
Divine 5
Duration: instantaneous

This spell restores life to a deceased creature (excluding creatures which are not truly alive, such as constructs, elementals, and undead). The caster can raise a creature that has been dead for no longer than two days at 7th level, and four days are added per level above 7. For example, a 9th level caster can bring a character back to life that has been dead for 10 days. However, this spell cannot bring back a creature that has died of old age, lost its head, or had its body cremated.

Because it repairs even lethal damage and regrows flesh and bone, this spell can also heal a character of any permanent wounds, such as lost limbs, disfiguring scars, or shattered spines (see the Mortal Wounds table in Chapter 6 for details on permanent wounds).Despite this spell's beneficial results, tampering with the body and soul is never without risk. Each time a character benefits from restore life and limb, he must roll on the Tampering with Mortality table in Chapter 6 and apply these results.

If restore life and limb is ever cast on an undead monster, the monster must save versus Death or be instantly destroyed.

The reverse of this spell, finger of death, creates a death ray that will kill any one creature unless a save versus Death is made. Lawful clerics may only use finger of death in life-or-death situations against Chaotic foes.

Read Languages

Range: self
Arcane 1
Duration: 2 turns

This spell grants the caster the ability to read almost any written language, including treasure maps, secret symbols, and other codes. For this spell to function, there must be at least one living creature that can naturally read the given language or code somewhere on the same plane. Truly unknown or dead languages or codes cannot be comprehended.

Reincarnate

Range: touch
Arcane 6
Duration: instantaneous

With this spell, the caster returns life to a character by means of creating another body. Since the character is returning in a new body, all physical ills and afflictions are repaired. The condition of the remains is not a factor. So long as some small portion of the body still exists, it can be reincarnated. The magic of the spell creates an entirely new young adult body. Roll on the Reincarnation table to determine what sort of creature the character becomes. A reincarnated character recalls the majority of its former life and form. If the result on the table below indicates reincarnation as a human or demi-human, the character returns at the same class level with minimum experience. The character's Intelligence, Wisdom, and Charisma are set to the character's original scores, but Strength, Dexterity, and Constitution scores should be rerolled.

If the result on the table below indicates that the reincarnated character returns as a monster, roll on the column matching the original character's alignment. Additional monsters may be used to extend the table, but no monster having more than 6 HD should be included, and each monster should be minimally semi-intelligent. The reincarnated monster gains all abilities associated with its new form, including forms of movement and speeds, natural armor, natural attacks, extraordinary abilities, and the like, but it doesn't automatically speak the language of the new form. If the monster's Hit Dice are below the character's former class level, its Hit Dice are increased to the character's former class level. A character brought back as a monster may increase in HD through adventuring. It requires 3,000 XP plus 500XP per special ability (*) for a 1 HD monster to advance to 2 HD. The amount of XP required doubles with each HD (round values greater than 20,000XP to the nearest 1,000). See Transformations in Chapter 10 for more information about playing monsters as characters.

Example: Creven, a 5th level chaotic explorer, is reincarnated as a Wererat. Wererats are normally 3 HD monsters, but because Creven was 5th level, he reincarnates as a 5 HD Wererat. Wererats have one special ability (or *). It takes 3,500xp for a 1 HD monster with one special ability to advance to 2 HD; 7,000XP from 2 HD to 3 HD; 14,000XP from 3 HD to 4 HD; 28,000XP from 4 HD to 5 HD; 56,000XP from 5 HD to 6 HD; 112,000XP from 6 HD to 7 HD, and so on. Creven, at 5 HD, will need 56,000XP to increase to 6 HD in his new form.

Roll (1d10) Law (1d6) Neutral (1d6) Chaos (1d10)
1 Human (pick Class) 1 Gnome 1 Pixie/Sprite 1 Kobold
2 Human (pick Class) 2 Neanderthal 2 Rock Baboon 2 Goblin
3 Human (pick Class) 3 Blink Dog 3 Ape 3 Orc
4 Human (pick Class) 4 Pegasus 4 Centaur 4 Hobgoblin
5 Human (pick Class) 5 Unicorn 5 Griffon 5 Gnoll
6 Elf (pick Class) 6 Roc, Small 6 Werebear 6 Bugbear
7 Dwarf (pick Class) - - 7 Wererat
8 Original Race (pick Class) - - 8 Ogre
9 Original Race (pick Class) - - 9 Werewolf
10 Monster - - 10 Minotaur

Remove Curse*

Range: 30'
Divine 3
Arcane 4
Duration: instantaneous

Remove curse instantaneously removes all curses on an object or a creature. If cast on a cursed item, remove curse does not remove the curse from the item, but it enables the creature afflicted with any such cursed item to remove and get rid of it. Any curse cast by a character of equal or lower level than remove curse caster's level is ended automatically. Those curses bestowed by higher level casters might not be removed; there is a 5% chance the remove curse will fail for each level the cursing character's level exceeds the level of the caster removing the curse. Certain special curses may not be countered by this spell at all, or may be countered only by a caster of a certain level or higher.

The reverse of this spell, bestow curse, allows the caster to place a curse on a target creature or object. A saving throw versus Spells is allowed to resist. The caster must choose one of the following four effects:

The caster may also invent his own curse, but it should be no more powerful than those described above. The curse thus bestowed cannot be dispelled, but it can be removed with a remove curse spell. There is no limit to the number of different curses a character may suffer from.

Remove Fear*

Range: touch (120')
Divine 1
Duration: instantaneous (2 turns)

This spell will calm the creature touched and remove all fear. If the subject is currently running away due to magical fear, it is allowed a new saving throw to resist that fear, at a bonus of +1 per level of the caster.

The reverse of this spell, cause fear, causes one target creature within 120' to become frightened; if the target fails to save versus Death, it flees for 2 turns. Creatures with 6 or more Hit Dice are immune to this effect.

Resist Cold

Range: touch
Divine 1
Duration: 6 turns

This abjuration grants a creature temporary immunity to cold. Minor cold (such as exposure to winter weather in inadequate clothing) is ignored by the subject creature. Against more significant cold (such as the breath of a White Dragon), the subject creature gains a bonus of +2 on saving throws, and all damage from such attacks is reduced by -1 point per die of damage rolled. Any cold attacks will still inflict at least 1 point of damage per die rolled, however.

Resist Fire

Range: touch
Divine 2
Duration: 6 turns

This abjuration grants a creature temporary immunity to fire and heat. Minor heat or fire (such as exposure to normal flames) is ignored by the subject creature. Against more significant heat or fire (such as a fireball), the subject creature gains a bonus of +2 on saving throws, and all damage from such attacks is reduced by -1 point per die of damage rolled. Any fire attacks will still inflict at least 1 point of damage per die rolled, however.

Sanctuary

Range: touch
Divine 1
Duration: 2 rounds plus 1 round per level

Any opponent attempting to strike or otherwise directly attack the warded creature must attempt a saving throw versus Spells. If the save succeeds, the opponent can attack normally and is unaffected by that casting of the spell. If the save fails, the opponent will not attack the warded creature and will attack another creature instead. However, area effects (e.g. fireball) may still affect the warded creature. The warder creature may not make offensive actions while this spell is in effect, but he may cast non-offensive spells to help companions.

Shield

Range: self
Arcane 1
Duration: 3 turns

Shield creates an invisible, shield-like mobile disk of force that hovers in front of the caster. It negates magic missile attacks directed at the caster, and grants the caster an Armor Class of 7 against missile attacks and 5 against melee attacks. The Armor Class benefits do not apply to attacks originating from behind the caster, but magic missiles are warded off from all directions.

Shimmer

Range: self
Divine 2
Duration: 1 turn per level

This spell surrounds the bladedancer with a shimmering aura. The aura provides a bonus of +2 to all saving throws. Attack throws against the bladedancer are at -2.

Silence 15' Radius

Range: 180'
Divine 2
Duration: 12 turns

Upon the casting of this spell, complete silence prevails within a 15' radius around the target. All sound is stopped: Conversation is impossible, spells cannot be cast, and no noise whatsoever issues from, enters, or passes through the area. The spell can be cast on a point in space, making the effect stationary, or it may be cast on a mobile object. The spell can be centered on a creature, and the effect then radiates from the creature and moves as it moves. An unwilling creature receives a save versus Spells to negate the spell. If an item in another creature's possession is targeted, that creature also receives a save versus Spells to negate. This spell provides a defense against sonic or language-based attacks or spells.

Sleep

Range: 240'
Arcane 1
Duration: 4d4 turns

With a sleep spell, the caster may attempt to put creatures into a magical slumber. All creatures to be affected must be visible and within range of the spell. The caster may choose to target 1 specific creature of 4+1 HD or less, or a group of up to 2d8 HD of creatures of 4 HD or less. Calculate monsters with less than 1 HD as having 1 HD, and monsters with a bonus to HD as having the flat amount. For example, a 3+2 HD monster would be calculated as having 3 HD. Hit Die that are not sufficient to affect a creature are wasted. Creatures with the fewest HD are affected first. Creatures with more than 4+1 HD cannot be affected at all.

Sleeping creatures are helpless and can be killed in one round by unengaged opponents. Slapping or wounding awakens an affected creature, but normal noise does not. Sleep does not affect creatures that are already unconscious or undead, constructs, oozes, and other creatures that do not rest.

Smite Undead*

Range: 240' (touch)
Divine 4
Duration: special

This spell instantly destroys a number of Hit Dice of undead equal to the caster's level. All the undead must be within a 60' diameter sphere. Any excess levels of effectiveness are lost. Skeletons and zombies receive no saving throw against this spell; all other undead are allowed a saving throw versus Death to avoid the effect. Undead with 8 or more Hit Dice or levels are immune to the spell.

The reverse of this spell, animate dead, functions exactly like the 5th level arcane spell of the same name.

Snake Charm

Range: 60'
Divine 2
Duration: see below

The divine spellcaster is able to affect the behavior of snakes, making them indifferent to the caster and others. A caster is able to affect snakes of a number of Hit Die equaling the caster's level. A 7th level caster can affect 7 Hit Dice of snakes, which can equal seven 1 HD snakes, or two 3 HD snakes and one 1 HD snake, or any other combination. A snake that is attacked will defend itself against its attacker, but will continue to remain indifferent to others. Attacking one charmed snake does not break the charm on the others.

Hostile snakes are more difficult to charm, and if this spell is cast on snakes that are engaged in melee combat with the caster, the snakes will only be affected by the spell for 1d4+1 rounds. If the spell is cast on snakes that are not hostile at the moment, the spell will last 1d4+1 turns.

Speak with Animals

Range: special
Divine 2
Duration: 6 turns

The caster can comprehend and communicate with any one normal or giant animal that is in sight of the caster and able to hear him. It will not affect intelligent animal races or fantastic creatures. The caster may change which animal he is speaking with at will, once per round. The spell doesn't alter the animal's reaction or attitude towards the caster; a standard reaction roll should be made to determine this. Furthermore, more intelligent animals are likely to be terse and evasive, while less intelligent ones make inane comments. However, if an animal is friendly toward the caster, it may be willing to grant some favor or service.

Speak with Plants

Range: 30'
Divine 4
Duration: 3 turns

The caster can comprehend and communicate with both normal plants and plant creatures. A normal plant's sense of its surroundings is limited, so it won't be able to give (or recognize) detailed descriptions of creatures or answer questions about events outside its immediate vicinity. The spell doesn't alter the plant's reaction or attitude towards the caster; however, normal plants will generally communicate freely with the caster, as they have nothing else of importance to do. Intelligent plant creatures are more likely to be terse and evasive, behaving in much the same fashion as any other monster. If a plant creature is friendly toward the caster, it may decide to do some favor or service for him. Normal plants are usually not animate, and thus cannot generally perform "services" other than to answer questions.

Speak with Dead

Range: 10'
Divine 3
Duration: 1 turn

This spell grants the semblance of life and intellect to a corpse, allowing it to answer several questions that the caster puts to it. The caster may ask one question per two caster levels. Unasked questions are wasted if the duration expires. The corpse's knowledge is limited to what the creature knew during life, including the languages it spoke (if any). Answers are often brief, cryptic, or repetitive.

If the corpse has been subject to speak with dead within the past week, the new spell fails. The caster can cast this spell on a corpse that has been deceased for any amount of time, but the body must be mostly intact to be able to respond. A damaged corpse may be able to give partial answers or partially correct answers, but it must at least have a mouth in order to speak at all.

This spell does not let the caster actually speak to the creature's soul. It instead draws on the imprinted knowledge "stored" in the corpse. The partially animated body retains the imprint of the soul that once inhabited it, and thus it can speak with all the knowledge that the creature had while alive. The corpse, however, cannot learn new information. Indeed, it won't even remember being questioned.

This spell does not affect a corpse that has been turned into an undead creature.

Spiritual Weapon

Range: 30'
Divine 2
Duration: 1 round/level

This spell causes a weapon made of pure force to spring into existence, attacking any foe chosen by the divine spellcaster within range once per round. It deals 1d6 points of damage per strike, +1 point per three caster levels (maximum of +4). It uses the caster's normal attack throws, striking as a magical weapon, and thus can inflict damage upon creatures that are only hit by magic weapons. If the spiritual weapon goes beyond the spell range, the divine spellcaster loses sight of it, or the caster ceases to direct it, the weapon disappears. The weapon cannot be attacked or harmed by physical attacks, but dispel magic, disintegrate, or a rod of cancellation will dispel it. The spiritual weapon will be of a type appropriate to the cleric and his deity.

Sticks to Snakes

Range: 120'
Divine 4
Duration: 6 turns

This spell transforms 2d8 normal wooden sticks into normal snakes per every four caster levels. (See the Monsters chapter for details on types of snakes.) There is a 50% chance the snakes will be poisonous. The snakes follow the commands of the caster. When slain, dispelled, or the spell expires, the snakes return to their original stick form. Magical "sticks" such as enchanted staffs cannot be affected.

Strength of Mind*

Range: touch
Divine 5
Duration: 12 turns

This spell gives a bonus of +4 to saving throws versus Death, Staffs, Wands, Paralysis, Petrification, and Spells to the creature touched. The reverse spell, weakness of mind, decreases the touched creature's saving throws by -4; no saving throw is allowed against Weakness of Mind.

Striking

Range: 30'
Divine 3
Duration: 3 turns

This spell bestows upon one weapon within range the ability to deal 1d6 points of additional damage. This extra damage is applied on each successful attack for the duration of the spell. It provides no bonus to attack throws, but if cast on a normal weapon, the spell allows monsters only hit by magical weapons to be affected; only the 1d6 points of magical damage applies to such a monster, however.

Sword of Fire

Range: 0'
Divine 5
Duration: 12 turns

On casting this spell, a sword of fire appears in the divine spellcaster's hand. The sword is magical and has bonuses to attack throws and damage rolls equal to the caster's level divided by 3 (round up). The sword will set alight inflammable substances, and can harm undead and incorporeal creatures. The divine spellcaster can cause the sword to appear and disappear at will, enabling him to cast spells and carry out other activities.

Telekinesis

Range: 120'
Arcane 5
Duration: 6 rounds

This spell permits the caster to move objects or creatures within range by concentration alone. A creature or object weighing no more than 2 stone (20lb) per caster level can be moved up to 20' per round. A creature can negate the effect on itself or an object it holds or has on its body with a successful save versus Spells. In order to use this power, the caster must maintain concentration, moving no more than half speed, making no attacks and casting no spells. If concentration is lost, whether intentional or not, the power may be used again on the next round, but the subject of the effect is allowed a new saving throw.

Teleport

Range: touch
Arcane 5
Duration: instantaneous

This spell instantly transports the creature touched to a designated destination, which may be any distance. When the spell works properly, the transported creature, carrying up to its full encumbrance load, will arrive at "ground" level in a suitable open place. If transporting an unwilling target, it is entitled to resist with a saving throw versus Spells. The chance of the teleportation working correctly will depend on how familiar the caster is with the location and layout of the destination. The clearer the mental image, the more likely the teleportation works. To determine how well the teleportation works, roll d% and consult the table below.

A "very familiar" place is one the caster has been very often, such as his home or laboratory. Places that are "studied carefully" include those known well, either because the caster can currently see it, he has been there often, or has used other means (such as scrying) to study the place for at least one hour. Places that are "seen casually" are those that the caster has seen more than once but with which he is not very familiar. Places that are "'viewed once" include any that the caster has seen once.

Familiarity On Target Off Target Lost
Very familiar 01-95 96-99 00
Studied carefully 01-80 81-90 91-00
Seen casually 01-50 51-75 76-00
Viewed once 01-30 31-65 66-00

A creature arriving "On Target" appears in the desired location. A creature arriving "Off Target" appears 1d10x10 feet away from the target in a random direction. Should this location already be occupied by solid matter, the creature is instantly killed; if this location is above the ground, the creature will take falling damage as it plummets to earth. A creature arriving "Lost" simply does not reappear at all. Whether such creatures are disintegrated, trapped forever in some unknown plane of existence, or transported to some distant time and place is a matter of debate among the wise. Note that the caster cannot intentionally teleport himself or another creature into thin air, off target, or into solid matter.

Tongues*

Range: 60'
Divine 4
Duration: 1 turn

This spell grants the divine spellcaster the ability to speak and understand the language of any intelligent creature within a 60' radius around the caster.

The reverse, garble, can be cast on any intelligent creature within 60' of the caster. No saving throw is permitted. If the target is the beneficiary of a tongues spell, garble will negate the tongues spell; otherwise, garble will render the target unable to speak and understand the languages of other intelligent creatures. While unable to communicate with others, the target may still think clearly and understand his own words, so garble does not prevent the target from casting spells. Indeed, the target may not immediately realize he is under the effects of a garble - he may think something is wrong with the creatures around him who can't understand what he's saying.

Transmute Rock to Mud*

Range: 120'
Arcane 5
Duration: 3d6 days (permanent)

This spell changes a volume of natural, uncut, unworked rock into an equal volume of mud. The volume transformed can be up to up to 3,000 square feet across and up to 10' deep. Magical stone is not affected by the spell, nor are building, bridges, and other structures made of worked stone.

Transmute rock to mud is most commonly cast in preparation for a pitched battle to create fields of nearly impassable ground. Creatures entering the area of the mud become mired in the deep morass. Mired creatures are slowed to 1/10th their normal movement speed and suffer a -2 penalty to AC.

If the spell is cast underground on a cave's rock ceiling, the mud immediately falls to the floor and spreads out in a pool, forming a mire (as above). The falling mud deals 8d6 points of damage to creatures in the area, half damage if they make a saving throw versus Blast. At the Judge's discretion, transforming a large volume of ceiling rock in a cave can precipitate a wider cave-in as the area's structural integrity becomes compromised.

Mud created by this spell remains such until the duration expires or the reverse of this spell (transmute mud to rock) restores the rock to its original substance. The volume transformed by the reversed version is identical, but the duration of the transmutation is permanent. When mud becomes rock, the shape of the area may be different, as the mud may have moved or shifted.

True Seeing

Range: touch
Divine 5
Duration: 1 turn plus 1 round per level

This spell confers on the subject the ability to see all things as they actually are. The subject sees through normal and magical darkness, notices secret doors, sees the exact locations of displaced creatures or objects, sees through normal or magical disguises, sees invisible creatures or objects normally, sees through illusions, and sees the true form of polymorphed, changed, or transmuted things. The range of true seeing conferred is 120'.

True seeing, however, does not penetrate solid objects. It in no way confers X-ray vision or its equivalent. It does not negate concealment, including that caused by fog and the like. In addition, the spell's effects cannot be further enhanced with known magic, so one cannot use true seeing through a crystal ball or in conjunction with clairvoyance.

Ventriloquism

Range: 60'
Arcane 1
Duration: 2 turns

This spell allows the caster to cause his voice to sound from someplace else within range, such as from a dark alcove or statue.

Vigor

Range: touch
Divine 4
Duration: 1 turn per level

The subject of this spell receives a bonus of +2 to saving throws, an additional 1d10 hit points, and a 1d3 bonus to Strength. The extra hit points cannot be restored by healing and are the first lost whenever the character takes damage. Strength may be increased to a maximum of 19. A character with Strength 19 gains a +4 bonus to attack throws and damage rolls.

Wall of Fire

Range: 60'
Arcane 4
Duration: 2 turns

An immobile, opaque, blazing curtain of shimmering violet fire springs into existence. The wall can be as large as 1,200 square feet, and may be shaped in any manner and to any dimensions the caster desires, so that it can be a straight wall or curved into a protective circle. This wall of flames is impenetrable to monsters with fewer than 4 HD. Monsters with more than 4 HD suffer 1d6 points of damage when they pass through the wall. The wall deals double damage to undead creatures or creatures who use cold or are accustomed to cold. The wall may not be evoked so that it appears where objects or creatures already are.

Wall of Ice

Range: 120'
Arcane 4
Duration: 2 turns

An immobile, translucent, wall of ice springs into existence for the duration of the spell. The wall can be as large as 1,200 square feet, and may be shaped in any manner and to any dimensions the caster desires, so that it can be a straight wall or curved into a protective circle. This wall of ice is impenetrable to monsters with fewer than 4 HD. Monsters with more than 4 HD suffer 1d6 hit points of damage when they break through the wall. The wall deals double damage to creatures that use fire or are accustomed to hot conditions. The wall may not be evoked so that it appears where objects or creatures already are, and it must rest on a solid surface.

Wall of Iron

Range: 60'
Arcane 6
Duration: permanent

This spell causes a flat, vertical iron wall to spring into being. The wall is normally 1" thick and can be as large as 1,000 square feet. The wall can be made thicker than 1" with a proportionate reduction in area, but cannot be made less than 1" thick. If the caster so desires, the wall can bond itself to any surrounding nonliving material if its area is sufficient to do so. The wall cannot be conjured so that it appears where objects or creatures already are. The wall must always be a flat plane, though the edges can be shaped to fit the available space, and it must always be conjured in contact with the ground.

The caster can create the wall vertically resting on a flat surface but not attached to the surface, so that it can be tipped over to fall on and crush creatures beneath it. The wall is 50% likely to tip in either direction if left un-pushed. Creatures can push the wall in one direction rather than letting it fall randomly. Pushing the wall in one direction requires a successful Open Doors proficiency throw. Creatures with room to flee a falling wall can do so with a successful save versus Blast. Creatures of ogre size or smaller that fail the save take 10d6 points of damage. The wall cannot crush larger creatures.

This wall is permanent unless otherwise destroyed or dispel magic spell is cast upon it. Like any iron wall, it is subject to rust, perforation, and other natural phenomena.

Wall of Stone

Range: 60'
Arcane 5
Duration: permanent

The caster brings a stone wall into being that can be any form the caster desires, to a maximum of 1,000 cubic feet. This wall is permanent unless otherwise destroyed or dispelled with dispel magic. The wall may not be evoked so that it appears where objects or creatures already are, and it must rest on a solid surface.

The caster can create a wall of stone in almost any shape he desires. The wall created need not be vertical, nor rest upon any firm foundation; however, it must merge with and be solidly supported by existing stone. It can be used to bridge a chasm, for instance, or as a ramp. For this use, if the span is more than 20', the wall must be arched and buttressed. This requirement reduces the spell's area by half. The wall can be crudely shaped to allow crenellations, battlements, and so forth by likewise reducing the area.

Water Breathing

Range: 30'
Arcane 3
Duration: 1 day

This spell allows the affected creature to breathe underwater, at any depth. It does not prevent the creature from breathing air, nor does it provide any special ability to move underwater.

Web

Range: 10'
Arcane 2
Duration: 48 turns

This spell creates a many-layered mass of strong, sticky strands covering an area 10' x 10' x 10'. Creatures caught within a web become entangled among the gluey fibers. Attacking a creature in a web does not cause the attacker to become entangled, but moving through the affected area will.

Entangled creatures can't move, but can break loose depending on their strength. Creatures of normal human strength or less will take 2d4 turns to break through the web. Strong humans (with ability scores 13-17) can break through the web in 1 turn. Creatures as strong as or stronger than ogres (18 Strength) can break free of a web in 4 rounds. Giants or creatures of similar great strength can break through the web in 2 rounds.

The strands of a web spell are flammable. All creatures within flaming webs take 1d6 points of fire damage from the flames for 2 rounds, after which surviving creatures become free.

Wizard Eye

Range: 240'
Arcane 4
Duration: 6 turns

With this spell the caster creates an invisible magical "eye" through which he can see. The eye has infravision, but otherwise sees exactly as the caster would (including being able to detect magic, see invisible or detect evil if those spells are in effect on the caster). It can be created in any place the caster can see, up to a range of 240' away, and thereafter can move at a rate of 40' per round as directed by the caster. The eye will not move more than 240' away from the caster under any circumstances. The eye cannot pass through solid objects, but as it is exactly the size of a normal human's eye, it can pass through holes as small as 1" in diameter. The caster must concentrate to use the eye.

Wizard Lock

Range: 10'
Arcane 2
Duration: permanent

A wizard lock spell cast upon a door, chest, or portal magically locks it. The caster can freely pass his own wizard lock without affecting it, as can any arcane spellcaster 3 or more levels higher than the caster of the wizard lock; otherwise, a door or object secured with this spell can be opened only by breaking in or with a successful dispel magic or knock spell.


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Chapter 6: Adventures

Dungeons, Wilderness, and Sea

Whether the characters are undertaking a specific quest for a patron, or simply seeking excitement, fame, and wealth, they will not find what they seek in the safety of towns and homesteads. Many adventures will take place in underground complexes such as crypts, tombs, labyrinths, or caverns. These locations, generally called dungeons, vary considerably in type and location, but all are filled with dangerous monsters, traps, riddles, and riches. Other adventures will take place in unsettled lands beyond the borders of civilization. These wildernesses will confront the adventurers with natural hazards, wild beasts, savage tribes, and monstrous predators. Some adventures will even take the characters to the treacherous waters of the high seas, where they may face lacerating weather, sea monsters, and lost isles.

Dungeon Adventures

The following rules apply to adventuring in dungeons. Additional rules are offered later in this chapter for other kinds of environments.

Marching and Mapping

When the party enters the dungeon, the party marching order should be established. This will depend largely on the width of the passages in a dungeon. Generally, characters should march in pairs, side by side, forming a line of pairs. A standard marching order would be tougher characters, like fighters, in the front, while thieves follow second, and elves and mages hold the middle. Relatively strong characters, like dwarves and clerics, should guard the rear. If enough fighters are present, they can take up the rear as well. Marching order should be written down, so that it is always clear as the group progresses through its adventure where everyone is. If a large map is being used, the players might use dice, tokens, or miniature figures to represent their characters and where they are in the marching order.

One player should be designated as the mapper. The mapper will draw the dungeon as the characters explore it, so that the group does not get lost, and also to keep a record of which areas have been explored. Dungeons are typically mapped on graph paper with 1/4" square grids, with a scale of 10' per square. The mapper, more than any other player, must be alert to all descriptions of areas the Judge offers, because if there is an error in a map, it could result in hardship, or even injury, to the group. If the character belonging to a mapper dies, the player must hand over mapping duties to a player with a living character. This character, in the game, takes the map from the dead character and continues his dead friend's work.

Time and Movement

When in the dungeon, characters take actions in time increments called turns. One turn is the equivalent in game time to 10 minutes. Character actions that take one turn can include looking for secret doors or traps in a 10' x 10' room, or moving the full movement rate (120' unless heavily encumbered) while mapping. As characters make their way through dungeons, their movement rates account for the fact that they are exploring, watching their footing, mapping, and taking care to avoid obstacles. This is referred to as exploration movement.

Combat movement occurs when characters meet foes or more immediate challenges, as described in Encounters, later in this chapter. In these cases characters move at 1/3 their exploration movement per round (40' unless heavily encumbered). Rounds are ten seconds of game time each, so there are 60 rounds in a turn.

Finally, the third kind of speed is charging/running movement. Charging/running movement is the full character speed (120' unless heavily encumbered), and it is traveled in one round.

If using a large map with tokens or miniatures, all of these distances may be precisely measured on a map grid, and pieces representing characters, monsters, and other dungeon features may be kept track of as well. Commonly, on large play maps one square is equal to 5', and this scale will be used to measure all distances. In all matters of time and movement, the Judge is the final authority on what may be accomplished in a given period of time.

Rest

Exploring dungeons is strenuous work, and all characters must rest. Characters can explore, fight, or otherwise remain active for 5 turns before needing to rest for 1 turn. If the characters press on without resting, they all suffer a penalty of -1 on attack throws and damage rolls until they have rested for 1 turn.

Light and Darkness

Since dungeon adventures occur underground, there may not be a light source, so adventurers should bring torches or lanterns. These light sources emit light in a 30' radius, with dim, shadowy light extending about 20' further. Lanterns use flasks of oil as fuel; a lantern can burn continuously on 1 flask of oil for 24 turns. Torches burn continuously for 6 turns before burning out. Characters or monsters that carry a light source are unable to surprise opponents, because the light gives them away ahead of time.

Some creatures have infravision. Creatures that have infravision can see in the dark out to a limited distance, usually 60'. Infravision does not allow creatures to read or see fine details, so normal light will still be needed for many purposes. Infravision only functions in the darkness, so any visible light, whether normal or magical, will disrupt it.

Any creatures who cannot see due to darkness or blindness suffer a -4 penalty when attacking. This penalty applies when attacking invisible opponents as well.

Doors

The standard door in a dungeon is made of heavy wood, reinforced with iron banding. These sturdy doors are usually closed, and often locked or stuck. A locked door can be opened by finding the key, picking the lock, or battering the door down. A thief can pick a lock in 1 turn with a successful proficiency throw to open locks value (refer to the Thief Skills table for the target value). Any character can batter a wooden door in 3 turns if equipped with an axe. Simple wooden doors take only 1 turn to batter down, while sturdier (solid metal or stone doors) cannot generally be battered down without heavy equipment.

A stuck door can be forced open with brute strength. Forcing open a door requires a proficiency throw of 18+. Doors of unusual material or size may impose a penalty on this proficiency throw. In addition, for each point of Strength adjustment, modify the result of the die roll by +/- 4. (A character with Strength 18 thus opens doors with a proficiency throw of 6+). If two characters cooperate to force open a door, use the stronger character's Strength adjustment +4. A roll of 1 always fails to open a door. It takes only one combat round to force open a door, and characters may try again if they fail.

Some dungeons are so drenched in evil that the doors themselves are antagonistic. Such evil doors automatically swing shut when released unless spiked or wedged open. Evil doors always open easily for monsters, unless the door is spiked shut, held firm, or magically closed.

Some doors are somehow concealed or hidden - these are secret doors. Common secret doors are sliding panels in a wall, trap-doors under rugs, and so on. Secret doors can only be spotted if characters are specifically looking for them. When a player declares that his character is looking for secret door, the Judge should make a proficiency throw on behalf of the character. All characters except elves will spot a secret door if one is present on a throw of 18+ on 1d20. Elves have keen eyes that allow them to detect hidden and secret doors with a proficiency throw of 8+ on 1d20 when actively searching, or 14+ on casual inspection. It takes 1 turn for a character to search a 10' x 10' area. Since the Judge rolls the dice, the player never know if the roll failed or if there simply is no door in the area searched. Each character has only one chance to find each secret door.

Players will sometimes want their character to listen at a door or intersection to hear any noises beyond. Again, the Judge should make a proficiency throw on behalf of the character. A throw of 18+ on 1d20 succeeds. Dwarves and elves only need to throw 14+ due to their keen hearing. A thief has specially trained for this task, and has a different chance of success (refer to the Thief Skills table). This attempt may only be made one time at any door or intersection by a character. Note that some creatures, such as undead, do not make noise.

Traps and Trap Detection

While thieves have a special skill to detect traps, characters of all classes can search for non-magical traps with time and caution. All characters except dwarves succeed in spotting a trap with a proficiency throw of 18+ on 1d20. Dwarves succeed with a proficiency throw of 14+. Players must declare that their characters are actively looking for traps, and they must be looking in the right place. This roll may only be made once per character in a particular location, and it takes 1 turn per 10' x 10' area searched. The Judge secretly rolls the dice for these checks, because the players will never know if they failed to find the trap or if there is not one present.

Traps have specific triggers, whether it is opening a door or walking over a particular area. Every time an adventurer takes an action that could trigger a trap, the Judge should roll 1d6. A result of 1-2 indicates that the trap springs. Once triggered, a trap has a specific effect depending on its type. The most common trap is a pit. Characters falling into a pit suffer 1d6 points of damage per 10' fallen. Some traps may offer a saving throw to reduce or avoid their effects, or may only damage the characters on a successful attack throw.

Wilderness Adventures

Wilderness adventures have certain similarities to dungeon adventures, but the range of challenges they pose is far wider. Players must decide where they are going, what equipment they need, and how to get there. Some things to consider are what the conditions of travel will be. Do the characters need warm clothes? Do they need horses for travel or carrying gear? What kinds of special equipment are needed?

Marching and Mapping in the Wilderness

Marching and mapping in wilderness adventures are carried out like other adventures. The characters journey in an established marching order, but the action takes place in a wilderness, such as a forest or glen, rather than underground. The mapper should record the party's progress if the area is unexplored, or the party may already have acquired a map of the area. The Judge will have a map prepared beforehand, so that he knows the layout of the land. Unlike dungeon maps, wildness maps are usually recorded on graph paper with hex grids, at a scale of 6 miles for each hex. Larger area maps will typically have a scale of 1 hex = 24 miles.

Time and Wilderness Movement

The wilderness is not cramped like in a dungeon, and characters can usually see further ahead and not be as wary of obstacles. For this reason, all distances are measured in yards rather than feet in the wilderness. A character that could move 120' per turn in a dungeon can move 120 yards (360') per turn in the wilderness. Weapon and spell ranges are measured in yards in the wilderness also, but note that areas of effect remain the same for spells and other effects.

Long-distance movement rates when traveling in the wilderness are related directly to exploration movement rates, as shown on the table below:

Exploration Movement (Feet per Turn) Wilderness Movement (Miles per Day)
30' 6
60' 12
90' 18
120' 24
150' 30
180' 36
210' 42
240' 48
270' 54
300' 60
330' 66
360' 72

Naturally, any party traveling together moves at the rate of the slowest member. The movement rates shown on the table above are figured based on an 8 hour day of travel through open, clear terrain. The terrain type will alter the rate somewhat, as shown on this table:

Terrain Movement Multiplier
Desert, hills, wooded areas x2/3
Thick jungle, swamps, mountains x1/2
Road travel, clear wide trails x3/2

For example, if characters can travel 24 miles normally, but are following roads, they can travel 36 miles a day (24 x 3/2). If they are traveling through swampy land, they travel 12 miles (24 x 1/2) per day. Furthermore, certain kinds of terrain can slow travel at the Judge's discretion, such as if the characters have to cross canyons, large rivers, or other formations.

When necessary, characters may engage in a forced march, traveling 12 hours per day. A forced march is a day of hard, tiring travel, but increases miles traveled per day by 50%. However, the characters must rest for 24 hours after a forced march. Otherwise, during wilderness travel the characters have to rest one day per six days of travel. Characters who do not get the appropriate rest suffer a cumulative penalty of -1 on attack throws and damage rolls per day until they do rest.

Unless there is an encounter, the Judge will direct players through time in increments of days while traveling in the wilderness. When an encounter occurs, time is measured in rounds. Unlike dungeon adventures, wilderness adventures do not often measure time in turns.

Getting Lost

Characters can confidently follow trails, roads, and other well-known landmarks without fear of becoming lost. However, when traveling across the wilderness it is easy to lose direction. At the start of each day of travel, the Judge will make a proficiency throw against the appropriate value from the table below to determine if the adventuring party gets lost. If any member of the party has the Navigation proficiency (as described in the Proficiencies chapter), the party should receive a +4 bonus on the proficiency throw.

Terrain Navigation
Plains 4+
Mountains or Hills 7+
Forest or Coast 7+
Open Sea 11+
Desert 11+
Jungle or Swamp 11+

If the roll indicates that the group is lost, they likely will not realize it immediately. They will set out for their travels, and may not understand they are off course for days. The Judge determines which direction the group is traveling. One option is to pick a direction only slightly off of course. For example, if the adventurers intended to go south, they could actually be heading southwest or west. If using a hex map, the Judge can randomly determine the direction that the adventures travel by assigning each hex face a value from 1 to 6, and then rolling 1d6 to determine which hex face the adventurers head towards.

Rations and Foraging

Each day, characters must consume food and drink weighing a total of one stone. This assumes 2lb of food and 1 gallon (about 8lb) of water. Failure to consume enough food does not significantly affect a character for the first two days, after which he loses 1 hit point per day. Furthermore, at that point the character loses the ability to heal wounds normally, though magic will still work. Eating enough food for a day (over the course of about a day, not all at once) restores the ability to heal, and the character will recover lost hit points at the normal rate.

Inadequate water affects characters more swiftly; after a single day without water, the character loses 1d4 hit points, and will lose an additional 1d4 hit points per day thereafter; healing ability is lost when the first die of damage is rolled.

When in the wilderness, characters can hunt or forage for food. Foraging for food is an activity that can be accomplished without hindering travel by gathering fruit, nuts, and vegetables. For each day of travel while foraging, a character should attempt a proficiency throw of 18+ on 1d20. A successful result indicates that sufficient food for 1d6 man-sized creatures has been acquired.

Hunting succeeds on a proficiency throw of 14+ and indicates that sufficient food for 2d6 man-sized creatures has been acquired. However, hunting must be engaged as the sole activity for a day with no traveling possible. In addition, there will be one wandering monster check, from the table appropriate for the terrain, while the group is hunting.

Characters with the Survival proficiency (see Proficiencies) gain a +4 bonus on their proficiency throws to hunt and forage.

Air Travel

A character's long distance movement rate when traveling by air is equal to the total number of miles a character can normally travel on land per day multiplied by 2. For example, a character flying with a movement of 120' can travel 48 miles per day. This time might be slowed if there are adverse conditions, such as very high mountains, storms, or thick fog. There are many magical items that grant characters the ability to fly, as well as spells and winged mounts.

In general, winged beasts may carry riders or other burdens in increasing size based on HD multiples of 3. For example, a creature with 3 HD could carry a dwarf or human child. A creature with 6 HD could carry an adult human or elf, or two dwarves. A creature with 12 HD can carry large animals like horses, or four adult humans. Finally, a creature with 24 HD could carry a very a large animal, or four horses, or 8 humans.

Sea Adventures

Bold adventurers will often set sail upon the high seas, following moldy treasure maps, seeking out lost civilizations, exploring what lies beyond the horizon, or simply pirating and swashbuckling. The rules in this chapter also cover travel on rivers, as characters might have to travel by river deep into impenetrable forest or jungle to reach a set of ruins.

Sea Vessels

Characters do not map or march when adventuring at sea; they sail or row on sea vessels. Some vessels are small, and they can be steered by an adventuring party. Others require a great number of sailors or rowers to crew them. The Sea Vessels table details different kinds of water vessels, as well as their speeds when rowed or sailed, their structural hit points and Armor Class, and maximum cargo load.

Structural hit points operate in the same manner as hit points do for monsters and characters. If a vessel is damaged to 0 or fewer hit points, it will no longer move and ship weapons no longer function. A ship will sink 1d10 rounds after it is reduced to 0 shp.

Sea Vessel Sailors Rowers Marines Ft/Rd Sailing Ft/Rd Rowing Mi/Day Sailing Mi/Day Rowing Cargo (stone) Armor Class Structural Hit Points
Boat, river - 1 1 - 60' - 36 600 1 20 - 45
Boat, sailing 1 - - 45' - 72 - 400 1 20 - 45
Canoe - 1 - - 60' - 18 60 0 5 - 10
Galley, large 20 180 50 60' 120' 90 50 4000 2 95 - 120
Galley, small 10 60 20 60' 150' 90 60 2000 1 75 - 100
Galley, war 30 300 75 45' 120' 72 50 6000 2 125 - 150
Lifeboat - 1 - - 30' - 18 150 0 12 - 18
Longship 75 (60) (75) 60' 150' 90 60 2000 1 65 - 80
Raft 1 - - - 30' - 12 2.5 per sq.ft. 0 5 per sq. foot
Sailing Ship, large 20 - - 45' - 72 - 30000 2 125 - 180
Sailing Ship, small 12 - - 60' - 90 - 10000 1 65 - 90
Troop Transport, large 20 - 50 45' - 72 - 30000 2 150 - 200
Troop Transport, small 12 - 25 60' - 90 - 10000 1 90 - 110

*Ft/Rd = feet per round

*Mi/Day = miles per day

Sea Movement

Long-distance movement rates when traveling at sea are based on the type of vessel employed, modified by the weather conditions. The miles per day listed on the Sea Vessels table are based on a 12 hour day of travel, rather than the usual 8 hours per day given for wilderness travel. Note that ships under sail may travel 24 hours per day if a qualified navigator is aboard, so they may be able to cover twice the normal distance per day of travel. This is in addition to the multiplier given below for wind conditions. If the ship stops each night, as is done by vessels under oar, vessels traveling along a coastline, or vessels having less than the minimum number of regular crewmen on board, the two-times multiplier does not apply.

Movement of sailed ships varies depending on weather conditions, as shown on the following table. Sailing movement modifiers shown apply when sailing with the wind; sailing against the wind involves tacking (called "zigzagging" by landlubbers) which reduces movement rates two rows on the table (from Average Winds to Light Breeze, for instance).

d12 Wind Direction
1 Northerly
2 Northeasterly
3 Easterly
4 Southeasterly
5 Southerly
6 Southwesterly
7 Westerly
8 Northwesterly
9-12 Prevailing wind direction for this locale
d20 Wind Conditions Sailing
1 Becalmed x0
2-4 Light Breeze x1/3
5-8 Moderate Breeze x2/3
9-12 Average Winds x1
13-16 Strong Winds x1 1/3
17-19 Very Strong Winds x1 2/3
20 Gale x2

Becalmed: Sailing ships cannot move. Oared ships may move at the given rowing movement rate.

Very Strong Winds: Sailing against the wind (tacking) is not possible.

Gale: Sailing against the wind is not possible, and ships exposed to a gale may be damaged or sunk; apply 2d8 points of damage to any such ship, per hour sailed. Galleys and other rowed vessels must make a saving throw of 16+ each hour or be sunk; even if the throw succeeds, the ship takes double damage from the gale. Galleys in sight of a coastline when the gale hits can beach to avoid the gale. If the coastline is clear terrain, they can automatically beach, but otherwise they must succeed on a navigation throw of 14+ to find a safe beach or cove.

Getting Lost

Getting lost is easy to do in the trackless expanse of endless ocean. At the start of each day of travel, the Judge will make a proficiency throw against the appropriate value from the table below to determine if the party's ships get lost. If any member of the party has the Navigation proficiency (as described in the Proficiencies chapter), the party should receive a +4 bonus on the proficiency throw.

Terrain Navigation
River or lake 4+
Coast 7+
Open Sea 11+

If the adventuring party becomes lost, the Judge will decide which direction the group is traveling, and how far off it is from their intended direction. He should adjust his description of the wind direction to reflect the direction the group believes it is traveling until they figure out their mistake.

Rations and Fishing

While on sea adventures, characters must consume food and water as described under Wilderness Adventures, above. Rowers must consume 3 gallons of water per day rather than the standard 1 gallon, so their supplies have an encumbrance of 3 stone per day. Standard rations are perishable and inedible after one week, so on long sea voyages most characters will eat iron rations. After one month at sea eating iron rations (that is, without eating fresh fruit, onions, or potatoes), characters begin to suffer from scurvy. Characters with scurvy lose 1 point of STR and CON each week. If either ability score reaches zero, the character dies. A scurvy-stricken character regains 3 points of STR and CON each week he eats fresh food.

Characters can fish if the ship is becalmed or otherwise anchored. For each day of fishing, each character may attempt a proficiency throw of 14+ on 1d20 (gaining a +4 bonus if they have the Survival proficiency) A successful result indicates that food enough for 2d6 man-sized creatures has been caught.

Encounters

In the course of adventures, as the player characters explore dungeons, wildernesses, and vast oceans filled with wondrous treasures, ancient secrets, and other amazing situations, it is inevitable that at some point, they will come face to face with monsters. When the party of adventurers comes in contact with potential enemies, such a meeting is called an encounter.

Dungeon Encounters

When the adventurers stumble onto a monster in a dungeon - either because the Judge has planned an encounter in that area of the dungeon or because a random die roll indicates an encounter - then time shifts to encounter time.

In encounters and during combat, time is divided into units of rounds, which are 10 seconds each. There are 6 rounds per minute and 60 rounds per turn (10 minutes). While few encounters last as long as 60 rounds, for purposes of calculating the passage of time in an adventure, any encounter of 60 rounds or less is considered to last one full turn. The additional time represents recovering one's breath, binding wounds, cleaning blades, looting bodies, and so on.

When an encounter begins, the Judge will roll 2d6 x 10 to determine the encounter distance in feet separating the characters and monster(s). If the monster encounter is preplanned, the Judge may already know how far the monster is from the characters. Encounter distance will be limited by the layout of the dungeon and the available light sources as well.

Next, the Judge rolls to see if the characters or the monster are surprised (see the Surprise table). Then the Judge will check the monster's reaction on the Monster Reaction table (again, see below). Using this information, the Judge will decide what action the monster takes. At this stage the characters will also decide what actions to take, such as whether to fight, flee, or try to talk to the monster.

If either party decides to fight, combat begins and time progresses in rounds. Unsurprised characters then roll for initiative, and act in order of the rolls (as described under Initiative). Initiative is rolled again at the start of each round. Usually an encounter is over when one side either dies or flees.

Wilderness Encounters

The sequence of play in wilderness encounters is very much like the sequence described above. However, wilderness encounters can take place in a variety of terrain types with greatly varying line of sight. Consult the Wilderness Encounter Distance table to determine how many yards away the characters are from the monster at the start of the encounter. (Remember that in the wilderness characters measure their movement rates in yards, rather than in feet as they do in the dungeon.)

Encounter Distance

Terrain Encounter Distance (yards)
Badlands 2d6x10
Desert 4d6x10
Fields, Fallow 4d6x10
Fields, Ripe 5d10
Fields, Wild 3d6x5
Forest, Heavy or Jungle 5d4
Forest, Light 5d8
Marsh 8d10
Mountains 4d6x10
Plains 5d20x10

Man-sized targets are visible from a maximum of 1,000 yards over flat plains. Larger creatures can spot and be spotted at greater distances. Likewise creatures can spot and be spotted at greater distances if they are on towers, high hills, and so on. Increase the spotting distance in proportion to the increase in height or elevation relative to a man (6'). Example: Adventurers encounter a 12' tall ettin in a light forest. The base encounter distance is 5d8 yards, and the Judge rolls a 21, yielding 21 yards. However, the ettin is double the height of a man, so the encounter distance is doubled to 42 yards. If the adventurers were standing on a 24' hill (four times the height of a man), the encounter distance would multiply by (4+1) five times, to 105 yards.

Sea Encounters

The sequence of play in sea encounters is similar to that used in wilderness encounters. Monsters can surprise a ship, but because monsters native to the water cannot generally be seen, or "sneaked up on," a ship may never surprise a monster.

When the Judge rolls for a random encounter, the distance the monster is from the adventuring party will be the same as for a plains encounter (5d20x10 yards), modified by the monster's size. Assuming weather conditions are normal, other ships can be seen when up to 6 miles away and land can be seen from up to 24 miles.

These visibility distances could be reduced by 90% their normal distance when in harsh weather or dense fog, or some other penalty might be used depending on conditions.

Monsters Encountered

The monster descriptions in Chapter 8 list Hit Dice and Number Encountered. Number Encountered is the recommended ranges for the number of the monster type that will be encountered at one time. The number of monsters encountered will vary depending on whether they are encountered wandering or in their lair, and whether they are in the wilderness or in the dungeon. When encountered in dungeons, the number encountered will vary depending on the dungeon level. The Dungeon Wandering Monster Level table, in Chapter 10, Secrets, provides detailed guidance on how many monsters of a particular type are likely to appear on each dungeon level.

Surprise

When monsters and characters encounter each other unexpectedly, there is the possibility one or both sides might be surprised. For instance, if the characters are making a lot of noise, the monster may not have a chance to be surprised but the characters might be if the monster was waiting quietly.

In such circumstances, the Judge makes a surprise roll for the monsters and/or the adventurers as a group. The Judge rolls 1d6, adds any relevant adjustments, and consults the Surprise table below:

Surprise

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Surprised
3-6+ Ready

Surprised monsters or characters are caught off guard for one round. Surprised opponents can be attacked with a +2 bonus to the attack throw, and gain no benefit from their shields (if any). Thieves can backstab surprised opponents. If all characters and monsters in an encounter are surprised, no one acts for the entire first round, but the second round initiative is rolled normally. Ready characters or monsters are on their guard and may act in the first round.

When one side is well hidden, or naturally stealthy, the other side may suffer a penalty on its surprise roll. Conversely, some characters and monsters, such as explorers and ettins, are less likely to be surprised; they gain a bonus on their surprise roll.

Example: Marcus the Human Fighter and Creven the Explorer open a door and come face-to-face with a party of goblins. The Judge makes a surprise roll for the goblins; on a 3+ on 1d6 they are ready to act, but on a 1-2 they are surprised. Then the Judge makes a surprise roll for Marcus and Creven. If the roll is a 3+, neither of them is surprised. If the roll is a 2, only Marcus is surprised, because Creven gains a +1 bonus on surprise rolls. If the roll is 1, both of them are surprised.

Surprise and Sneaking

Sometimes an encounter occurs when characters are attempting to sneak up on, or get past, monsters without being detected. The Judge can resolve these situations through the interplay of surprise rolls and hearing noises throws with varying risk depending on how alert the monsters are.

If the monsters are actively watching an area, any characters attempting to sneak through the area will be detected automatically. Most monsters cannot sustain this level of alertness for more than a turn and will lapse into passive watching (see below). However, constructs and undead are always considered actively alert.

If the monsters are passively watching an area, but aren't in a state of high alertness, the Judge should make a surprise roll when the characters attempt to sneak past or up on them. If the monsters are surprised (normally on a roll of 1-2 on 1d6), the characters can move for one round without being detected. If the opponents are ready, then the sneaking characters are detected.

If the monsters are distracted (e.g. by conversation with friends or a loud noise elsewhere) or otherwise not looking, the Judge should make proficiency throw to see if any of the monsters hear any noises (normally an 18+ on 1d20). If all of the monsters fail this throw, then the sneaking characters can move for one round without being detected. If at least one monster succeeds on this throw, it hears something which gets its attention. But that doesn't mean the sneaking characters automatically got caught. The Judge should now make a surprise roll, as described above.

Under normal circumstances a passive monster can be snuck up on 33% of the time (2 in 6), while a distracted monster can be snuck up on 90% of the time (because it has a 15% chance of hearing something and a 66% chance of detecting the characters if it hears something). If the monster has the Alertness proficiency, it will be surprised only on a 1 in 6, and will gain a +4 to proficiency throws to hear nose. The Alertness proficiency therefore reduces the chance of sneaking up on a passively watching monster down to 16% (1 in 6), and of sneaking up on a distracted monster to 75% (because it has a 30% chance of hearing something and an 84% chance of detecting the characters if it hears something).

If the monsters are watching an area that is dimly lit or otherwise offers some concealment, a thief (or similar class) may attempt to hide in shadows. If the thief is successful, the monsters don't see the thief - they are effectively distracted, as above. The thief will be detected only if the monsters hear him make noise. If the thief successfully moves silently, he cannot be heard. Thus a thief sneaking through a dimly lit area can get past past virtually any monster if he successfully moves silently and hides in shadows.

Monsters can also sneak up on, or past, characters using similar mechanics. Characters would need to make surprise rolls and/or hear noise throws to detect the monsters.

Reactions

When a party of adventurers meet one or more monsters, it's important to know how the monsters will react to the party. In many cases, the reaction of the monster or monsters is obvious. Zombies guarding a tomb will virtually always attack intruders, for example.

In cases where the reaction of the monsters to the party is not obvious, a reaction roll may be made. The Judge rolls 2d6, adding the Charisma bonus of the "lead" character (or applying his Charisma penalty) along with any other adjustments he feels are reasonable, and consults the Monster Reaction table below:

Monster Reaction

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Hostile, attacks
3-5 Unfriendly, may attack
6-8 Neutral, uncertain
9-11 Indifferent, uninterested
12+ Friendly, helpful

A result of Hostile means that the adventurers have so offended the monsters that they attack immediately. An Unfriendly result means that the monsters do not like the adventurers, and will attack if they may reasonably do so. A Neutral result simply means that the monsters will consider letting the adventurers live if they choose to parley; it does not necessarily mean that the monsters like the adventurers. An Indifferent result means that monsters will ignore the adventurers if possible and negotiate if not. A Friendly result means that the monsters (or perhaps only the monster leader) do, in fact, like the adventurers; this does not mean that the monsters will just hand over their treasure, but it does indicate that they may choose to cooperate with the adventurers in mutually beneficial ways. Friendly monsters can be recruited as hirelings (see Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists) with a successful roll on the Reaction to Hiring Offer table.

As always, the Judge must interpret the results of this roll in context. For instance, if the monsters have surprised the characters, a Hostile result might mean they attempt to ambush the party, while an Indifferent result might mean the monsters avoid the party entirely. The Judge may choose to alter the Monster Reaction result if he believes a different result would be more plausible given the circumstances.

Evasion and Pursuit

The adventurers may decide they are outmatched and flee an encounter, or a monster might flee if it breaks morale. The adventurers can choose when to flee, and whether or not to pursue fleeing monsters. The Judge will decide if the monsters chase fleeing characters by rolling on the Monster Reaction table. A roll of 2-8 indicates the monster will pursue. When one side is fleeing and the other side is pursuing, it is called a chase.

Chases in the Dungeon

One side of an encounter can always successfully flee if combat has not commenced and their movement is higher than the other side's movement. Otherwise, a chase begins when the adventurers or monsters wanting to flee begin doing so on their Initiative numbers (see below). The Judge may easily play out the pursuit, following along on his map (note that the players can't draw maps while they run headlong through the dungeon or wilderness area). Any time a character must pass through a doorway, make a hard turn, etc., the Judge may require a saving throw versus Paralysis (with Dexterity bonus added). If the save is failed, the character has fallen at that point and moves no further that round; he may stand up and make a full move on his initiative number in the next round.

If at any point the pursuers are within 5' (melee range) at the start of a round, they may begin melee combat. If the fleeing characters or monsters wish to continue to flee after the pursuers close to melee range, they will be subject to the rules described under Defensive Movement.

It is up to the adventurers to decide when they stop pursuing fleeing monsters. A monster will stop chasing the adventurers if they manage to get out of the monster's range of vision. If the monsters enjoy treasure, they have a 50% probability that they will stop pursuing characters to collect any treasure the characters drop (roll 4-6 on 1d6). Hungry or less intelligent monsters may do the same if the characters drop food.

Chases in the Wilderness

Encounters will generally occur at much longer ranges in the wilderness, and adventurers and monsters will have far more directions available to flee. When one side is surprised in a wilderness encounter, the other side can automatically flee successfully. Otherwise, in order for one party to escape from another, it must make a successful throw on the Wilderness Evasion table. The more pursuing group members there are relative to the fleeing party, the greater chances the fleeing party may escape. This is because larger groups cannot move as fast, or as quietly. Note that the fleeing side will have a minimum of a 5% probability of escaping.

Wilderness Evasion by Pursuing Group Size Modifier

Evading Party Size Evasion Throw Up to 25% 26-75% 76%+
Up to 4 11+ 0 +4 +8
5 to 12 14+ 0 +3 +5
13 to 24 16+ 0 +3 +5
25+ 19+ 0 +3 +5

Example: If a party of four is fleeing 1 pursuer, they must throw an 11+ to escape because the number of pursuers equals 25% of the fleeing party's number, which applies no modifier to the base chance of escape. If they are fleeing two pursuers, they escape on a 7+ because the number of pursuers equals 50% of the fleeing group, which applies a +4 bonus to the chance of escape.

The Judge may modify the probabilities based on the conditions and environment. For example, if one side has time to flee within a densely wooded area, the Judge may give a bonus of +5 to flee. If the party giving chase has double the movement of the fleeing side, they might receive a bonus of +5 to catch the fleeing party.

If the fleeing party does not successfully escape, then the other group has managed to keep them within sight. They have a 50% (11+ on d20) chance of catching them up close if they have a greater movement than the group they are pursuing. If this roll fails, then the fleeing side may again attempt to escape. This cycle is repeated daily until either one side escapes or the other manages to catch up.

Chases at Sea

When two sea vessels, or a sea vessel and a monster, encounter one another, one party may choose to flee. The distance between each of the groups is determined as a normal encounter. Success depends primarily on the difference between the two groups' speeds. For one sea vessel or monster to escape from another, it must make a successful throw on the Sea Evasion table.

Sea Evasion

Evading vessel is Evasion Throw
Faster than pursuer 5+
0'-30'/round slower 11+
31'-60'/round slower 13+
61'-91'/round slower 15+
91'-120''/round slower 17+
121'+/round slower 19+

If the evading party is successful, the pursuers cannot try to catch up with the evading party for 24 hours, and then only if a random encounter roll indicates an encounter. If the evading party fails their roll to evade, the pursuer starts at the distance it was spotted and begins to gain on the evading party. If the pursuer is slower than the other party or if the pursuer's speed is no greater than 30' more than the fleeing party, it will gain on the evading party at a rate of 30' (10 yards) per round. If the pursuer's speed is more than 30' faster than the fleeing party, the pursuer will gain on the fleeing party at a rate equal to the difference in speed each round.

Initiative

Each round, 1d6 is rolled for initiative for each adventurer, monster, and group of identical monsters, each called a combatant. This roll is adjusted by the combatant's Dexterity bonus, if any. High numbers act first. Any combatants with equal numbers act simultaneously. Combatants wishing to move defensively or cast spells in the upcoming round must inform the Judge before the initiative dice are rolled.

As the Judge counts down the initiative numbers, each combatant may act on his number. If desired, a combatant can choose to wait until a later number to act. If a player states that he is waiting for another combatant to act, then the player character's action takes place on the same initiative number as the combatant he is waiting for. In this case, the player character's action is simultaneous with the combatant waited for, just as if they had rolled the same number.

A combatant using a weapon with a long reach (spears, for instance) may choose to attack a closing opponent on the closing opponent's number and thus attack simultaneously with the opponent, even if the combatant rolled lower for initiative. Likewise, if a combatant has a missile weapon readied at the beginning of round and is not engaged in melee, he can fire at a closing opponent on the closing opponent's number even if the combatant rolled lower for initiative.

Movement

When its initiative number comes up, each combatant may move up to its combat movement distance, and then attack any opponent in range. After attacking, a combatant may not move again until the next round. Opponents more than 5' apart may move freely, but once two opposing combatants are within 5' of each other, they are engaged and must abide by the rules under Defensive Movement, below.

Player characters or monsters wishing to cast spells may not move on their Initiative (see Casting Spells).

Running

Combatants may choose to run; a running combatant is not normally allowed to attack (but see Charging, below). Running combatants can move at their running movement rate (triple their normal combat movement rate). Combatants are allowed to run a number of rounds equal to 2 times their Constitution, after which they are exhausted and may only walk (at the normal combat rate). For monsters not having a given Constitution, allow the monster to run for 24 rounds. Exhausted combatants must rest for at least a turn before running again.

Charging

Under some circumstances, combatants may be allowed to attack after a running move. This is called a charge, and some specific limitations apply. First, the charging combatant must move at least 20', and may move up to triple his combat movement rate, as given above. The movement must be in a more or less straight line toward the intended target, and the path to the target must be reasonably clear. If the charging combatant does not have line of sight to the opponent at the start of the charge, that opponent can't be charged.

The attack made after the charge is made with a +2 bonus on the attack throw. The charging combatant takes a -2 penalty to Armor Class until the next time his initiative number comes up. Certain weapons, including spears, lances, and pole arms, are especially suitable for use while charging, as are the natural attacks of certain monsters, especially including those with horns. These attacks deal double damage on a successful charge.

Set Weapon against Charge

Spears, pole arms, and certain other piercing weapons deal double damage when "set" (braced against the ground or floor) and used against a charging combatant. To set against charge, the combatant being charged must have equal or better initiative; this counts as holding an action. Both charging and charged combatant act on the charging combatant's initiative number and are therefore simultaneous.

Defensive Movement

Once two opposing combatants are within 5' of each other, they are engaged in melee. Engaged combatants may not move except to perform defensive movement. These types of defensive movement may be used by both characters and monsters. Combatants who want to use one of these forms of movement must declare their intention to do so before they roll initiative for the round, and may not change their mind during the round.

A fighting withdrawal allows a combatant to move backwards at 1/2 combat movement. However, there must be a clear path for this movement. If an opponent follows the withdrawing combatant, the withdrawing combatant may attack the opponent on the opponent's initiative, when he enters reach.

A full retreat occurs when a combatant moves backwards at a faster rate than 1/2 of combat movement. The combatant making the movement forfeits his attack this round, and all his opponent attacks with a +2 bonus that round. In addition, if the retreating combatant is carrying a shield, it does not apply to their Armor Class during the retreat. Thieves may backstab retreating opponents.

Other Movement

Instead of moving (or running, charging, setting, withdrawing, or retreating), combatants may perform a simple action that could be accomplished while fighting, such as standing up from being knocked down, sheathing one weapon and drawing another, readying or loosing a shield, picking an item off the ground, or retrieving an item from a pack or sack. Simply dropping a weapon and drawing a new one does not count as movement during a round.

How to Attack

If they are not already engaged, combatants may move and make a missile weapon attack (bows, crossbows, etc.), or move and make a melee attack (swords, axes, etc.), in one round. They may not move after attacking. Except where otherwise noted, characters may only make 1 attack per round; monsters may have multiple attacks.

Whether or not an attack hits its target is determined with an attack throw. The player or Judge rolls 1d20 and applies any modifiers to the roll from high Strength or Dexterity, magic, or special circumstances. The result is compared to the Attack Throws table for either characters or monsters, as appropriate. A result that is greater than or equal to the attack throw value listed for the attacking character's level or monster's HD indicates a hit. An unmodified roll of 20 is always a hit, and an unmodified roll of 1 is always a miss. If a hit is scored, damage is rolled by weapon type or monster attack, taking into account any bonuses or penalties.

Armor Class: Well-armored or highly dexterous targets are harder to hit than lightly-armored or sluggish ones. The target's Armor Class is added to the attack throw value necessary to hit it.

Helpless Targets: Regardless of attack throw and AC, all attacks on sleeping, paralyzed, or otherwise helpless targets automatically hit. If the attacker is not engaged by any other opponents, the helpless target can be automatically slain. Otherwise, a standard damage roll is made.

Monster Attack Throws

Attacking Monster HD Attack Throw Value
1 or less 10+
1+ and 2 9+
2+ and 3 8+
3+ and 4 7+
4+ and 5 6+
5+ and 6 5+
6+ and 7 4+
7+ to 9 3+
9+ to 11 2+
11+ to 13 1+
13+ to 15 0+
15+ to 17 -1+
17+ to 19 -2+
19+ to 21 -3+
21+ or more -4+

Example: Marcus, a 10th level fighter (attack throw 4+) attacks a plate-armored target (AC7). He needs a modified roll of 11 (4+7) or more to hit. He rolls a 12, and lands a blow!

Example: A 20 HD bronze golem (attack throw -3) attacks on an ogre (AC3). It will need a modified roll of 0 (-3+3) or more to hit. However, an modified roll of 1 is always a miss, so the golem will need to roll at least a 2 or more.

Melee Combat

Hand-to-hand, or melee, combat occurs when opponents are within 5' of one another. As the name implies, melee attacks are made by hand-held weapons like swords or axes. Attack throws and damage rolls are affected by Strength adjustments, as well as by bonuses for magical weapons.

Characters normally only have 1 attack in a round, but some monsters have an attack routine, the most common of which is a claw/claw/bite series, which amounts to 3 attacks in 1 round. If characters or monsters kill or incapacitate an opponent with an attack, they may be able to cleave to gain additional attacks (as described below).

Character Attack Throws by Attacking Character Level

Fighters Clerics/Thieves Mages Attack Throw Value
0* 0 0 11+
1 1-2 1-3 10+
2-3 3-4 4-6 9+
4 5-6 7-9 8+
5-6 7-8 10-12 7+
7 9-10 13-15 6+
8-9 11-12 - 5+
10 13-14 - 4+
11-12 - - 3+
13 - - 2+
14-15 - - 1+

*Includes all 0th level humans.

Some characters and monsters can fight with a weapon in each hand (dual wielding). Characters fighting with two weapons still make 1 attack, using the primary weapon, but they gain a +1 bonus to the melee attack throw from having the second weapon. If the second weapon is magical, its magical bonus may be added to the attack throw (stacking with another weapon the way a shield stacks with armor), but not to the damage roll. Dual wielding does not give additional attacks.

Vision and light can also affect melee combat. Combatants suffer -4 to their attack throw if blind, in darkness, or attacking an invisible foe.

Instead of making a standard melee attack, combatants may attempt to disarm, knock down, wrestle, or otherwise disrupt their opponent in some way. See Special Maneuvers, below.

During large melees, the Judge should use discretion in determining how many attackers can strike at one opponent. Two man-sized combatants armed with two-handed weapons, or three man-sized combatants armed with spears or one-handed weapons, can fight side by side in a 10' wide corridor. Combatants with spears and pole arms may attack in melee from the second rank. If more detail is necessary, dice, tokens, or figurines can be used to represent character positions and movement during combat and movements in the dungeon.

Missile Attacks

In order to attack with a missile weapon, opponents must be more than 5' apart. Combatants may not make a missile attack at opponents engaged in melee, unless they have the Precise Shooting proficiency. Missile attacks can be from bows, slings, crossbows, and even thrown items like bottles of holy water or oil flasks. Regardless of the weapon used, combatants normally only have 1 attack in a round with missile weapons (although they may sometimes get to attack again if they kill their target; see Cleaving, below).

The attack throw with missile weapons is affected by Dexterity adjustments, which will provide a bonus to strike if Dexterity is high or a penalty if Dexterity is low. In addition, magical weapons will provide bonuses to attack throws and damage rolls. For instance, an arrow +1 gives a bonus of +1 to damage. A bow +1 gives a bonus of +1 to attack.

All missile weapons have ranges, which must be taken into account when trying to strike an opponent at a distance. There are no bonuses or penalties for striking an opponent at short range. There is a penalty of -2 on the attack throw against an opponent that is at medium range, and a -5 penalty on the attack throw against an opponent at long range. If an opponent is further away than the long range listed, the missile weapon cannot hit that opponent at all. The Missile Weapon Ranges table shows the short, medium, and long range of various missile weapons.

Missile Weapon Ranges

Weapon Short Range Medium Range Long Range
Modifier 0 -2 -5
Arbalest Up to 90' ...to 180' ...to 360'
Axe (thrown) Up to 10' ...to 20' ...to 30'
Bow, Composite Up to 70' ...to 140' ...to 210'
Bow, Long Up to 70' ...to 140' ...to 210'
Bow, Short Up to 50' ...to 100' ...to 150'
Crossbow Up to 80' ...to 160' ...to 240'
Dagger (thrown) Up to 10' ...to 20' ...to 30'
Dart Up to 15' ...to 30' ...to 45'
Holy water Up to 10' ...to 30' ...to 50'
Javelin Up to 20' ...to 40' ...to 60'
Oil Up to 10' ...to 30' ...to 50'
Sling Up to 45' ...to 90' ...to 180'
Spear Up to 20' ...to 40' ...to 60'

All missile attacks are subject to the ordinary combat rules of initiative and surprise. In addition, cover is a factor that can influence missile attacks. An attacker cannot hit any opponent that is entirely behind a barrier. However, the Judge may allow an attack throw with a -1 to -4 penalty if the target is only partly under cover. For example, if a character were attempting to strike an opponent through a small window, the Judge might call for a penalty of -4. If the opponent were only partly covered, such as by small furniture, the penalty might only be -2.

Characters suffer -4 to their attack throw if firing blind, in darkness, or at an invisible foe.

Oil flasks can be lit and then thrown as missile attacks. When resolving the results of a thrown flask of oil:

Characters can also throw oil flasks unlit to avoid the risk of setting themselves on fire. Unlit oil does no damage, but can be lit with a torch later (either through melee or missile attacks). A character splashed with unlit oil takes 1d3 points of damage if the oil is later lit. A character directly hit by unlit oil takes 1d8 points of damage for two rounds if the oil is later lit.

An oil flask can also be poured on the ground and lit. Oil that is poured on the ground can cover a diameter of 5' and burns for a full turn. It inflicts 1d8 points of damage to any creature that moves through the burning patch.

Fire from oil does not cause damage to monsters that have a natural flame attack. However, burning oil does full damage to most undead monsters.

Vials of holy water can also be thrown as missile attacks. Holy water deals damage to undead as burning oil, but is harmless to other creatures. Holy water cannot retain its holy power if it is stored in any other container than the special vials it is placed in when blessed.

Casting Spells

In order to cast a spell, a spellcaster must inform the Judge that a spell is being cast, and which spell will be cast, before the initiative dice are rolled. If the caster takes damage or fails a saving throw before he acts, the spell is interrupted and lost. (The spell still counts against the character's spells per day as if it had been cast.) A caster may not move or perform any other action on the round he attempts to cast a spell.

A spellcaster must have a line of sight on the targets or area the spell is cast on. Unlike melee and missile attacks, spell attacks will automatically hit their chosen targets if they are within the spells' range and area of effect. However, many spells allow a saving throw that can negate or partially negate effects of spells. See the discussion on Spells in Chapter 5 and saving throws later in this chapter.

Some spells require that a caster concentrate to maintain them. Unless otherwise noted, a concentrating caster may move or ride at half speed, but may not engage in combat, use items, or cast other spells. A caster who takes damage or fails a saving throw loses his concentration. Note that certain spells, such as dispel evil, specify that the caster must both remain stationary and concentrate.

Other Actions

Instead of performing an attack or attack routine, combatants may take another action that could be accomplished in a few seconds, such as sheathing one weapon and drawing another, readying or loosing a shield, lighting a torch, drinking a magic potion, using a wand or ring, turning undead, picking an item off the ground, or retrieving an item from a pack or sack. Simply dropping a weapon and drawing a new one do not count as an action during a round, however. For example, a combatant can drop a bow, draw a sword, and attack in the same round.

Damage

When combatants successfully attack, they deal damage. Damage dealt is based on the type of weapon and how the combatant is wielding it:

The weapon's damage will be modified by Strength, magical bonuses, and the character's class bonus (if any).

In addition to weapons, monsters have much more varied damage and means of attack available to them. The attacks listing in the monsters' descriptions represent the number of times a monster may attack in one round. Damage is listed and separated by a slash, and claw attacks are listed before bite attacks when a typical "claw/claw/bite" series of attacks are listed.

Double Damage

Whenever damage is doubled (from backstabbing or charging, for instance), multiply the standard damage roll by two. Bonuses to the damage roll, such as from magic or strength adjustments, are not doubled.

"Invulnerable" Monsters

Some monsters can be damaged by magical or silver weapons only. Monsters that can only be affected by these kinds of weapons can always harm each other, and monsters with 5 HD or more are able to affect these monsters through natural ferocity. Weaker monsters, and characters without silver or magical weapons, cannot harm such foes.

Effects of Damage

All damage dealt is subtracted from a creature's hit points. When a creature's hit points drop to 0 or fewer, the creature is unconscious and possibly dead. The creature's condition will not be determined until an ally treats its wounds. When this occurs, the unconscious creature must roll 1d20+1d6 on the Mortal Wounds table and apply any appropriate modifiers listed. The modified 1d20 roll determines the unconscious creature's condition while the modified 1d6 roll determines whether any permanent wounds are suffered. Characters not treated within 24 hours of being unconscious must roll, with no bonus for treatment and at the full -10 penalty for being treated 1 day later.

Example: Marcus, a fighter with 36 hit points and 18 CON, is reduced to -12 hit points by dragon breath. His ally Balbus arrives the next round and casts cure serious wounds on him. Marcus now rolls on the Mortal Wounds table. His d20 roll is modified by -2 (because his hp are at a negative value greater than 1/4 his maximum hit points) +4 (from cure serious wounds) +2 (treated within one round of injury) and +3 (modifier for 18 CON) for a total adjustment of +7. He rolls a 13, modified to 20, indicating that he in shock. He is at 1hp and needs magical healing and a night's bed rest to recover. His d6 roll is a 3, indicating that he has suffered notable scarring. He and the Judge agree that this represents severe burns from the dragon's fire.

If a character suffers permanent damage, a restore life and limb spell, regeneration spell, ring of regeneration, or similar magic can eliminate any penalties caused. If a character is killed, he can be revived with restore life and limb, reincarnation, or other magical effect that restores the dead to life. Characters treated with restore life and limb often need extensive periods of time to recover, and may suffer strange side effects. The character must roll 1d20+1d6 on the Tampering with Mortality table and apply any appropriate modifiers listed. The resulting side effects are permanent and can only be removed with a wish spell.

Healing

All beings recover hit points through rest. For each full day of complete rest in reasonably sanitary conditions, a character or monster will recover 1d3 hp. If the rest is interrupted, the character or monster will not heal that day. Healing also occurs through magic, such as potions or spells. This kind of healing is instantaneous. Magical healing and natural healing can be combined. Characters with the Healing proficiency can improve a creature's natural healing, as described in Chapter 4.

Some results on the Mortal Wounds or Tampering with Mortality tables will indicate that a character needs a period of bed rest to recover. During this time, the character does not regain hit points from natural or magical healing, and cannot take any action other than speaking and moving at half speed. If the character is killed again before he has had sufficient rest, he cannot be treated or restored to life by anything less than ritual magic. If the table indicates that the period of bed rest can be shortened with magical healing, then any form of healing magic, including cure spells, potions, Laying On Hands, or other means, will suffice. Otherwise, the period of bed rest cannot be shortened.

Nonlethal Damage

Some attacks may inflict nonlethal damage. Nonlethal damage is subtracted from a creature's hit points like normal damage. A creature reduced to 0 hit points or fewer by nonlethal damage, or any combination of normal or nonlethal damage, is still unconscious and possibly dead. However, the likelihood of death and the rate of healing are different for nonlethal damage, so a running total of the amount of nonlethal damage should still be recorded.

Example: Marcus is fighting an ogre with 26 hit points. In the first round of combat, Marcus stabs the ogre for 8 points of damage, reducing it to 18 current hit points. In the second round of combat, Marcus starts attacking with the flat of his blade (a special maneuver, described later, that incurs a -4 penalty to his attack throw) to attempt to knock out the ogre. He inflicts 6 points of nonlethal damage in the second round and 9 points of nonlethal damage in the third round. At this point the ogre has 3 current hit points and has taken 15 nonlethal damage. In the fourth round, Marcus makes a normal attack that deals 7 points of damage. This reduces the ogre to -4 hit points. Because it has now taken a combination of normal and nonlethal damage reducing its hit points to 0 or fewer, the ogre is knocked out and possibly dead.

Creatures reduced to 0hp or less by nonlethal damage are far less likely to have sustained mortal wounds. When the creature rolls on the Mortal Wounds table, modify the die roll by +1 per point of nonlethal damage dealt before the creature was knocked unconscious. (Pummeling your allies after they are incapacitated does not help them recover).

Example: Immediately after the fight, Marcus rouses the ogre to interrogate it. The Judge rolls 1d20+1d6 for the ogre and gets a 9 and a 3. Marcus did not use any healing magic or have Healing proficiency, so the 1d20 roll is modified by +15 (because ogre took 15 nonlethal damage) and -2 (because it was treated after the fight), for a +13 modifier, yielding a total of 22. Cross-referencing 22 and 3 on the Mortal Wounds table, the Judge determines that the ogre awakens concussed, with 1hp, having lost 1d6 teeth. It will require 1 day of bed rest or magical healing.

Once a creature has resolved its condition on the Mortal Wounds table, all nonlethal damage is removed. Otherwise, nonlethal damage recovers at a rate of 1 hit point per hour. Spells or magical powers that cure hit point damage remove an equal amount of nonlethal damage.

Mortal Wounds

Permanent Wounds Suffered (1d6)

1d20+ Modifiers Condition & Recovery 6 5 4 3 2 1
-6 or more You were instantly killed. A ghastly wound reveals your harsh demise. Mangled bones and broken flesh betray your grisly end. That's a bad way to go. What's left of you isn't pretty. The bloody mess that was once your body is dimly recognizable. A red stain and shards of bone are all that remain. Not even the vultures could feed on you.
-5-0 You were instantly killed. Your corpse is largely intact and ready for a noble funeral. A ghastly wound reveals your harsh demise. Mangled bones and broken flesh betray your grisly end. That's a bad way to go. What's left of you isn't pretty. The bloody mess that was once your body is dimly recognizable. A red stain and shards of bone are all that remain.
1-5 You are mortally wounded. You die unless healed to 1hp within 1 round. If you are healed, you need 1 month's bed rest. Your lips and tongue are severed or mangled (cannot speak, cast spells or use magic items involving speech, -4 to reaction rolls). You are blinded (-4 to all attack throws, no line of sight for spells, movement reduced to normal, -2 to surprise rolls). Both your legs are severed or crushed (DEX reduced to 3 for AC purposes, two crutches required, movement reduced by 60', cannot force march). Both your arms are severed or crushed (cannot climb, use weapons or items, open locks, remove traps, or any other similar actions). You spine is broken at the waist (as per legs severed, cannot reproduce, and must save v. Death each year or die from complications). Your spine is broken at the neck (DEX reduced to 3, cannot move, fight, use items, or cast spells, save v. Death each month or die from complications).
6-10 You are grievously wounded. You die unless healed to 1hp within 1 turn. If you are healed, you need 2 week's bed rest. One of your ears is crushed/mangled (-1 to hear noise throws, -1 to surprise rolls). One of your eyes is destroyed (-2 to missile attack throws). One of your legs is severed or crushed (crutch or peg required, movement reduced by 30', DEX reduced by 1/3 for AC purposes). One of your arms is severed or crushed (cannot climb, use shields, dual wield, or use two-handed weapons). Both your legs are lamed (crutch required, movement rate reduced by 60', DEX reduced by 2/3 for AC purposes) You are permanently addled from brain trauma (-2 on magical research and proficiency throws, -10% penalty on earned XP).
11-15 You are critically wounded. You die unless healed to 1hp within 1 day. If you are healed, you need 1 week's bed rest. 1d6 of your teeth are knocked out (-2 to reaction rolls with opposite sex and upper class NPCs). One of your eyes is damaged (-2 to missile attack throws at medium and long range). One of your knees is damaged (carrying capacity reduced by 6 stone, cannot force march). One of your hands is severed or crushed (cannot dual wield or use two-handed weapons). One of your legs is lamed (movement reduced by 30', DEX reduced by 1/3 for AC purposes). Your heart and lungs are damaged (must rest for 2 turns every 6, wilderness movement reduced by 1/3, cannot force march, CON reduced by 1/3).
16-20 You are in shock. You recover with 1hp. You need magical healing and one night's bed rest; or 1 week's bed rest. Ghostly visions of lost companions flicker before your eyes as you awaken. You suffer minor scarring (no effect, but three minor scars become notable). You suffer damage to your hips and lower back (cannot force march). You suffer notable scarring (-2 to throws to impersonate another; 3 notable scars become gruesome). Your genitals are damaged (cannot reproduce, -3 to reaction rolls if loss of manhood / womanhood is known). You suffer gruesome scarring (impossible to impersonate another; +2 to intimidate others, -4 to all other reaction rolls).
21-25 You were knocked out. You recover with 1hp. You will need magical healing or 1 night's bed rest afterward. A vision of afterlife haunts you, then fades as you awaken. Ghostly visions of lost companions flicker before your eyes as you awaken. You suffer minor scarring (no effect, but three minor scars equals one notable scar). You lose 1d3 fingers on one hand (3 lost fingers on one hand makes hand useless). You suffer notable scarring (-2 to throws to impersonate another; 3 notable scars become gruesome). Your wounds heal stiff and scarred (-1 to all initiative rolls).
26 + You were just dazed. You recover immediately with 1hp. You do not need any bed rest. The Choosers of the Slain pass you by, and you awaken. A vision of afterlife haunts you, then fades as you awaken. Ghostly visions of lost companions flicker before your eyes as you awaken. You suffer minor scarring (no effect, but three minor scars equals one notable scar). You lose 1d3 toes on one foot (3 lost toes on one foot makes leg lame). You suffer lasting wounds that ache in bad weather (-1 to initiative rolls on cold or rainy days).

Modifiers (1d20):

Tampering with Mortality

Side Effects Suffered (1d6)

1d20+ Modifiers Condition & Recovery 6 5 4 3 2 1
-6 or more The spell fails to restore your life. Your deity may allow your return on a second attempt, but you must perform a Quest immediately upon revival. The embrace of your deity is all you feel, and it holds you tightly. Any additional attempts are permitted at -1. You hear the calls of your friends but you can do nothing to respond. Any additional attempts are at -3. All you feel is the sensation of falling, falling, falling into nothingness. Any additional attempts are at -5. You are surrounded by ghostly figures who torment and taunt you. No additional attempts are permitted. Your soul is extinguished in the oblivion of nothingness. No additional attempts are permitted.
-5-0 The spell fails to restore your life. A stirring wind and a light comes from somewhere, and you slowly move towards it. A second attempt is permitted. Your deity may allow your return with a second attempt, but you must perform a Quest immediately upon revival. The embrace of your deity is all you feel, and it holds you tightly. Any additional attempts are permitted at -1. You hear the calls of your friends but you can do nothing to respond. Any additional attempts are at -3. All you feel is the sensation of falling, falling, falling into nothingness. Any additional attempts are at -5. Your spirit wanders in eternal darkness. No additional attempts are permitted.
1-5 The powers of the spell restore you but at great cost. You need a month of bed rest. You have the pallor of death about you, and no tincture or perfume can conceal it. CHA reduced by 4, but you gain +2 to reaction rolls with non- intelligent Undead. Everything seems brighter and louder than before. If a very loud noise or bright light occurs in battle, make a Saving Throw against Paralyzation or be stunned for one round. Dark power leaked in while you were being restored. Holy Water and Turning now affects you as if you were a wight. "Destroy" results charm you. Your connection to the Divine is lessened. You can cast 1 less Divine spell per level per day and your WIS is reduced by 1d3. All you see is darkness. You are now blind (-4 to all attack throws, no line of sight for spells, movement reduced to 1/4 normal, -2 to surprise rolls) in full daylight, but you can See Invisible as the spell once per day. Heart beats and blood flows, but life doesn't feel the same. Your CON and WIS are reduced by 1d4 each.
6-10 Your life and limb are restored, but with weird, lingering effects. You need 14 + 1d20 days of bed rest. Something wicked has taken an interest in you. A small demon or imp (GM's discretion) becomes your familiar, as the proficiency, but it does not always obey your commands. Your hair is restored... over and over. You must shave twice a day or witness an inch of growth by sunset. Untrimmed hair growth hinders performance in combat, giving you a -1 to attacks. Your restored body has bottomless hungers. If you casually smoke or consume alcohol, you are fully addicted. You suffer a cumulative -1 penalty to all Saving Throws after each hour you don't consume something. You did not return altogether human. You gain a body part from a creature on the Reincarnation table for your Alignment. -4 to reaction rolls with normal humans. You have been permanently connected to the spiritual plane and glow like a candle to the unliving. All undead can sense your presence within 60'. Your soul is marked and all extraplanar beings wish you dead, targeting you over your allies. Every week, there is a 1 in 6 chance an invisible stalker will be sent to destroy you.
11-15 The restoration of life and limb was intense, and you remember little of the ordeal. You need 2 weeks of bed rest. No side effects. Your brush with death has shattered your former confidence. Take a -10% penalty to XP until your next level. Horses are frightened by the magic that courses through you. You can only ride magical or polymorphed beasts or exotic mounts such as large cats or elephants. Whispers from beyond plague you. It is difficult for you to ignore them and you suffer -2 to hear noise throws and -2 to surprise rolls. You are disturbed by what you experienced and cannot stop muttering nonsense to yourself, making it impossible to move silently. Spellcasting initiative rolls are at -1. It feels like another being sometimes controls your right arm. When you roll a natural 1 on an attack throw, you hit an adjacent ally instead of an enemy.
16-20 You open your eyes to a body made whole. You need 2 weeks of bed rest. You feel blessed by your god. You recover 1d6 days quicker than you normally would. All negative side effects are removed. No side effects. Your brush with death has shattered your former confidence. Take a -10% penalty to XP until your next level. You have taken on a slightly strange and inhuman cast (e.g. cat-like eyes, clawed nails). -2 to reaction rolls with normal humans. Sleep? Time enough to sleep in the grave. Each time you attempt to rest, roll 1d6. On a 1, you toss and turn all night, can't recover spells, and regain no hit points. Your body is healthy, but... different. You are now a member of the opposite sex. -2 reaction rolls with characters who knew your prior gender, unless your CHA is 13+.
21-25 The touch of your friends restores your health. You need 1 week of bed rest. Your brush with death has gifted you with the ability to Speak with Dead once per week. All negative side effects are removed. You feel blessed by your god. You recover 1d6 days quicker than you normally would. All negative side effects are removed. No side effects. Your brush with death has shattered your former confidence. Take a -10% penalty to XP until your next level. Your renewed body needs energy that plants and mushrooms cannot provide. All rations must contain meat. Your life has come at the cost of the life of your future offspring. You are sterile and cannot have children naturally.
26+ The gods bless their favor upon you. You are instantly recovered without need of rest. You gain permanent power. Gain +2 in your class's prime requisite statistic. All negative side effects are removed. The sublime power grants you a vision which you believe is of terrible import. The GM will give you a (true?) prophecy. You are filled with divine energy. For one day, you gain the benefits of a Heroism potion. All negative side effects are removed. No side effects. Your brush with death has shattered your former confidence. Take a -10% penalty to XP until your next level. Meat is too much like murder. You may only eat plants, mushrooms and herbs. The taste of flesh makes you vomit.

Modifiers:

Cleaving

In the legends and sagas, heroes can chop through weak foes quickly, often slaying two with one blow. Skilled archers might fire as quickly as one arrow every few seconds, fire two arrows at once, or pierce multiple foes with one arrow. The Cleaving rules simulate these feats of glorious mayhem.

Whenever a combatant kills or incapacitates an opponent with a melee or missile attack, he may immediately make another attack throw against another opponent within 5' of the target he has just dropped. The additional attack throw must be with the same weapon as the attack that killed the previous opponent. If engaged in melee, the attacker may move 5' between each attack, subject to his maximum combat movement per round. Attackers may not perform special maneuvers or actions other than attacking when cleaving.

Monsters, fighters, and other characters that use the fighter attack throw progression may make a maximum number of cleave attacks per round equal to their Hit Dice. Clerics, thieves, and other characters that use the cleric/thief attack throw progression may make a maximum number of cleave attacks per round equal to half their Hit Dice (rounded down). Mages and characters that use the mage attack throw progression may not make cleave attacks.

When making cleave attacks with missile weapons, combatants are limited to a maximum of 2 with arbalest or crossbow, 3 with longbow, and 4 with composite bow, shortbow, sling, or thrown darts, daggers, or javelins.

Saving Throws

All combatants can make saving throws to avoid the full effects of spells or certain attacks. Characters and monsters will have a number for each saving throw category, and when affected by a type of spell or attack which requires a saving throw, the player or Judge will roll 1d20. A result that is greater than or equal to the value listed for the saving throw category is a success. However, the roll is failed if the result is less than the listed number. Some successful saving throw rolls will completely negate any effect, while others will result in only half damage rather than full damage. There are times when an attack, like a poisonous bite, can do damage from both the bite itself and from poison separately.

Saving Throw Categories

There are five categories of saving throws. The appropriate saving throw to use and the effects of a success or failure will be indicated in the description of the spell, monster attack, or dungeon scenario. When there is a doubt as to which category to use, start at the left column and move to the right, and use the first which matches the particular effect.

Petrification & Paralysis covers those effects in which the victim will be rendered immobile, such as being turned to stone, paralyzed by a ghoul, or being subjected to a Hold Person spell.

Poison & Death includes those effects where hit points are rendered irrelevant and the result is instant death or total incapacitation, including unconsciousness, total blindness, or panicked fear.

Blast & Breath is used for damaging effects targeting an area, such as a ball of fire, a lightning bolt, a dragon's breath weapon, a collapsing ceiling, an avalanche, and so on, excluding effects covered by one of the earlier categories.

Staffs & Wands is used for any magical effects from items such as rings, rods, staffs, and wands not covered by one of the earlier categories.

Spells covers any magical effect from a cast spell not covered by one of the earlier categories.

Fighter Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells
0* 16+ 15+ 17+ 17+ 18+
1 15+ 14+ 16+ 16+ 17+
2-3 14+ 13+ 15+ 15+ 16+
4 13+ 12+ 14+ 14+ 15+
5-6 12+ 11+ 13+ 13+ 14+
7 11+ 10+ 12+ 12+ 13+
8-9 10+ 9+ 11+ 11+ 12+
10 9+ 8+ 10+ 10+ 11+
11-12 8+ 7+ 9+ 9+ 10+
13 7+ 6+ 8+ 8+ 9+
14+ 6+ 5+ 7+ 7+ 8+

*Includes all 0th level humans.

Cleric Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells
1-2 13+ 10+ 16+ 13+ 15+
3-4 12+ 9+ 15+ 12+ 14+
5-6 11+ 8+ 14+ 11+ 13+
7-8 10+ 7+ 13+ 10+ 12+
9-10 9+ 6+ 12+ 9+ 11+
11-12 8+ 5+ 11+ 8+ 10+
13-14+ 7+ 4+ 10+ 7+ 9+

Mage Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells
1-3 13+ 13+ 15+ 11+ 12+
4-6 12+ 12+ 14+ 10+ 11+
7-9 11+ 11+ 13+ 9+ 10+
10-12 10+ 10+ 12+ 8+ 9+
13-14+ 9+ 9+ 11+ 7+ 8+

Thief Saving Throws

Level Petrification & Paralysis Poison & Death Blast & Breath Staffs & Wands Spells
1-2 13+ 13+ 16+ 14+ 15+
3-4 12+ 12+ 15+ 13+ 14+
5-6 11+ 11+ 14+ 12+ 13+
7-8 10+ 10+ 13+ 11+ 12+
9-10 9+ 9+ 12+ 10+ 11+
11-12 8+ 8+ 11+ 9+ 10+
13-14+ 7+ 7+ 10+ 8+ 9+

Special Maneuvers

Not every action in combat will be a sword swing, arrow shot, or fireball. The rules below explain how to handle everything from a punch with a platemail gauntlet to a giant tossing a dwarf. Except where otherwise noted, monsters with an attack routine (such as claw/claw/bite or multiple tentacles) can use any or all attacks from their attack routine to perform special maneuvers. Example: A giant octopus with eight tentacles might force back an opponent with one tentacle, wrestle an opponent with another tentacle, and attack normally with the remaining 6 tentacles.

Brawling

Sometimes a combatant will attack without a weapon, striking with a fist or foot. This is called brawling. Normal characters do 1d3 points of nonlethal damage with a punch, 1d4 with a kick; kicks are rolled at a -2 penalty on the attack throw. Standard Strength adjustments apply. (See the Nonlethal Damage section, above, for details on nonlethal damage.) All character classes may engage in brawling; there is no "weapon" restriction in this case.

However, a character in light or no armor cannot successfully punch or kick a character in metal armor - if this is attempted, the damage is applied to the attacker instead of the defender. The Judge must decide which monsters can be successfully brawled with based on their AC and physical make-up. Monsters do not themselves brawl, as they have natural attacks that are as good as weapons.

Disarm

A combatant may try to disarm his opponent in lieu of making a melee attack. To disarm an opponent, the combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. The opponent must then make a successful saving throw versus Paralysis to hold onto his weapon. If he fails, the weapon is knocked 5' away.

Force Back

Sometimes a combatant will want to force an opponent back into an obstacle, through a doorway, or off a cliff, instead of making a melee attack. To force back an opponent, the combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. The opponent must then make a saving throw versus Paralysis.

If the combatant is significantly larger than the opponent (an ogre or horse forcing back a man, for instance) the opponent suffers a -4 penalty on his saving throw. If the opponent succeeds, he stands his ground. If the opponent fails, he is forced back a number of feet equal to a normal damage roll by the combatant. If this would push the opponent into a wall or obstacle, the opponent is knocked down, taking 1d6 points of damage per 10' he has traveled.

If the opponent is pushed into another character or monster, he is knocked down if the character or monster he is pushed into is as large or larger than him. If the character or monster he is pushed into is smaller, the character/monster is instead knocked down, and the opponent continues to be forced back.

Incapacitate

Combatants can attempt to knock out rather than kill their opponents by attacking with the "flat of the blade", pulling their blows, and so on. To make an incapacitating attack with a weapon, the combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. If successful, the attack deals nonlethal damage. Brawling attacks (see above) are always nonlethal damage.

Knock Down

A combatant may try to trip, sweep, or otherwise knock his opponent down in lieu of making a melee attack. To knock down an opponent, the combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. The opponent must then make a successful saving throw versus Paralysis to stay on his feet. If the opponent fails, he immediately falls prone. Attack throws against prone combatants gain a +2 bonus, and thieves may backstab prone opponents. A prone combatant may get up on his round instead of moving, or crawl at a speed of 5' per round. If he attacks while prone, he suffers a -4 penalty on his attack throw.

Overrun

If a combatant wants to move through an opponent without stopping to fight him, this is an overrun. To overrun an opponent, the combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. The opponent must then make a saving throw versus Paralysis. If the combatant is significantly larger than the opponent (an ogre or horse overrunning a man, for instance) the opponent suffers a -4 penalty on his saving throw. If successful, the opponent can choose to block the combatant, but the combatant may deal damage against the opponent as if he had struck him in melee. If the opponent fails on his saving throw, or chooses not to block the combatant, the combatant may move through the opponent and continue up to his combat movement. A successful overrun does not count as a combatant's attack for the round, and a combatant may make multiple overruns. For instance, a combatant could overrun 2 goblins and then attack the witch-doctor they were guarding.

Sunder

In lieu of a melee attack, a combatant may try to break his opponent's weapon or shield with a forceful blow. To sunder a weapon or shield, a combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw. There is a -4 penalty on the attack throw to sunder staffs, spears, and polearms, and a -6 penalty on the attack throw to sunder any other weapons or shields. If the attack throw succeeds, the opponent must then make a successful saving throw versus Paralysis. Subtract any magic bonus from the sundering weapon from the save, and add any magic bonus from the targeted weapon or shield. Daggers, swords, and shields gain a +4 bonus on the save, while staffs, spears and pole arms suffer a -4 penalty. If the saving throw is successful, the opponent's weapon or shield is unharmed. If the saving throw is unsuccessful, the opponent's weapon or shield is broken. Regardless of the attack and saving throw result, magic weapons and shields can only be sundered by weapons with a magic bonus equal to or greater than their own.

Wrestling

Instead of making a melee attack, a combatant may attempt to wrestle with his opponent. To wrestle an opponent, a combatant must succeed on a melee attack throw with a -4 penalty. The opponent must then make a saving throw versus Paralysis. If the combatant is significantly larger than the opponent (an ogre wrestling a man, for instance) the opponent suffers a -4 penalty on his saving throw. If the opponent succeeds on his saving throw, he has shrugged off the combatant. If he fails, he has been grabbed in a wrestling hold. A combatant who has grabbed an opponent may perform a brawl, force back, disarm, or knock down action each round without having to make an attack throw so long as the hold continues (the opponent still receives a saving throw). A knock down or force back will end the hold, unless the wrestling combatant chooses to move with his held opponent. Other combatants are at +4 on attack throws against the held opponent, and thieves may backstab him. The held opponent may make another saving throw versus Paralysis each round to attempt to escape the hold.

Special Maneuvers Between Opponents of Vastly Different Size or Unusual Shape

Sometimes, combatants may attempt to perform Special Maneuvers against opponents that are much larger than them (such as wrestling a hill giant), or that benefit from an unusual shape (such as knocking down a giant snake or a centaur). In these cases, the Judge can give the opponent a +4 or more bonus on its saving throw, or simply rule that the attempt automatically fails. Conversely, when exceptionally large combatants perform Special Maneuvers against opponents much smaller than them, the Judge may rule that the saving throw penalty is -6, -8, or greater.

Morale Rolls

Player characters always have a choice whether they will fight, surrender, or run away in an encounter. The Judge decides whether monsters surrender or run away. Monsters have a listing for morale, which represents how likely they are to fight or flee when in an encounter. Morale is rated from -6 to +4. A score of -6 indicates that the monster never fights (unless absolutely cornered), while a score of +4 indicates the monster will fight until killed, with no morale roll necessary in either case.

The Judge usually makes morale rolls under two conditions: when one side of an encounter has lost a member due to death, or when half the group on one side is either killed or otherwise incapacitated. If both results occur in the same round, one morale roll is made at a -2 penalty. Solo monsters roll morale when they lose half their hit points. To make a morale roll, the Judge rolls 2d6, adding the morale rating of the monsters, along with any other adjustments he feels are reasonable, and consults the Monster Morale table.

Monster Morale

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Retreat
3-5 Fighting Withdrawal
6-8 Fight On
9-11 Advance and Pursue
12+ Victory or Death

Retreat means that the monsters will make a full retreat (as explained under Defensive Movement) on their next action. Fighting Withdrawal means the monsters will make a fighting withdrawal (as per Defensive Movement) on their next action. The monsters will continue to retreat/withdraw until they are no longer pursued by any enemies, or until a minimum of 1d10 rounds have elapsed. If there is no possibility of escape, the monsters will attempt to surrender, fighting only as a last resort. A result of Fight On means that the monsters will continue the battle without retreating, but they will not pursue if their opponents flee. Advance and Pursue means the monsters will continue the battle without retreating, going on the offensive where possible, and pursuing should the characters retreat. On a Victory or Death result, the monsters will fight on without retreating or needing to roll morale for the remainder of the battle. They will pursue any retreating opponents, and fight with ferocity and grim determination.

The Judge may decide to apply bonuses or penalties to morale, with a range of -2 to +2, depending on the circumstances. These adjustments are never applied to monsters with morale of -6 or +4, because they are at the extremes.

When a character makes an attempt to surrender to monster, it is up to the Judge to decide whether the opponent even listens, and under what terms the monster will accept surrender. Characters decide how to react if their opponent makes an attempt to surrender. Usually, monsters will only try to surrender if they have no way to escape the encounter.

Mounted Combat

While combatants will rarely be mounted in dungeons, they will often be mounted during wilderness encounters. The following rules apply during mounted combat.

Mounted Initiative and Movement

The rider and his mount move on the rider's initiative number. When the initiative number comes up, they may move up to the mount's combat movement distance. After combat movement, either the mount or the rider (but not both) may attack an opponent in range. Alternatively, the mount may move at its running movement rate (e.g. triple its normal combat movement rate), but neither the rider nor mount may then attack (except in a charge, described below).

After any attacks are resolved, the rider and mount may not move again until the next round. If they are engaged they must abide by the rules under Defensive Movement. Riders wishing to cast spells must keep their mount stationary. In lieu of moving or attacking, the rider may dismount.

Mounted Attacks

If the rider and mount remain stationary, both may attack. Otherwise either the mount or the rider may attack when their movement is completed. In order to attack while mounted, a rider must have the appropriate Riding proficiency for his mount.

Under some circumstances, a warhorse (or similar creature, e.g. dire wolf) and its rider may both make a charge attack after a running move. To qualify for a charge, the rider and mount must be unengaged and have a reasonably clear, straight path to an opponent at least 20' away. The charge gives both the rider and the mount a +2 bonus on their attack throws, but both take a -2 penalty to Armor Class until the next time their initiative number comes up. Charges with spears, lances, pole arms, and the natural attacks of certain monsters deal double damage on a successful charge.

Example: Marcus is armed with a lance and mounted on a medium warhorse (60' combat movement). His opponent, an ogre, is 90' away across flat, even ground. Marcus and his warhorse make a running move to engage the ogre. This qualifies as a charge (because the ogre was more than 20' away and they had a clear, straight path) so both Marcus and his mount get to attack. Marcus will attack with his lance and inflict double damage if he hits. His warhorse will strike with its two hooves. Both Marcus and his warhorse get +2 to their attack throws, but suffer a -2 penalty to AC this round.

When a rider conducts a force back or overrun special maneuver, the Judge should use the mount's size to evaluate whether the opponent receives a saving throw penalty because of size difference.

Mounts and Damage

A character in combat without a military saddle must save versus Paralysis every time he or his mount is dealt damage or be knocked off the mount. If a mount is reduced to half its hit points, it must make a morale roll or flee the battle. A character with Riding proficiency may attempt to calm his fleeing mount. This allows the mount to make a new morale roll each round.

If either the character or mount is reduced to 0 hit points, the character falls off the mount and takes 1d6 points of damage. Characters falling off of aerial mounts take 1d6 per 10' fallen.

Sea Combat

A few special provisions apply during combat at sea.

Ship Initiative

Ships move on their captain's initiative roll. Ship-mounted weapons, and crew on board the ship, act on their own initiative.

Structural Hit Points

During sea combat, attack throws and damage may be directed at sea vessels in addition to characters and monsters. A sea vessel's ability to remain afloat despite damage is determined by its structural hit points (shp), which are similar to hit points (hp) belonging to characters and monsters. When a ship reaches 0 or less shp, it will sink in 1d10 rounds.

Damage to a vessel also reduces its movement rate. A vessel's movement rate is reduced by a percentage equal to the percentage of its shp lost, rounded to the nearest 10%. For example, if a ship loses 20% of its shp, its movement rate will also be reduced by 20%. Movement is also affected in a similar manner when the number of rowers is reduced, such as when rowers are used to repair damage. For example, if 10% of a ship's rowers are being used to repair vessel damage, the ship's movement rate will also be reduced by 10%. If a ship is reduced to 0 or less shp, it may no longer move under its own power or attack with any ship-mounted weaponry, although its crew may still attack with personal weapons.

Structural hit points cannot be "healed," but they can be repaired. It takes 5 crewmembers 1 turn to repair 1 shp. This task requires full attention, so any crew involved in repair cannot take any other action during a turn spent repairing a vessel. Only half of all damage sustained to a ship can be repaired at sea by the crew. The remaining damage can only be repaired by facilities at dock.

Unless otherwise noted, giant sea monsters and magical attacks will do 1 structural hit point of damage for every 5 points of damage their attack normally does. This is important to note, because some monster or spell descriptions list shp damage when directed at vessels.

Ship-to-Ship Combat

Combat between ships (or ships and sea monsters) is fought in combat rounds following the standard rules. However, ship-to-ship combat often involves ballista, catapults, rams, and boarding actions, all of which are detailed below.

Ballista

Rate of fire: 1/5 rounds with 4 crew; 1/8 rounds with 3 crew; 1/10 rounds with 2 crew
Range: 0-200 yards
Attacks as: As the lowest level member of the crew
Damage: 3d6 shp or 3d6 hp

Ballistae can be operated by a variable number of crew, which will affect rate of fire and attack throws as indicated above. Ballistae fire solid missiles that deal 3d6 shp of damage. If ballistae are used against characters or monsters, they do 3d6 hp of damage to all creatures in a 5' line.

Catapult

Rate of fire: 1/5 rounds with 4 crew; 1/8 rounds with 3 crew; 1/10 rounds with 2 crew
Range: 150-300 yards (light) /200-400 yards (heavy)
Attacks as: As the lowest level member of the crew
Damage: boulder 3d6/4d6 shp or 3d6/4d6 hp; combustible pitch 1d6/2d6 shp fire per turn or 1d6/2d6 hp fire per round

Catapults can be operated by a variable number of crew, which will affect rate of fire and attack throws as indicated above. When firing boulders, light catapults deal 3d6 shp of damage while heavy catapults deal 4d6 shp of damage. When firing combustible pitch, light catapults deal 1d6 shp of fire damage per turn while heavy catapults deal 2d6 shp of fire damage per turn. It takes a minimum of 5 crewmembers 3 turns to extinguish flames caused by a shot of pitch. For every five additional crewmembers, this time can be reduced by 1 turn to a minimum of 1 turn.

When catapults firing boulders are used against characters or monsters, light catapults deal 3d6 hp of damage in a 5' radius area while heavy catapults deal 4d6 hp of damage in a 10' radius. Catapults firing combustible pitch deal 1d6 (light) or 2d6 (heavy) hp of fire damage to creatures each round they remain in a 5' area (light) or 10' area (heavy). A catapult cannot be used to attack a ship, or characters on a ship, that is closer than the minimum range indicated.

Ram

Range: Touch
Attacks as: Monster of under 1 HD
Damage: small vessel (1d4+4) x10 shp or 3d8 hp; large vessel (1d6+5) x10 shp or 6d6 hp

In order to ram a monster or enemy vessel, the ramming vessel must reduce the range to 0' and then make a successful attack throw against the target's AC. The different damages listed for a ram apply as follows. The first shp value listed applies to small vessels ramming another vessel, while the first hp value listed applies to small ships ramming large aquatic monsters. Similarly, the second damage values apply to rams on larger ships to other ships or large aquatic monsters, respectively.

Boarding Actions

Range: Touch
Attacks as: See below

In order to board an enemy vessel, the boarding vessel must reduce the range to 0'. If the occupants of both side-by-side vessels wish to board one another, their mutual intent makes the action succeed with no chance of failure. If only one side wishes to board the other, then the side that wishes to board must throw 13+ on 1d20 to successfully maneuver the two ships to a boarding position and clamp them together with grappling hooks. Grappling may be attempted each round the ships are adjacent. The Judge can apply a bonus or penalty to the die roll based on the experience and skill of the opposing ship's captains. Once crewmembers come into contact with one another, combat ensues following the standard combat rules. On the round that characters are in the act of boarding another ship, they suffer a penalty of -2 to attack throws and Armor Class. Boarding actions continue until the crew of one ship or the other is killed or surrenders.

Swimming and Drowning

Any combatant without a swimming movement rate (described in Chapter 8 under Monster Characteristics) must make a swimming throw each round he is in water too deep for him to stand. The target value for the swimming throw is equal to the combatant's encumbrance in stone. If the water is cold, rough, or fast-moving, the Judge may impose a penalty on the swimming throw of -2, -4, or more.

A successful swimming throw allows the combatant to move and act during the round. Swimming movement may be based on either the combatant's combat or running movement rate, in either case being 1/4 the normal rate. A swimming combatant using combat movement may attack after his movement. A swimming combatant using running movement may not attack, and is subject to exhaustion as per the running rules.

A failed swimming throw means the combatant begins drowning. A spellcaster that begins drowning loses any spell he was attempting to cast that round. Drowning combatants cannot take any actions and no longer make swimming throws. They sink 10' per round per stone of encumbrance, and will die after 10 rounds unless rescued.

Earning Experience from Adventures

Adventures are dangerous, but the rewards are great. All characters that make it through an adventure alive receive experience points (XP). Experience points are gained from two sources while on adventures: treasure and monsters.

Experience from Treasure

Characters gain XP from treasure they recover from the dungeon or wilderness and bring back to civilization. For purposes of earning XP, "civilization" is the nearest friendly town or stronghold. Sometimes figuring out how to get a dragon's hoard back to town can be an adventure in itself.

The characters receive 1 XP per 1 gold piece (gp) value of coin, gems, jewelry, and special treasure (e.g., art, furs, silks) recovered on adventures. If the characters recover equipment on adventures, they must immediately sell the equipment for coin to get XP. If they keep the equipment for later use, they receive no XP from it. If the party recovers magic items on an adventure, and sells them without using them, they receive 1 XP per 1gp earned in the sale. If the characters use the magic items, they do not get any XP, even if they later sell them. (This is to prevent characters from using magic items to help them adventure, then selling the magic items for XP later, essentially benefiting twice from the same item.)

Characters do not earn treasure XP from wages earned or business transactions - this is not treasure recovered from an adventure. Characters also do not earn treasure XP from recovering monster parts on adventures - this is experience from monsters.

Experience from Monsters

All defeated monsters (either outsmarted, captured, or killed), grant XP based on how powerful they are. Monsters begin with a base XP determined by Hit Dice (HD), and receive a bonus for each special ability they have (fire breath, spell-like abilities, etc.). Refer to the Monster Experience Points table below. To determine the number of special abilities a monster has, count the number of asterisks next to its Hit Dice in its Monster Listing in Chapter 8.

To calculate a monster's XP, begin with the base XP value for its Hit Dice. Add the value for the XP bonus per ability, multiplied by the number of special abilities the monster has. A lamia is a HD 9 with 3 special abilities, so her bonus XP is (3 x 700 = 2,100). A group of adventurers receives 3,100 XP (1,000 + 2,100) for each lamia they defeat.

Monster Experience Points

Monster HD Base XP Bonus XP/Ability
Less than 1 5 1
1 10 3
1+ 15 6
2 20 9
2+ 35 12
3 50 15
3+ 65 35
4 80 55
4+ 140 75
5 200 150
5+ 260 200
6 320 250
6+ 380 300
7 440 350
7+ 500 400
8 600 500
9 700 600
10 850 700
11 1,000 800
12 1,200 900
13 1,400 1,000
14 1,600 1,100
15 1,800 1,200
16 2,000 1,300
17 2,200 1,400
18 2,400 1,500
19 2,600 1,600
20 2,800 1,800
21* 3,000 2,000

*For monsters of HD 22 and higher, add a cumulative 250 XP for the Base and Bonus categories.

Allocating XP

The totals for each monster defeated are calculated and added to the value of all XP from treasure, and the sum for all XP is divided among all surviving party members and henchmen evenly, with henchmen receiving a 1/2 share each. For example, if the group kills a 5 HD monster worth 200 XP, and finds a gold statue worth 500gp and a gem worth 250gp, these are added up to 950 XP, and divided evenly between the characters.

XP is divided only among characters alive when the party returns to civilization, even if other characters were alive when the monsters were slain or the treasure was first found. Characters that are slain on an adventure, but are raised from the dead while still in the dungeon or wilderness, and are alive to return to civilization, do get XP.

Adjustments to XP

Characters receive XP bonuses or penalties based on their score in their class prime requisites, as detailed in Chapter 2, Characters. All bonuses or penalties are applied to the grand total XP a particular character receives at the end of an adventure. For example, if Balbus the Blessed receives 1,200 XP at the end of an adventure, and he has a prime requisite that grants him +10% to experience, then the total XP after this bonus that Balbus receives is 1,320 XP ((1,200 x .10) + 1,200 = 1,320).

Character Advancement

When a character has accumulated enough XP to go up in level, the player should do the following:

  1. Note down the character's new level and title and the number of XP needed to advance to the next level.

  2. Roll for additional hit points using the appropriate Hit Die, adding his character's Constitution bonus or penalty. Hit points always increase by at least one point, regardless of the character's Constitution.

  3. Check to see if the character has improved or gained any class abilities and write them down on the character sheet.

  4. Choose any new proficiencies from the Proficiencies chapter and any new spells from the Spells chapter that the character may be eligible for.

  5. Update the character's attack throws and saving throws.

Characters can never earn enough experience to advance 2 levels or more in one adventure. For example, if Arial is a 1st level elven spellsword with 0 XP, she should receive no more than 7,999 XP in one adventure (a huge sum!), which is 1 XP short of reaching 3rd level.

Character Death

Not every character who becomes an adventurer will advance to maximum level. The fate of many characters is to die along the way. Dead characters can sometimes be brought back to life for another adventure, but even with powerful magic available, some characters will be permanently slain.

When this occurs, the player may begin to play a henchman of his deceased character, bring a back-up character into play (if any are available), or roll up a new character. With the Judge's permission, the new character can be the heir of the prior character. The Judge might allow players to create a will for their characters, to leave treasure behind for an heir. If this is done, the treasure must be stored with a reputable bank, which will charge a total of 10% of the treasure for their services. A player might try to leave money to an heir through less safe means, such as burying it and leaving a map behind, but this is more risky.

Unless the player begins playing an existing henchman, a character's heir is assumed to be a new 1st level character, and a player is only allowed to leave a character inheritance one time. A player can allow his heir to begin at a higher level by establishing a reserve fund of experience points that will be available to the player should his original character be permanently killed and he needs to roll up an heir. The number of experience points in the reserve is equal to 90% of the gold piece value of money allocated to the reserve.

Money is allocated to the reserve by spending it to no other tangible game benefit whatsoever. This could include anonymous tithes to churches; reckless spending on wine, women, and song; elaborate funeral pyres for deceased henchmen; and so on.

Example: Amargein, a 5th level fighter, returns from a successful adventure laden with gold. In a reckless orgy, he spends 3,400gp carousing through a large port city. As this is money spent to no real in-game benefit, Amargein's player notes that he has set aside a reserve XP fund of 3,060xp (90% of the amount spent carousing). On his next adventure, Amargein is tragically slain. When Amargein's player rolls up a new character, he will begin with 3,060xp, which is used to advance his character before play begins.

0th Level Characters and Experience from Adventuring

A 0th level character who participates in an adventure will earn experience points. When a 0th level character earns 100 XP from adventuring, he advances to become a 1st level fighter. The character gains the fighter class proficiency, powers, attack throws, and saving throws. The character re-rolls his hit points using his new class's Hit Die (1d8), keeping either his new hp total or his prior hp total if it was higher. The new 1st level character retains any general proficiencies he already knew. When he advances to 2nd, 3rd, and 4th level, he must remove one of these pre-existing general proficiencies, representing the erosion of his old professional skills over time. When he reaches 4th level, he acquires the Adventuring proficiency. Under normal circumstances, 0th level characters do not advance into classes other than fighters from adventuring XP.


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Chapter 7: Campaigns

If the adventurers fare well they will accumulate fame, wealth, and power over many adventures. Eventually they will seek to put a permanent mark on their world. Some may pursue spiritual leadership, creating throngs of zealous worshippers, or magical power, plumbing the depths of lost lore to learn new spells, craft mighty golems, or even become undead. Others may seek temporal power by establishing a stronghold and ruling a domain, or material riches by pursuing mercantile trade and other ventures.

Level Magic Research
0* 18+
1* 16+
2* 15+
3* 14+
4* 13+
5 12+
6 11+
7 10+
8 9+
9 8+
10 7+
11 6+
12 5+
13 4+
14 3+

*May only assist higher level casters

Magic Research

Up until 4th level, spellcasters cannot engage in magic research except by serving as assistants for more powerful casters (as described later). Starting at 5th level, spellcasters may begin to independently research spells, scribe scrolls, and brew potions. When a spellcaster reaches 9th level, he is able to create more powerful magic items such as weapons, rings, and staffs. At 11th level, spellcasters may learn and cast ritual spells of great power and craft magical constructs such as golems and animated statues. If chaotic, the spellcaster will be able to create necromantic servants and even become undead himself. These options are described in detail below.

All magical research requires a magic research throw to succeed. A result that is greater than or equal to the magical research target value listed for the spellcaster's level indicates the task has been a success. The spellcaster adds his Intelligence bonus to the die roll, and if he has the Magical Engineering proficiency he may add his proficiency rank. An unmodified die roll of 1-3 is always a failure when conducting magical research, however.

When a magic research throw fails, the time and money spent on the research is lost. In addition, any precious materials or special components (described below) are consumed.

Researching Spells

A spellcaster of 5th level or higher may use spell research to gain access to spells that he does not have access to from scrolls, spell books, or (if a divine spellcaster) his deity. Spell research costs 1,000gp, and takes two weeks of research, per level of the spell. Spell research requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by 1/2 the level of the spell, rounded down, being researched. Example: Quintus is an 11th level mage researching a 4th level spell. It will take 8 weeks and cost 4,000gp, and require a magic research throw of 8+ to succeed.

A spellcaster may also use spell research to create a new spell. The spellcaster must describe in detail the kind of spell he wants to create, and the effects it will have. The Judge will then determine if the spell can be created, and if so what the spell level will be. The spellcaster must be capable of casting spells of the spell level the potential new spell will be; otherwise he must wait until he attains a high enough level to research and cast the spell. When throwing to create a new spell, the target value is increased by the level of the spell rather than 1/2 the level.

Spell research can also identify the properties of a magic item. It takes 1,000gp and two weeks of research to identify a magic item, and a magic research throw is required. Note that potions and common magic items can be quickly identified with the Alchemy and Magical Engineering proficiencies, described in Chapter 4.

A mage or other arcane caster can only research a spell if he can still learn spells of that level. A cleric or other divine caster can only research a spell with the permission of his deity (Judge's discretion). The deity will usually remove a spell of the same level from the cleric's spell list in exchange for granting the new spell.

Libraries

To research a spell, a spellcaster must have access to a library. Wizard's guilds and major temples often will provide their mages and clerics access to such a library. If a spellcaster wishes to compile his own library, a minimum of 4,000gp must be invested to allow research on 1st level spells. For each subsequent spell level to be researched, another 2,000gp must be invested. Having an exceptionally large library aids research. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the spell, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw (up to a maximum +3 bonus).

Every time a wizard successfully researches a spell, 10% of the gold spent for that effect is added to his library value, reflecting the value of notes and annotations made during research. Authoritative tomes or rare books found as treasure might provide an additional bonus to research specific spells or types of spells.

Creating Magical Items

Starting at 5th level, spellcasters may begin to scribe scrolls and brew potions. At 9th level, they may begin to make other types of magic items, such as rods, rings, swords, and other items. An arcane spellcaster may never create magic items that are exclusive to divine spellcasters. A divine spellcaster may make any item his class is eligible to use. For instance, a 9th level bladedancer could create a sword +1, leather armor +1, or staff of healing, but not a bow +1 or wand of illusion.

In order to create a magic item, the spellcaster must know the spell(s) that replicate the magic item's effect, or must find a sample or formula of the item. If a magic item's effect does not compare to any existing spell, the spellcaster must either research a new spell that will produce the desired effect, or he must find a sample or formula of the item.

Cost and Time

The base cost and time required to create a magic item is listed on the Magic Item Creation table.

Magic Research Throw

Creating a magic item requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by the level of the spell being enchanted into the item. If multiple effects are being enchanted, each must be rolled separately. A +1 item bonus is considered a 1st level spell, a +2 item bonus is considered a single 3rd level spell, and a +3 item bonus is considered a single 6th level spell.

Formulas and Samples

A formula is a magical "recipe" for the creation of an item. A spellcaster automatically has a formula for any magic item he has previously created. Formulas may also be found as treasure. A sample is simply an existing magic item that is available to the spellcaster while he is working.

There are three advantages to having a formula or sample:

Precious Materials

Rare woods, noble metals, such as silver, gold, and platinum, and precious gems, such as rubies and diamonds, retain magic better than common woods, crude metals, or simple stone. Using precious materials can thus improve the chances of success of creating a magic item. For every 10,000gp of value in gems, jewelry, precious metals, and rare or elaborately carved woods added, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw. A character may not spend more on precious materials than the base cost of the item.

Special Components

Creating magic items requires special components for each spell effect in the item. Components are usually organs or blood from one or more monsters with a total XP value equal to the gp cost of the research. The cost of any special components is in addition to the base cost of the research. If a character does not have a formula when he begins creating the item, he will not learn the special components until the work is 50% complete. The Judge will determine the specific components required for each item. Different formulas for the same item may require different components. For instance, one formula for a wand of fireball might require the fangs of 20 hellhounds, while another formula for a wand of fireball might require the ichor of four efreeti.

Workshops

Just as a spellcaster needs a library to research spells, he needs a workshop in order to create magic items. Wizard's guilds and major temples often will provide their mages and clerics access to a workshop. If a spellcaster wishes to build his own workshop, a minimum of 4,000gp must be invested to allow creation of 1st level spell effects or item bonuses. For each subsequent spell level or bonus, another 2,000gp must be invested. Having an exceptionally valuable workshop aids item creation. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the spell, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw (up to a maximum +3 bonus).

Assistants

An assistant is a mage or other arcane spellcaster of at least 1st level that is under the employ of a 9th level or higher arcane spellcaster. 0th level characters with two ranks in Alchemy may function as assistants in the creation of potions. A spellcaster of 9th level or higher may supervise one assistant, plus an additional assistant for each point of his Intelligence bonus. Whenever the spellcaster works on item creation, each assistant can be assigned an additional magical item creation task. The assistant must have a formula or sample to work from. The assistant's chance of successfully creating the item is based on the assistant's level. Assistants enable a spellcaster to focus his attention on the most challenging magic item creation tasks, leaving less critical tasks to his apprentices and minions.

Magic Item Creation

Item Type Base Cost Time
One Use Effect 500gp x spell level 1 week x spell level
Charged Effect 500gp x spell level x charges* 2 days x spell level x charges
Permanent Effect, Unlimited Use 500gp x spell level x 50 100 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 1/turn 500gp x spell level x 33 80 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 1/3 turns 500gp x spell level x 25 70 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 1/hour 500gp x spell level x 16 60 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 3/day 500gp x spell level x 12 50 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 1/day 500gp x spell level x 10 40 days x spell level
Permanent Effect, Use 1/week 500gp x spell level x 6 30 days x spell level
Magical Weapon +1 5,000gp** 1 month x weapon base cost / 10***
- Increase bonus from +1 to +2 +10,000gp** +1 month x weapon base cost / 10***
- Increase bonus from +2 to +3 +20,000gp** +1 month x weapon base cost / 10***
Magical Armor +1 5,000gp** 1 month x Armor Class
- Increase bonus from +1 to +2 +10,000gp** +1 month
- Increase bonus from +2 to +3 +20,000gp** +1 month

*If a charged item has multiple spell effects powered by the same charges, use the base cost and time for the highest level spell effect, plus half the base cost and time for each other spell effect. The minimum time to create a charged item is never less than 1 week per spell level of the highest level effect.

**If the weapon or armor has a bonus that is restricted to a particular class or type of opponents, the extra bonus is half price. If the weapon or armor is enchanted with spell-like effects, the spell-like effects are enchanted separately using the cost and time for charged or permanent effects.

***Arrows, bolts, and slingstones are enchanted in bundles of 20 at a base cost of 10gp.

Sample Magic Item Time, Cost, and Components

Item Type Base Cost Time Possible Special Components
Potion of Healing 500gp 1 week Blood of 1 troll
Scroll of Fly 1,500gp 3 weeks Feathers of 3 griffons
Wand of Fireball (20 charges) 30,000gp 120 days Fangs of 37 greater hellhounds
Ring of Invisibility (1/turn) 33,000gp 160 days Ichor of 30 invisible stalkers
Sword +1 5,000gp 1 month Skulls of 36 ogres or heroes
Sword +2 15,000gp 2 months Skulls of 107 ogres or heroes
Sword +1, +2 v. spellcasters 10,000gp 1.5 months Skulls of 36 ogres and 36 spellcasters
Plate Armor +1 5,000gp 6 months Iron hides of 3 gorgons

Ritual Spells

Arcane and divine spellcasters who reach 11th level or higher may learn to cast very powerful enchantments known as ritual spells. Ritual spells include arcane spells of the 7th, 8th, and 9th spell level, and divine spells of the 6th and 7th level spell levels. Learning one of these mighty dweomers resembles spell research, while actually casting the ritual resembles creating a magic item with one charge.

Each ritual spell must be learned separately. A spellcaster may only know a total number of rituals of each spell level equal to his ability score bonus in his prime requisite (INT or WIS). Example: Quintus, an 11th level mage with 16 Intelligence, could learn 2 arcane ritual spells of 7th, 8th, and 9th level. Balbus, an 11th level cleric with 14 Wisdom, could learn 1 divine ritual spell of 6th and 7th level.

Learning a ritual spell costs 1,000gp, and takes two weeks of research, per spell level. Learning a ritual requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by the level of the spell being researched. Learning a ritual requires a library, as described under Spell Research, and the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his magic research throw from using a large library.

Casting a ritual spell costs 500gp, and takes one week, per spell level. Casting a ritual requires another magic research throw, with the target value for this throw increased by the level of the spell being cast. Casting a ritual requires a workshop, as described under Magic Item Creation, and the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his throw from using a valuable workshop. Casting a ritual spell also requires special components, as with magic items. The spellcaster learns the special components required when he learns to cast the ritual. By using precious materials, the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his magic research throw, as described above.

When a ritual spell is cast, the spellcaster may choose to have the ritual take effect immediately, or he may store the spell effect on a scroll or as a charge in a ring (like a ring of wishes). Storing the spell effect does not have an additional cost - the act of casting a ritual spell is identical to that of creating a single charge of a magic item with the spell effect.

A short list of ritual spells is included below. The Judge could make available additional rituals spells from a variety of other compatible fantasy games or develop a list of ritual spells unique to his campaign.

Harvest*

Divine Ritual 6
Range: 500 square miles (1 24-mile hex)
Duration: 12 months

Harvest enables the caster to channel divine energy into the land around him, blessing it with fertile soil and bountiful harvests. Harvest increases the Land Value of the domain the caster is in by 2gp per peasant family for the next 12 months. See Collecting Revenue in the Strongholds and Domains section for details on Land Value.

Ravage, the reverse of harvest, decreases by 2gp per peasant family the Land Value of the domain the caster is in at the time of casting. A ravage spell expires after 12 months. It can also be undone by a remove curse cast by a spellcaster of equal or greater level, or by a harvest spell.

Resurrection*

Divine Ritual 7
Range: touch
Duration: permanent

This spell functions like restore life and limb, except that upon completion of the spell, the creature is immediately restored to full hit points, vigor, and health, with no side effects or lingering exhaustion. The condition of the creature's remains is not a factor. So long as some small portion of the creature's body still exists, it can be resurrected. The creature can have been dead no longer than 10 years per caster level.

Destruction, the reverse of resurrection, causes the victim touched by the caster to die immediately and fall to dust with no saving throw.

Phase Door

Arcane Ritual 7
Range: touch
Duration: 1 passage per 2 levels

This spell creates an ethereal passage through wooden, plaster, or stone walls, but not other materials. This passage is 10' deep with a 5' diameter. The phase door is invisible and inaccessible to all creatures except the caster, and only the caster can use the passage. The caster disappears when entering the phase door and reappears when exiting. If the caster desires, he can take one other creature (human-sized or smaller) through the door. This counts as two uses of the door. The door does not allow light, sound, or spell effects through it, nor can it be seen through. A phase door is subject to dispel magic. If anyone is within the passage when it is dispelled, he is harmlessly ejected just as if he were inside a passwall effect.

Permanency

Arcane Ritual 8
Range: 10'
Duration: permanent

Using a permanency spell, the spellcaster can make permanent another arcane spell effect of lower level. Spells can be made permanent on creatures, items, or areas. Some spells commonly made permanent on creatures are detect magic, protection from evil, read languages, detect invisible, and fly. Some spells commonly made permanent on areas are light, magic mouth, phantasmal force, hallucinatory terrain, confusion, and cloudkill.

This is not an exclusive list, and other spells can also be made permanent. However, permanency cannot not make permanent any spell which has an "instantaneous" or "permanent" duration (such as dispel magic, fireball, or lightning bolt) and divine spells can only be made permanent with the permission of the deity (Judge's discretion). The Judge can also declare that the permanency will not work with any other specific spell that may damage game balance.

An area can receive any number of permanency spells. An item can receive up to five permanency spells, at increasing risk. There is a cumulative 20% chance of failure for each permanency after the first, and if the permanence fails, it destroys the item completely. A creature can receive one permanency without risk. If the creature receives further permanency spells, it will begin to suffer side effects (roll on the Tampering with Mortality table).

A permanency spell lasts until it is dispelled by either the caster or a higher-level spellcaster. When the permanency is dispelled, the other spell effect vanishes immediately. Using a permanency to bind a spell to an item is not the same as creating a magic item, which uses a different process. True magic items cannot be dispelled, making them far more durable than items which have merely had spells permanently placed upon them.

Wish

Arcane Ritual 9
Range: unlimited
Duration: see below

Wish is the mightiest spell that can be cast. By simply speaking aloud, the caster can alter reality. This spell can accomplish any the effects of any other spell, or create comparable effects. Events can be reversed; the dead can be brought back to life; or an entire army might be healed of damage. An entire group could be teleported to any location with no chance of error. Unique powers or ability bonuses may be wished for at the Judge's discretion, and these might be permanent or temporary depending on the scope of the request. Although another character may be wished dead, such an act disrupts balance and the wish may be fulfilled in a way that the character wished dead is unaffected. For instance, if a character is wished dead, the caster may be transported through time to a point where the victim has already died of natural causes. Wishes will be fulfilled according to the letter of the request, and the Judge can exercise some regulation of wishes based on this strict enforcement. Ultimately, the Judge will have to decide the limits of a wish spell.

Constructs

Arcane and divine spellcasters who reach 11th level or higher may create and design magical constructs such as animated statues, gargoyles, and golems. Because of their proficiency with crafts, dwarven craftpriests can create and design magical constructs starting at 9th level.

Creating Constructs

Creating a construct requires 2,000gp per Hit Die of the construct, plus an additional 5,000gp for each special ability the construct possesses. The spellcaster is limited to creating constructs with HD no more than twice his class level (e.g. a 12th level mage can create constructs of up to 24 HD). The caster must have a formula or sample of the type of construct he wishes to create. Formula can be found as treasure in rare manuals, or developed by the spellcaster (see below). The remains of a construct destroyed in battle can serve as a sample.

The construction takes one week, plus one day per 1,000gp of cost. Creating a construct requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by +1 for every 5,000gp of construct cost.

To build a construct, the spellcaster must have access to a workshop (as above) at least equal in value to the cost of the construct throughout the construction. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the construct, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw. By using precious materials, the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his magic research throw, as described above.

Designing Constructs

Spellcasters may design new, previously unknown constructs. Constructs must have a minimum of 1 HD. The spellcaster is limited to designing constructs with HD no more than twice his class level.

Constructs have a default Armor Class equal to 1/2 their Hit Dice. Most constructs are immune to poison, gas, charm, hold, and sleep spells. These collectively count as one special ability. The construct can be given additional immunities, such as immunity to non-magical weapons, with each extra immunity counting as another special ability.

Constructs may have from one to four attacks per round. Their attacks may inflict up to three times their HD in maximum damage per round. This damage may be divided among all their attacks as desired. Any special attacks or powers count as special abilities.

Designing a construct requires 2,000gp per Hit Die of the construct, plus an additional 5,000gp for each special ability the construct possesses. The design process takes one week, plus one day per 1,000gp of cost. Designing a construct requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by +1 for every 5,000gp of construct cost.

To design a construct, the spellcaster must have access to a library (as above) at least equal in value to the cost of the construct throughout the construction. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the construct, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw. A successful design creates a formula that the spellcaster can use to create the construct.

Example: Quintus, an 11th level mage with 16 INT, is designing a golem. He chooses to design it with 10 HD. This gives the construct a base cost of 2,000gp x 10 or 20,000gp. He wants it to be immune to fire in addition to its standard construct immunities. This means his construct has 2 special abilities, costing an additional 10,000gp, making its total price 30,000gp. At 10 HD, it has a default AC of 5. The construct can inflict a maximum of 30 damage per round, so Quintus decides to give his construct 3 attacks, each doing 1d10 points of damage (3x10 = 30). It will take 37 days to design the construct (1 week + 30,000/1,000). He is using a guild library with a value of 40,000gp. The magic research throw value to design the construct is 12+ (base 6+ plus 30,000/5,000) but Quintus gets a bonus of +2 for his INT bonus and +1 for the library quality [(40,000-30,000)/(10,000)]. Quintus will therefore need to throw 9+ to succeed.

Crossbreeds

Arcane spellcasters who reach 11th level or higher may create crossbreeds by magically blending different progenitor creatures together.

The progenitor creatures must not have HD greater than the arcane spellcaster's class level, and may not have more than one special ability plus one special ability per point of the spellcaster's ability score bonus from Intelligence. Example: Quintus, an 11th level mage with 16 INT, can crossbreed from 11 HD progenitors with 3 special abilities each.

The creator of a magical crossbreed will imbue it with various features and abilities drawn from their progenitors, as explained below.

Alignment: If either progenitor is Chaotic, the crossbreed is Chaotic. If both progenitors are Lawful, the crossbreed is Lawful. Otherwise the crossbreed is Neutral.

Movement: The spellcaster may assign his crossbreed the movement capabilities of either or both progenitors. If it has the movement of both, this counts as a special ability.

Armor Class: The crossbreed will have the AC of the progenitor from which it was assigned its movement capabilities. If it has the movement of both, it will have whichever AC is better.

Hit Dice: The spellcaster may assign his crossbreed the HD of either progenitor, or any amount in between.

Attacks: A crossbreed may be assigned the attacks of either or both progenitors. If it has the attacks of both, this counts as a special ability. If the crossbreed is of greater HD than the progenitor from which it draws its attacks, the damage inflicted by the attacks may be scaled up proportionate to the increase in Hit Dice.

Morale: A crossbreed has the better morale of the two progenitors.

Special Abilities: A crossbreed may have the special abilities of one, both, or none of its progenitors. Each special ability makes the crossbreed more expensive and difficult to create, so the spellcaster may opt to drop some abilities.

Type: All crossbreeds are fantastic creatures. They may also be beastmen, enchanted creatures, giant humanoids, humanoids, oozes, or vermin, depending on their progenitors (Judge's discretion). Whatever their type, crossbreeds heal naturally, and may reproduce with others of their breed. If they still closely resemble one of their progenitors, they may breed with them as well.

The spellcaster must decide on the form his crossbreed will take before beginning the actual process of creating the crossbreed.

Creating Crossbreeds

The actual process of creating the crossbreed costs 2,000gp per Hit Die of the crossbreed, plus an additional 5,000gp per special ability it possesses. The process takes one week plus one day per 1,000gp of cost. Creating a crossbreed requires a magic research throw. The target value for this throw is increased by +1 for every 5,000gp the crossbreeding costs.

Creating a crossbreed does not require any special components beyond the progenitor creatures themselves (which are killed in the process). However, the spellcaster must have access to a special crossbreeding laboratory at least equal in value to the cost of the crossbreed. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the crossbreed, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw. By using precious materials, the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his magic research throw, as described above.

A magical crossbreed is not automatically under the control of the caster. If the more intelligent progenitor was an intelligent and willing participant in the crossbreeding, the magical crossbreed will have the same relationship with the caster as the progenitor did. Otherwise, the Judge should make a reaction roll to determine the crossbreed's reaction to the caster. If the crossbreed is unfriendly or hostile, the caster could try to tame, train, or charm it using specialists or spells; imprison it in his dungeon; or just unleash it onto the world.

Necromancy

Chaotic spellcasters who reach 11th level or higher may transform creatures into intelligent undead through the black arts of necromancy. The undead must not have HD greater than the spellcaster's class level, and may not have more than one special ability plus one special ability per point of the spellcaster's ability score bonus from Intelligence. Example: Quintus, an 11th level mage with 16 INT, can transform creatures into undead with up to 11 HD with 3 special abilities each.

Granting Unlife

It requires 2,000gp per Hit Die plus an additional 5,000gp per special ability to grant unlife. The process takes one day per 1,000gp of cost. The creature to be transformed must be dead when the ritual is completed, but it can only have been dead for 1 day per HD, so it is often best if preparations are begun before the creature is killed. A spellcaster may transform himself into an intelligent undead using necromancy if desired, by killing himself at the conclusion of the ritual.

Granting unlife requires a magic research throw. If the creature is willing, the target value for this throw is increased by +1 for every 5,000gp of necromancy costs. If the creature is unwilling, the target value for the throw is increased by +2 for every 5,000gp. Using precious materials can affect chances of success of granting unlife, as above. The success or failure of the necromancy will not be known until the creature is dead.

To perform necromancy, a necromancer must have access to a private mortuary and embalming chamber at least equal in value to the cost of the necromancy. For every 10,000gp of value above the minimum required for the necromancy, the spellcaster receives a +1 bonus on his magic research throw. By using precious materials, the spellcaster can gain a bonus on his magic research throw, as described above.

Transforming a creature into an undead monster also requires special components. Components are usually organs or blood from one or more monsters with a total XP value equal to the cost of the research. If the undead has special abilities the creature providing the components must have at least as many special abilities. The Judge will determine the specific components based on the necromancy involved. If the undead has particular needs (a phylactery, coffin, etc.) these must also be provided. If a character doesn't know the components at the outset of the necromancy, he learns them when the necromancy is 50% complete.

An undead monster created through necromancy is not automatically under the control of the caster. If the subject creature was a willing participant in the necromancy, it will retain its relationship with the caster when it becomes undead. Otherwise, the Judge should make a reaction roll to determine the undead monster's reaction to the caster. If the undead monster is unfriendly or hostile, the caster could try to control it using spells, or imprison it in his dungeon, or simply unleash it onto the world.

Divine Power

Divine spellcasters such as clerics, bladedancers, and craftpriests, can draw on the divine power of their deity to further their magical research. Divine power is measured in gp value equivalent, and can be used in two ways:

  1. The gp value of divine power can be substituted for an equivalent value of some or all of the special components required to create a magic item or perform a ritual spell.

  2. The gp value of divine power can be substituted for an equivalent value of precious materials used to create a magic item, perform a ritual spell, create a construct, or grant undeath.

Divine power can only be applied to magical research projects that are in furtherance of the goals of the divine spellcaster's patron deity (Judge's discretion). Divine power is ephemeral and cannot be stored. It is only accumulated while the divine spellcaster is actively working on an eligible magical research project, and must be spent during the project. Any divine power remaining when the magical research is finished is lost.

Congregations

Lawful divine spellcasters earn divine power drawn by building congregations of faithful worshippers. Every fifty congregants earns the caster 10gp worth of divine power per week of faithful worship.

To qualify as congregants, characters must be of the same alignment as the divine spellcaster, worship his deity, and consider the divine spellcaster to be their spiritual advisor. A divine spellcaster's party members, henchmen and followers may form the core of his congregants. Divine spellcasters can recruit additional congregants by performing charitable deeds, sending out missionaries, and constructing temples. Each month, calculate the value of the spellcaster's proselytizing:

The gp value of all spells charitably cast on behalf of peasants by the spellcaster or his henchmen or followers (using the costs for spells from the Spell Availability by Market table in the Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists section);

  1. The gp value of any hirelings deployed as missionaries in the realm by the spellcaster; and

  2. The gp value of any religious structures erected in the realm by the spellcaster (using the Stronghold Structure Costs in the Strongholds and Domains section).

For every full 1,000gp value, the divine spellcaster gains a number of congregants equal to 1d10 + CHA bonus. The divine spellcaster cannot acquire more congregants than exist in the realm that he is proselytizing within.

Example: Balbus, a 4th level cleric, seeks congregants in the village he and his party are based in. He erects a wooden chapel to his god costing 300gp, and spends a week casting spells for the peasants. As a 4th level cleric, he can cast 2 1st level spells (each worth 25gp) and 1 2nd level spell (worth 75gp) each day. Over the course of a week, Balbus casts 875gp worth of spells for the peasants. The gp value of his proselytizing is 1,175gp, so he gains a number of congregants equal to a roll of 1d10+CHA bonus.

Once acquired, the divine spellcaster must maintain the congregation or they will begin to lose faith. The monthly cost of maintaining a congregation is 1gp per congregant. If this amount is not paid, the divine spellcaster loses 1d10 congregants per 1,000. On a die roll of 10, roll again and add the result to total lost (repeating the process if a subsequent 10 is rolled.) This represents counter-missionary work, abandonment of faith, or other spiritual challenges.

More powerful divine spellcasters can amass congregants by assuming rulership of a domain, or becoming the spiritual advisor of a domain ruler. A ruler can simply command his subjects to worship his god, creating vast congregations within his domain. Of course, not every subject in a domain will faithfully worship on command - the domain's morale will make a large difference. The Domain Worship table lists the value of spiritual essence a ruler can extract from the peasant families in his domain. This amount is always less than the full 10gp per fifty congregants, as no domain will be 100% faithful to the character's god.

Example: Balbus, now a 9th level Cleric, rules Ammantavus, a domain of 2,500 peasant families (12,500 people) with a domain morale score of 0. Each week, Balbus gains 4gp worth of spiritual essence per 10 families (50 people), or 1,000gp value total, from his domain. If Balbus's subjects were more loyal to him, he could gain much more spiritual essence from his domain.

To become the spiritual advisor of a domain ruler, the divine spellcaster will generally have to be the highest level divine spellcaster with whom the ruler has Friendly relations (as per the Monster Reaction table).

A ruler who asks his subjects to worship a god or religion foreign to them will suffer large penalties to domain morale. Rulers will often address this by throwing festivals in the new faith or taking other steps to increase domain morale. For rules on establishing domains, peasant families, and domain morale, see Strongholds and Domains later in this section.

Domain Worship

Domain Morale Divine Power per 10 Families per Week
-4 0
-3 1
-2 2
-1 3
0 4
+1 5
+2 6
+3 7
+4 8

Blood Sacrifice

While chaotic divine spellcasters may earn divine power from gaining congregants, a darker path is also available to them: Blood sacrifice of living creatures to their deity.

A spellcaster can conduct no more than one blood sacrifice per class level per day. Conducting a blood sacrifice must be performed in a chaotic temple, graveyard, or other sinkhole of evil (see Chapter 10, Secrets, for additional rules on sinkholes of evil). Each blood sacrifice takes one turn and requires a magical research throw. If the magical research throw succeeds, the chaotic divine spellcaster earns divine power equal to the XP value of the creature sacrificed. Sacrificing unwilling chaotic creatures provides no divine power, as the dark gods see little merit in the slaughter of their own worshippers. The sacrifice of a willing chaotic creature does earn divine power, however.

Example: Mentu the Death Priest, a 12th level chaotic cleric, is sacrificing a beautiful white unicorn to his patron deity, the Doombringer. If Mentu succeeds on his magical research throw of 5+, he will earn divine power equal to the unicorn's XP value (135xp). Unfortunately, he rolls a 2 and the unicorn's spirit escapes to a holier place. In a rage, Mentu sacrifices the 8 orcs who had captured the unicorn. As these are unwilling chaotic sacrifices, he gains no value from doing so (apart from sating his blood lust!).

Strongholds and Domains

At particular milestones in their career, adventurers can begin to attract followers by establishing a stronghold. The type of stronghold, the level required, and the number and type of followers attracted is defined by the character's class. The Strongholds by Class table summarizes the different possibilities.

Securing the Domain

To establish a stronghold, the adventurer must first secure an area of land, known as a domain. The minimum size of a domain is a 1-square mile area of land. An average domain size is a 32-square mile area of land (1 6-mile hex on a standard wilderness map) while the maximum size of a domain is 500 square miles (1 24-mile hex on a large scale map, or 16 contiguous 6-mile hexes on a standard map).

Domains of land are classified as either civilized, borderlands, or wilderness areas. A newly secured domain will be civilized if it is with 50 miles (8 6-mile hexes) of a city or large town. A newly secured domain will be borderlands if it is within 25 miles (4 6-mile hexes) of civilized areas. All other newly secured domains are wilderness. Explorers must have borderlands or wilderness domains. Fastnesses and vaults may only be built in wilderness areas, or civilized or borderlands areas of their race.

If the adventurer is securing a civilized domain, the adventurer will need to get a land grant from the local ruler (usually in exchange for a pledge of fealty or the performance of some great quest). If the character simply wishes to buy civilized land, he will find it very expensive; an acre of good land costs about 50gp, so a 1-mile domain containing 640 acres would cost 32,000gp and a 32-square mile hex containing 19,200 acres would cost 1,216,000gp. (There's a reason land was synonymous with wealth throughout human history). For this reason, most adventurers will secure unclaimed borderland or wilderness domains. This requires entering the area with other adventurers or mercenaries, and dealing with any lairs and wandering monsters present there. The larger the domain, the more challenging to clear it.

When the domain is first secured, roll 3d3. The total rolled should be noted as the domain's land revenue in gp per peasant family per month. Not all land is equally valuable. High land revenue means the domain is rich in farm produce, timber, furs, stone, or even minerals. Low land revenue represents barren, infertile soil with limited natural resources. The Judge and player can determine the exact reason for the land's value (or lack thereof) based on the roll.

Establishing the Stronghold

The adventurer must now decide whether or not he wishes to establish a stronghold on the domain he has secured. If the domain's land revenue is very low, the adventurer may decide not to proceed, and instead work to secure a different domain. If the adventurer does wish to establish a stronghold, he can do so by claiming an existing stronghold or by constructing a new one. If there is an existing structure that's suitable for use as a stronghold on the domain, this structure can be claimed. This structure might be a castle granted with the land, or a tunnel complex cleared of its prior inhabitants in the process of securing the domain, and so on. Normally, however, the adventurer will need to construct his own stronghold on his newly secured land. The player should design a plan for the stronghold and calculate the costs based on the prices listed in the next section.

The stronghold and any freestanding buildings in or around the stronghold can be built using the following tables.

Strongholds by Class

Class Stronghold Followers Special Rules
Assassin Hideout 2d6 1st level assassins see Hideouts and Hijinks section
Bard Hall 1d4+1x10 0th level mercenaries, 1d6 1st-3rd level bards -
Bladedancer Temple 5d6x10 0th level mercenaries, 1d6 1st-3rd level bl. dancers cost of building stronghold reduced by 50%, followers never need to check morale
Cleric Fortified Church 5d6x10 0th level mercenaries, 1d6 1st-3rd level clerics cost of building stronghold reduced by 50%, followers never need to check morale
Dwarven Craftpriest Vault 3d6x10 1st level dwarves must be underground, may not be in human or elven civilized or borderlands area
Dwarven Vaultguard Vault 3d6x10 1st level dwarves must be underground, may not be in human or elven, civilized or borderland area
Elf Nightblade Hideout 2d6 1st level nightblades see Hideouts and Hijinks section
Elf Spellsword Fastness 3d6x10 1st level elves may not be in human or dwarven civilized or borderland area, all animals within 3 miles of fastness become friendly
Explorer Border Fort 1d4+1x10 0th level mercenaries, 1d6 1st-3rd level explorers must be in borderlands or wilderness
Fighter Castle 1d4+1x10 0th level mercenaries, 1d6 1st-3rd level fighters -
Mage Sanctum 2d6 0th level apprentices, 1d6 1st level mages see Sanctums and Dungeons section
Thief Hideout 2d6 1st level thieves see Hideouts and Hijinks section

Stronghold Structure Costs

Structure Cost
Barbican (gatehouse, 2 small towers, and a drawbridge) 38,000gp
Battlement (100' long, crenellated parapets) 500gp
Building, stone (20' high, 30' square, wood doors, floors, roof, stairs)* 3,000gp
Building, wood (20' high, 30' square, wood doors, floors, roof, stairs)* 1,500gp
Corridor, dungeon (10'x10'x10', hewn stone walls, flagstone floor) 500gp
Drawbridge, wood (10' x 20') 250gp
Gatehouse (20' high, 30' x 20', metal portcullis, wood doors, floors, stairs) 6,500gp
Keep, square (80' high, 60' square, wood doors, floors, stairs)* 75,000gp
Moat, unfilled (100' x 20' x 10' deep)* 400gp
Moat, filled (100' x 20' x 10' deep)* 800gp
Palisade, wood (10' high, 100' long, 1" thick) 125gp
Rampart, earthen (10' high, 100' long, 15' thick) 2,500gp
Tower, small round (30' high, 20' diameter, wood doors, floors, stairs) 15,000gp
Tower, medium round (40' high, 20' diameter, wood doors, floors, stairs) 22,500gp
Tower, large round (40' high, 30' diameter, wood doors, floors, roof, stairs) 30,000gp
Tower, huge round (60' high, 30' diameter, wood doors, floors, roof, stairs) 54,000gp
Wall, stone castle (20' high, 100' long, 10' thick) 5,000gp
Wall, stone castle (30' high, 100' long, 10' thick) 7,500gp
Wall, stone castle (40' high, 100' long, 10' thick) 12,500gp
Wall, stone castle (50' high, 100' long, 10' thick) 17,500gp
Wall, stone castle (60' high, 100' long, 10' thick) 22,500gp

*The dimensions of these constructions can be altered as long as the square footage remains the same.

Civilian Structure Costs

Structure Cost
Cottage, wood (20' high, 30' square, thatched roof, wood stairs, earthen floor)* 300gp
Hut, pit (8' high, 8' square, thatched roof, sunken earthen floor)* 15gp
Hut, sod or wattle (10' high, 10' square, thatched roof, earthen floor)* 25gp
Hut, mudbrick or wood (10' high, 10' square, thatched roof, earthen floor)* 50gp
Longhouse, wood (15' high, 30' long, 15' wide, thatched roof, earthen floor)* 300gp
Roundhouse, wood (15' high, 15' diameter, thatched roof, earthen floor)* 125gp
Townhouse, stone (20' high, 30' square, thatched roof, wood floor and stairs)* 1,200gp

*The dimensions of these constructions can be altered as long as the square footage remains the same.

Structure Accessories Costs

Accessory Cost
Arrow Slit/Window* 10gp
Door, wood (3' x 7')* 10gp
Door, reinforced wood (3' x 7')* 20gp
Door, iron/stone (3' x 7')* 50gp
Door, secret (3' x 7')* By material x5
Floor/Roof, flagstone or tile (10' x 10')* 40gp
Floor/Roof, wood (10' x 10')* 10gp
Shutters (window)* 5gp
Shifting Wall (10' x 10')* 1000gp
Stairs, wood (one flight, 3' x 10')* 20gp
Stairs, stone (one flight, 3' x 10')* 60gp

*Upgrade a structure to include these at time of construction for 25% of the accessories' base cost

When drawing up plans for a stronghold, note that different kinds of structures will have different thicknesses of stone. Most buildings have walls 1-2' feet thick, while towers and similar outposts have 5' thick walls. Keeps have the thickest walls of all, at 10' thick.

In addition to the building costs, the adventurer will need to hire at least one engineer (250gp/month) per 100,000gp cost of the stronghold. The time required to construct a stronghold depends entirely on its total price. For every 500gp it will take one day of game time. The construction time can be reduced by 25% by paying 50% additional construction costs, or reduced by 50% by paying 100% additional construction costs. The construct time cannot be reduced by more than 50%.

Strongholds have a minimum cost, based on the size and classification of the domain to be secured. The Minimum Stronghold Value table shows the minimum value required to secure each square mile, 6-mile hex, and 24-mile hex in a domain. Small domains in civilized realms can be controlled with a stone home or tower, but large tracts of wilderness can only be settled with a formidable stronghold. A stronghold of insufficient value will limit the size of the domain, and therefore its maximum peasant population. See Limits of Growth, below.

Minimum Stronghold Value

Classification Minimum Value
Civilized 15,000gp per 6-mile hex
Borderlands 22,500gp per 6-mile hex
Wilderness 30,000gp per 6-mile hex

Attracting Peasants and Followers

While the adventurer's stronghold is under construction, the domain around his stronghold will slowly become settled by the workers and their families. In addition, peasants and laborers seeking the adventurer's protection will settle near the stronghold. These peasant families become permanent inhabitants of the adventurer's domain. The number of peasant families that will inhabit the domain when the stronghold is complete is determined on the Domain Population table. Each peasant family is assumed to have an average of 5 peasants. Families will be of the same race as the adventurer, e.g. elven fastnesses are settled by elven peasants. Once the stronghold is of sufficient value to control the domain in which it is located, the peasant families will begin generating income for the character, and begin to incur costs (see Collecting Revenue and Paying Expenses below). Until then, the domain will not generate money, nor grow.

The character's followers will also begin arriving during stronghold construction. One half of the character's followers (rounded up) will arrive when the stronghold is halfway completed. An additional one quarter of the character's followers (rounded up) will have arrived by the time the stronghold is finished. The remainder of the followers will arrive within the first month following the completion of the stronghold.

Use the Followers Type and Equipment by Class table, below, to determine the arms and equipment of the arriving followers. Roll once for every 10 followers.

Domain Population

Classification Starting Families
Civilized 8d6 x 10 per 6-mile hex
Borderlands 3d6 x 10 per 6-mile hex
Wilderness 1d4+1 x 10 per 6-mile hex

Follower Type and Equipment by Class

Bards & Bladedancers

Die Roll (1d100) Type and Equipment
01-10 Heavy Cavalry (lance, sword, shield, plate armor, chain barded medium warhorse)
11-20 Medium Cavalry (lance, shield, lamellar armor, and medium warhorse)
21-35 Light Cavalry (3 javelins, 2 swords, leather armor, light warhorse)
36-55 Heavy Infantry (pole arm, sword, shield, banded plate armor)
56-80 Light Infantry (2 swords, dagger, leather armor)
81-90 Archers (short bow, sword, leather armor)
91-100 Slingers (sling, short sword, shield, leather armor)

Clerics & Fighters

Die Roll (1d100) Type and Equipment
01-05 Cataphract Cavalry (composite bow, sword, shield, plate armor, chain barded medium warhorse)
06-15 Heavy Cavalry (lance, sword, shield, plate armor, chain barded medium warhorse)
16-25 Medium Cavalry (lance, shield, lamellar armor, and medium warhorse)
26-35 Light Cavalry (3 javelins, sword, shield, leather armor, light warhorse)
36-60 Heavy Infantry (pole arm, sword, shield, banded plate armor)
61-80 Light Infantry (spear, short sword, shield, leather armor)
81-90 Archers (short bow, short sword, leather armor)
91-100 Slingers (sling, short sword, shield, leather armor)

Dwarven Craftpriests & Vaultguards

Die Roll (1d100) Type and Equipment
01-20 Dwarven Heavy Infantry (great axe, plate armor)
21-40 Dwarven Heavy Infantry (war hammer, shield, banded plate armor)
41-60 Dwarven Heavy Infantry (battle axe, shield, chainmail)
61-80 Dwarven Crossbowman (arbalest, dagger, chainmail)
81-100 Dwarven Mounted Crossbowmen (crossbow, chainmail, mule)

Elven Spellswords

Die Roll (1d100) Type and Equipment
01-15 Elven Horse Archers (composite bow, scimitar, leather armor, light warhorse)
16-30 Elven Light Cavalry (lance, shield, leather armor, light warhorse)
31-45 Elven Light Infantry (spear, short sword, shield, leather armor)
46-60 Elven Heavy Infantry (spear, sword, shield, chainmail)
61-75 Elven Archers (short bow, dagger, leather armor)
76-100 Elven Longbowmen (long bow, sword, chainmail)

Explorers

Die Roll (1d100) Type and Equipment
01-10 Medium Cavalry (lance, shield, lamellar armor, and medium warhorse)
11-25 Light Cavalry (3 javelins, 2 swords, leather armor, light warhorse)
26-40 Horse Archers (composite bow, scimitar, leather armor, light warhorse)
41-60 Light Infantry (spear, hand axe, shield, leather armor)
61-70 Longbowmen (long bow, sword, chainmail armor)
71-80 Archers (short bow, short sword, leather armor)
81-90 Slingers (sling, short sword, shield, leather armor)
91-100 Hunters (bola, net, 3 javelins, hand axe, leather armor)

Apprentices (such as 1st level assassins, elven nightblades, mages, and thieves) and leader types (such as 1st-3rd level bards, bladedancers, clerics, explorers, or fighters) can be quickly created using the pre-generated templates for their class, or the Judge may allow the adventurer to generate and equip them using the Character Creation rules in Chapter 2.

Growing the Domain

If the adventurer is fortunate, birth and immigration may increase the population of a domain. If he is unlucky, fire, disease, and emigration will decrease it. Each month, the adventurer will make two die rolls of 1d10 per 1,000 families in the domain (rounded up). These rolls will determine the change in his domain's population. The first roll determines the increase in the domain's number of families, and the second roll determines the decrease in the domain's number of families. Any die that rolls a 10 should be rolled again, with the new result added to the total (repeating the process if a subsequent 10 is rolled).

Example: Marcus's domain has a population of 1,200 families. He will make two die rolls of 2d10. Marcus first rolls 2d10 for increase and gets a 3 and an 8. His domain gains 11 families. He then rolls 2d10 for decrease and gets a 10 and a 7. Since one of the dice rolled a "10", he must roll that die again and add it to the total. This roll results in another 10! Marcus has to roll yet again, this time getting a 4. His total is 10+7+10+4, or 31. Marcus's domain loses 31 families. Having gained 11 and lost 31, Marcus's domain ends up down 20 families.

When rolling for small domains of under 100 families, ignore results of 9 or less. Any roll of 10 results in the domain gaining or losing one family, and rolling again.

An adventurer can increase the population of his domain by making agricultural investments into the area. For every 1,000gp spent on investments in a month, the domain will attract 1d10 new peasant families.

Adventurers who are rising in power and fame will attract additional peasants to move to their domains. Provided a character actively adventures at least once per month and keeps his domain secure from threats, his domain's population will grow by an additional amount each month, determined by the number of families already present.

Population (Families) Increase
1-100 +25%
301-400 +10%
101-200 +20%
401-500 +5%
201-300 +15%
500+ +1%

Elven domains always increase in population as if they were two population categories larger. Dwarven domains increase in population as if they were one population category larger. Example: An elven domain of 1-100 families increases in population as if it were 201-300 families in population, at 15% per month.

Note that if a domain ruler is not actively adventuring, does not make agricultural investments, and does not have very high domain morale, the gain and loss in population each month will tend to equalize and domain population will be flat.

Limits of Growth

The classification and size of a domain determine its maximum population. A wilderness domain cannot exceed 4 families per square mile, or 125 families per 6-mile hex. A borderlands domain cannot exceed 8 families per square mile, or 250 families per 6-mile hex. A civilized domain cannot exceed 25 families per square mile, or 780 families per 6-mile hex. For the domain to grow past this limit, the adventurer must secure an additional area of land (such as an adjacent 6-mile hex) to permit the population to grow. No domain can be larger than its stronghold can secure. The maximum domain size is 1 24-mile hex, consisting of 16 contiguous 6-mile hexes. If a wilderness domain ever reaches the maximum of 125 families x 16 6-mile hexes (2,000 families), it becomes a borderlands domain. If a borderlands domain ever reaches the maximum of 250 families x 16 6-mile hexes (4,000 families), it becomes a civilized domain. No domain can normally have more than 12,500 families (780 families x 16 6-mile hexes), as this is the upper limit the land can support (roughly 120 people per square mile).

An adventurer can exceed his domain's limits of growth by establishing an urban settlement within the domain. See the Villages, Towns, and Cities rules below.

Collecting Revenue

Each month, the adventurer collects revenue from each peasant family in his domain. There are four sources of income: land revenue, service revenue, tax revenue, and vassal revenue. The first three types of revenue are generated by the domain's peasant families, while the last is only generated if the adventurer has one or more vassal domains (described below).

Source Monthly Revenue
Land 3-9gp / family
Services 4gp / family
Taxes 2gp / family
Vassals Varies

As noted under Securing the Domain (above), land revenue derives from labor on the domain's lands. It includes wheat, barley, and other grains; cheese, milk, meat, bee honey, and other animal products; and clay, stone, coal, and metals. The average domain produces 6gp of land revenue per peasant, but not all land is equally valuable. The domain's land revenue will have been determined with a roll of 3d3 when the domain was first secured - this value is the monthly land revenue per peasant family.

Example: Marcus has secured a domain in the wilderness across the Mirmen River. He rolls 3d3 to determine what his land revenue will be. He rolled a 3, 2, 3, for a total of 8. Each peasant family that settles there will generate 8gp of land revenue per month. The Judge determines the land is so valuable because of an abundance of timber and fur.

Services revenue derives from the services of skilled tradesmen, such as baking, carpentry, lumbering, milling, and smithing. Most of these services are provided by freemen who offer a portion of their labor to the adventurer in exchange for the right to practice their trade on his domain. Monthly service revenue is 4gp per family.

Tax revenue is coin paid directly to the adventurer by his peasants. As ruler of the domain, the adventurer has the right to collect fees upon marriage, inheritance, birth and death, harvest, and other occasions; to levy fines and fees for administering justice; to charge tolls for the roads; to charge a duty on merchants in his markets; and to levy a rent and tax on those working the land. The sum of these constitutes the domain's monthly tax revenue of 2gp per family. Tax revenue can be increased above this amount, but doing so damages the peasant's loyalty. Lower taxes, on the other hand, can improve the domain's morale.

Vassal revenue is income received from vassal domains controlled by the adventurer but managed on his behalf by henchmen. Vassal revenue is generally 20% of the monthly income of the vassal domain. See Realms and Vassals, below.

Paying Expenses

Garrison: In order to maintain the security of his domain, the adventurer must have a large enough garrison of troops. Depending on the classification of the domain, this can cost 2-4gp per family per month. The adventurer should specify the exact make-up of the garrison, hiring an appropriate number of mercenaries (see Chapter 3, Equipment, for details on mercenaries).

Classification Garrison Cost
Civilized 2gp / family
Borderlands 3gp / family
Wilderness 4gp / family

The gold piece value of a cleric's or bladedancer's followers can be applied against the garrison cost of their domain, even though the cleric or bladedancer does not actually have to pay their faithful followers for their services.

Stronghold Upkeep: In addition to maintaining a garrison, the adventurer must pay for the upkeep of his stronghold. Strongholds cost 0.5% of their total value in upkeep each month. For example, a 75,000gp keep costs 375gp per month to maintain.

Taxes: If the adventurer has established his stronghold in a civilized realm, he will owe a tax of 20% of his domain's gross monthly income to the lord who granted him the domain. In borderlands, this tax might be reduced if the adventurer is spending money to defend the borders of the realm. Adventurers who have established their stronghold in the wilderness owe no taxes unless they have chosen to become vassals to the ruler of a civilized realm.

Tithes: The adventurer will owe a tithe of 10% of his domain's gross monthly income to the church of the domain's dominant religion. If the domain ruler is a bladedancer or cleric, the domain's dominant religion is the ruler's. Otherwise, the domain's dominant religion is the prevailing religion of the region (Judge's discretion). If the tithe is not paid, the loyalty of the population to the adventurer will be reduced, and the adventurer may be declared a heretic or excommunicated by the church. The domain ruler may change the domain's religion, but doing so causes substantial penalties to domain morale.

Festivals: At least four times per year (the date will vary based on the culture, but one per season is common), the adventurer will be expected to hold a festival for the domain's peasant families. The cost of a festival is 5gp per peasant family. If this tradition is not honored, the loyalty of the population to the adventurer will be reduced. If more than the requisite number of holidays is held, the population's loyalty will increase.

Realms and Vassals

An adventurer may control more than one domain. Multiple domains under the control of one ruler are called a realm. The additional domains of a realm may be established by securing land and constructing additional strongholds, or they may be conquered, or granted in a treaty. However, an adventurer can only directly manage one domain, known as his personal domain. Other domains in the realm are considered vassal domains, and must be assigned to a henchman, called a vassal, to manage. The henchman is responsible for collecting the revenue and paying the expenses of the vassal domain, and will pay 20% of the vassal domain's monthly income to the adventurer.

Since the number of henchmen any character may employ is limited to between 1 and 7 (depending on his Charisma), very powerful characters may find that they have more domains under their control than can be managed even with all of their henchmen. In this case, multiple vassal domains will be assigned to trusted henchmen, who will themselves have to sub-assign vassal domains to their own henchmen. A group of domains ruled by a vassal is called a vassal realm. An adventurer may himself be a sub-vassal, either to another adventurer, or to an NPC that he has sworn fealty to (usually the lord who granted him the land to build his domain).

Example: Quintus rules a realm of thirteen domains. He has six henchmen. He manages one domain directly, and assigns two vassal domains to each of his six henchmen. Each of his six henchmen thus has a vassal realm of two domains. Each manages one of their domains directly, and sub-assigns the other as a vassal domain to one of their own henchmen

Detailed rules for developing the complete structure of all of a campaign's realms and vassals can be found under Constructing the Campaign Setting in Chapter 10.

In addition to owing taxes to his lord (as described above), a vassal ruler must roll once per month on the Favors and Duties table to see what favors are granted or asked by his lord. These events can serve the Judge as the basis for adventures for the player character. Adventurers with vassals may choose to offer favors and demand duties to their own vassals, either in response to favors and duties they receive, or independently.

During any month, each vassal can be safely asked to perform one ongoing duty, plus an additional ongoing duty for each ongoing favor given. If an adventurer demands duties in excess of this total, the vassal's loyalty must be checked on the Henchman Loyalty table for each extra duty. An irrevocable favor only offsets a duty during the month it is first given (such gifts are quickly taken for granted...) Charters of monopoly count as one favor, even if granted to cover multiple types of merchandise.

Example: Marcus demands that his henchman Cadom Wynn pay a special tax of 1gp per each of his 500 peasant families (one duty). No roll on the Henchman Loyalty table is required. The next month, Marcus maintains the tax (one duty), and calls Cadom to arms (a second duty). To avoid a roll on the Henchman Loyalty table, he offers Cadom his niece in marriage (an irrevocable favor). The next month he maintains both the tax and the call to arms, but offers no favors. Cadom must roll on the Henchman Loyalty table.

Favors and Duties

Roll (2d6) Favor / Duty
2 Build Additional Stronghold: The adventurer is ordered to construct a stronghold somewhere within his realm. The stronghold must have a minimum value of 15,000gp per 6-mile hex the adventurer controls.
3 Call to Arms: The adventurer is called to provide military service to his lord. He must muster a force at least equal to 1/2 the garrison of his realm and go on campaign for a duration of 1d4 months (or until the duty is revoked). On a roll of 4 months duration, roll again and add the subsequent roll to the total. Repeated rolls of 4 can yield very long campaigns.
4 Call to Council: The adventure is called to provide judicial and managerial council to his lord. He must travel to his lord's domain to provide this service. Duration of service is the same as for a Call to Arms.
5 Tax Demanded: The lord demands the adventure pay 1gp monthly per peasant family in the adventurer's realm as a special tax. The special tax continues until the duty is revoked.
6 Loan Demanded: The lord demands a loan of 1gp per peasant family in the adventurer's realm. The loan is repaid when the duty is revoked. Otherwise, the probability of repayment is equal to the adventurer's CHA stated as a percentage, rolled monthly. No interest will be paid in either case.
7 Previous duty/favor revoked: The adventurer loses his most recently granted favor (1) or duty (2-6).
8 Festival: The lord celebrates a wedding, birth, military victory, or other event by holding a festival in all of the adventurer's domains. (This favor cannot be revoked).
9 Gift: The lord gives the adventurer a gift with a value of 1gp per peasant family in the adventurer's realm. The gift may be treasure, warhorses, slaves, merchandise, magical items, etc. (Judge's discretion). (This favor cannot be revoked.)
10 Charter of Monopoly: The adventurer is granted a monopoly on a randomly determined type of merchandise on the Common Merchandise table. He gains a +4 on the die roll to find buyers or sellers of that merchandise, merchants will buy or sell twice the normal number of loads of that type from him, and prices are adjusted by 1 point (10%) in his favor. See Arbitrage Trading, below.
11 Grant of Title: The adventurer is formally granted a noble title appropriate to his land holdings. If this would make the character equal in title to his lord, then the lord offers a family member in marriage to the character or character's heirs instead. (A marriage cannot be revoked, but a title can be.)
12 Grant of Land: The adventurer is granted a new domain consisting of 1 6-mile hex on the border of one of his existing domains. Generate the new domain normally, as per the rules above.

Titles of Nobility

Adventurers and other domain rulers may claim or be awarded a title of nobility. If the adventurer secures his domain within an existing realm, his title will be awarded based on the heraldry of that realm. The more domains the adventurer controls (including assigned and sub-assigned vassal domains), the higher the title he will hold. An adventurer who establishes a new realm can claim any title he wishes, of course, but other realms will not necessarily treat him as such.

Three factors determine a ruler's title - the size of his personal domain, the number of vassal domains he has, and the overall size of the realm he rules. The Titles of Nobility table shows the common titles of nobility used based on these criteria. A common title is provided for each tier, plus examples for titles that might be used by various empires.

Titles of Nobility

Personal Domain (families) Number of Domains Ruled Overall Realm (families) Common Southern Elven Eastern Northern
12,500 5,461-55,987 1.5M - 11.6M+ Emperor Tarkaun Ard-r'i Maharaja High King
12,500 1,365-9,331 364K - 2,000K King Exarch R'i-ruirech Raja King
7,500 341-1,555 87K - 322K Prince Prefect R'i Deshmukh Prince
1,500 85-259 20,000 - 52,000 Duke Palatine Diuc Zammin Duke
780 21-43 4,600 - 8,500 Count Legate Iarla Mansab Jarl
320 5-7 960 - 1,280 Marquis Tribune Ard-tiarna Sardar Reeve
160 1 160 Baron Castellan Tiarna Jagir Thane

Keeping the Peace

All domains have a morale score which represent their populations' trust and faith in their ruler. Morale scores vary from -4 to +4. Domains begin with a morale score of 0 plus or minus their ruler's Charisma adjustment, known as their base morale score. Morale scores affect the functioning of the domain, as described below.

Morale Score Morale Level
-4 Rebellious
-3 Defiant
-2 Turbulent
-1 Demoralized
0 Apathetic
+1 Loyal
+2 Dedicated
+3 Steadfast
+4 Stalwart

Rebellious means that the domain is revolting against their ruler. There is no population growth, and an extra 4d10 families per thousand are lost to illness, casualties, and emigration each month. Tax, land, and service income drop to zero. The able-bodied men (one per peasant family) become bandits, and begin to attack officials, trade caravans, troops, and travelers in the domain. If these bandits are slain, the population of the domain is reduced accordingly. For every 200 peasant families in the domain, there is a cumulative 10% chance of a village hero (4th - 7th level fighter) emerging to challenge the character's rule.

Defiant means that the domain's inhabitants have become violently unhappy with their ruler. This unhappiness manifests in banditry, tax evasion, and disloyalty. An extra 3d10 families per thousand are lost to illness, casualties, and emigration each month. Tax, land and service income is reduced to half. One able-bodied man per two peasant families becomes a bandit, as above.

Turbulent means that the domain is in a state of dissatisfaction and unrest. An extra 2d10 families per thousand are lost to illness, casualties, and emigration each month. Tax, land, and service income is reduced by one quarter (rounded down). One able-bodied man per five peasant families becomes as a bandit, as above.

Demoralized means that the domain's populace sees their ruler as worse than average. An extra 1d10 families per thousand are lost to illness, casualties, and immigration each month.

Apathetic means that the domain's populace sees their ruler as just another petty noble. They work the land, pay their taxes, and do their duty, but have no special love for their ruler.

Loyal means that the domain's ruler is respected and popular with his subjects. Spies and thieves operating against the domain suffer a -1 penalty to their proficiency throws (see Hijinks, below). The population grows by an extra 1d10 families per thousand each month.

Dedicated means that the domain's populace has been inspired to strong loyalist sentiment by their ruler. Spies and thieves operating against the domain suffer a -2 penalty to their proficiency throws. The population grows by an extra 2d10 families per thousand each month.

Steadfast means that the domain's inhabitants hail their ruler as great leader deserving of strident support. The population grows by an extra 3d10 families per thousand each month. Spies and thieves operating against the domain suffer a -3 penalty to their proficiency throws. Service income is increased by 1gp per peasant family.

Stalwart means that the domain's populace acclaims their ruler as a beloved and righteous sovereign. The population grows by an extra 4d10 families per thousand each month. Spies and thieves operating against the domain suffer a -4 penalty to their proficiency throws. Land and service income are increased by 1gp per peasant family each.

Every season (three month interval), the Judge will roll 2d6 on the Domain Morale table, applying any relevant adjustments to the roll, to determine whether the domain's morale has changed as a result of recent events.

Domain Morale

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Morale reduced by 2 (min -4)
3-5 Morale reduced by 1 (min -4)
6-8 Morale shifts by 1 towards base
9-11 Morale increased by 1 (max +4)
12+ Morale increased by 2 (max +4)
Seasonal Events Morale Roll Adjustment
Ruler is of different alignment -2
Garrison below normal last season -1/gp/family increase
Garrison above normal last season +1/gp/family decrease
No festivals last season -1
Extra festivals last season +1/extra festival
Population grew 5+% last season +1/5% increase
Population shrank 5%+ last season -2/5% decrease
Taxes below normal last season +1/gp decrease
Taxes above normal last season -1/gp increase
Tithes not paid last season -2
New religion introduced last season -4

Example: Marcus, a 9th level fighter, is ruler of a borderlands domain with a morale score of +1 (Loyal). But after accidentally donning a helm of alignment change, Marcus becomes chaotic (-2) and starts running his domain with an iron fist. He offers no festivals (-1), and raises taxes from 2gp to 4gp per peasant (-2), while increasing his garrison troops from 3gp/family to 4gp/family (+1). The dominion's population grows only 2.5% (no modifier). At the end of the season, he rolls 2d6-5+1 for his domain's loyalty and scores a 2. That means his domain morale drops by 2 point, from +1 to -1. His domain has become Demoralized, as his peasants lose their confidence in their ruler. If he continues in his tyrannical ways, Marcus may find that the tighter he grips, the more peasants slip away...

Garrisons and Morale

As indicated on the Domain Morale Roll Adjustments above, the size of a domain's garrison has a dramatic effect on the domain's morale. Normally the mere existence of the garrison is enough to count for morale purposes. The garrison does not need to be physically in the domain. A ruler who takes his entire 2gp/family garrison on raid into an enemy's domain still counts as having a 2gp/family garrison for purposes of his domain's morale. From the peasants' perspective, it's better to have the war waged somewhere else!

However, this benefit only lasts while the ruler's domain is actually safe. If the domain is attacked while part of the garrison is absent, then only that portion of the garrison that is physically present in the domain counts for morale purposes.

Example: Marcus' domain has 1,200 families with a garrison cost of 2,400gp per month. Marcus' garrison consists of 40 heavy cavalry (60gp/month x 60 = 2,400gp). When Marcus receives a call to arms from his lord, he sends 20 heavy cavalry to join his lord in fighting in a distant realm. This does not have any immediate morale implications. The next month, however, beastmen begin raiding his domain. Because the domain is being attacked, only that portion of its garrison which is physically present counts for morale purposes. 20 heavy cavalry are worth 1,200gp, so Marcus will suffer the -1gp/family decrease adjustment on his next morale roll. To avoid this, Marcus petitions his lord to allow him to bring his forces force.

Villages, Towns, and Cities

When a domain reaches its limit of growth, its ruler will normally secure an additional area of land to permit the population to grow. Instead of (or in addition to) doing so, he may choose to found an urban settlement within his domain. To found an urban settlement, the adventurer makes an initial investment of 10,000gp and then moves between 75 to 250 peasant families into the urban settlement.

Once established, an urban settlement functions much like a separate domain, except that the adventurer can directly manage both his domain and the urban settlement within the domain. An adventurer cannot directly manage a domain and an urban settlement located in a different domain, however.

Growing the Settlement

As with a domain, the adventurer will make two die rolls of 1d10 per 1,000 families in the urban settlement each month to determine the change in the settlement's population. So long as the character actively adventures at least once per month and keeps his urban settlement secure from threats, the settlement's population will grow by an additional amount each month from immigration, using the Domain Population Growth table.

Unlike domains, the limits of an urban settlement's growth are not based the available land. Instead, the limits are based on the extent of urban investment. Initially, the urban settlement is limited to less than 250 families. When the Total Investment shown on the table below is reached, the urban settlement expands to accommodate a greater maximum.

By spending more gold pieces on roads, aqueducts, sewers, marketplaces, walls, and other infrastructure, the adventurer can increase the maximum population size of the urban settlement. In addition to increasing the maximum population, urban investment also attracts new residents. For every 1,000gp spent on investments in a month, the settlement will attract 1d10 new urban families.

Total Investment (gp) Maximum Population (families)
10,000 249
25,000 624
75,000 2,499
200,000 4,999
625,000 19,999
2,500,000 100,000

Collecting Revenue

Each month, the adventurer will collect revenue from each urban family in his domain. Urban families pay urban revenue, representing tolls, duties, tariffs, rent, and other fees paid by the residents to the adventurer. Urban revenue begins at 7gp per family per month and increases with the size of the settlement. Rulers may also profit from taking advantage of the urban settlement as a market. Each urban settlement has a market class based on its size. See Mercantile Ventures for more details on markets.

Settlement Population (families) Urban Revenue (gp/family) Market Class
75-249 7 Class VI
250-624 7.5 Class V
626-2,499 7.5 Class IV
2,500-4,999 7.5 Class III
5,000-19,999 8 Class II
20,000-100,000 8.5 Class I

Paying Expenses

Settlement expenses are similar to domain expenses. Each month, an urban settlement must pay a garrison cost of 2gp/family. In addition to maintaining the garrison, the adventurer must pay for the upkeep of the urban communities. Upkeep of urban settlements cost 1gp/family each month.

If the adventurer has established his urban settlement in a civilized realm, he will owe the usual 20% tax on his settlement's gross monthly income. He will also owe a tithe of 10% of the settlement's gross monthly income to the church of the domain's dominant religion. And, as with a domain, four times per year (the date will vary based on the culture, but one per season is common), the adventurer will be expected to hold a festival for the settlement's urban families, costing 5gp per family.

The Villages, Towns, and Cities table, below, shows the average monthly income, after expenses, of urban settlements of various sizes. This table can be used to quickly determine the value of an urban settlement located within a domain. Detailed rules for developing the complete urban demographics of all of a campaign's realms can be found under Constructing the Campaign Setting in Chapter 10.

Expense Monthly Cost
Garrison 2gp/family
Upkeep 1gp/family
Taxes 20% of urban revenue
Tithes 10% of urban revenue
Festival 5gp/family/season

Villages, Towns, and Cities

Urban Settlement (families) Monthly Income Market Class
Hamlets (74-) 0gp Class VI*
Small Village (75-99) 18-24gp Class VI
Village (100-159) 25-39gp Class VI
Village (160-249) 40-60gp Class VI
Large village (250-449) 150-264gp Class V
Small town (450-624) 265-369gp Class V
Large town (625-1,249) 370-739gp Class IV
Small city (1,250-2,499) 740-1,474gp Class IV
City (2,500-4,999) 1,475-2,950gp Class III
Large city (5,000-9,999) 4,700-9,399gp Class II
Large city (10,000-14,999) 9,400-14,099gp Class II
Large city (15,000-19,999) 14,100-18,799gp Class II
Metropolis (20,000-39,999) 25,800-51,599gp Class I
Metropolis (40,000+) 51,600gp+ Class I

*Class VI market at domain's stronghold only

Keeping the Peace

Like domains, all settlements have a morale score which represent its population's trust and faith in their ruler. A newly-established urban settlement begins with the morale score of the domain within which it was founded. Settlement morale is checked every season on the Domain Morale table. It may vary over time from the morale of the domain it is within.

For purposes of applying morale effects to settlements, treat all modifications to revenue as if they applied to urban revenue. For example, land and service income are increased by 1gp per peasant family each in a Stalwart domain. This translates to a 2gp increase to urban revenue in a Stalwart settlement (e.g., 1gp from land and 1gp from service, applied to urban income as a total of 2gp per family).

Establishing Strongholds Before 9th Level

Through good luck or careful play, adventurers may sometimes acquire or build a stronghold before they are eligible to gain followers. If this occurs, the adventurer does not gain any automatic followers, families, or other benefits of possessing the stronghold until he reaches the appropriate class level. This does not prevent him from hiring mercenaries to defend his holdings, or making investments to attract peasants, should he desire to, or from managing peasant families that already live on the domain. If he does reach the appropriate class level he will be able to attract his followers and peasant families at that time.

The adventurer will be responsible for the upkeep of the stronghold and security of any families present. Because of his relatively low level, an adventurer might have to defend his stronghold from NPCs who consider him too weak to maintain his grip on his domain. Swearing fealty to a high-level NPC lord is very helpful in preventing this!

Chaotic Domains

Chaotic adventurers may establish chaotic domains of beastmen rather than humans or demi-humans. The decision to establish a chaotic domain is made when the domain is secured. Rather than clear any beastmen present from the area, the chaotic adventurer must successfully hire at least one chieftain in the area as a henchman. Should a chieftain prove recalcitrant, he can be eliminated in favor of a more pliable sub-chieftain, of course. Once the leadership of any beastmen lairs in the domain has been brought into service, the chaotic adventurer is established as a chaotic domain ruler.

Chaotic domains are managed like other domains, with the following exceptions:

Dwarven Vaults

A dwarven vault may not be built in the civilized or borderland area of a human or elven realm, only in a dwarven realm, or wilderness area. Additionally, a dwarven vault must be an underground structure. While it may include above-ground gates, walls, or structures as necessary for defense or commerce, these cannot constitute more than 25% of the gp value of the stronghold. Any above-ground structures must be of earth or stone.

Dwarves usually live in clans, so dwarves of the vault builder's clan will be the first to live under his roof, but dwarves from other clans will also come and live nearby to be ruled by the character. A total of 3d6x10 1st level NPCs of the same race will move in to help maintain and defend the vault at no cost to the character. If additional defenders are needed, a dwarven ruler is expected to employ only soldiers of dwarven descent. He may hire members of other races for other tasks.

Dwarven vaults are otherwise maintained like human domains.

Elven Fastnesses

An elven fastness may not be built in the civilized or borderland area of a human or dwarven realm. Only areas within an elven realm, or wilderness areas, will serve. Additionally, a fastness must be built harmoniously within a site of natural majesty. Fastnesses might be erected at the summit of a great peak, in the branches of a might tree, or behind a towering waterfall. Building in such locations is very expensive, so the structure will cost as much as similar work in stone, even though it is not.

Once the fastness is completed, a total of 3d6x10 1st level elven NPCs will move in to help with it and defend the fastness at no cost to the character. If additional defenders are needed, elven spellswords may hire elven mercenaries only. Non-elven beings may be hired as specialists and henchmen, but not as mercenaries.

Because of the elven connection to nature, all ordinary animals within 3 miles of the fastness will be friendly to the elves. The elves will be able to communicate with the animals as per the spell speak with animals, and the animals will warn of approaching strangers, carry news of events, deliver short messages to nearby places, etc. As a result, spies and thieves operating against the domain suffer a -2 penalty to their proficiency throws (see Hijinks, below). However, in exchange for this assistance, an elven ruler must always defend the animals within this territory.

Elven fastnesses are otherwise maintained like human domains.

Hideouts and Hijinks

Assassins, elven nightblades, and thieves can build a secret stronghold called a hideout. Being secret, hideouts do not secure domains and do not attract peasant families. However, when an adventurer has established a hideout, he will become the boss of a syndicate of 2d6 1st level followers of his own class. Each time the adventurer gains a level thereafter, he will attract an additional 1d6 1st level followers to his syndicate. All followers must be paid standard rates for ruffians. In addition, the syndicate boss may hire ruffians to increase the size of his syndicate (similar to how a fighter hires mercenaries to increase the size of his garrison). See the Hirelings, Henchmen, Mercenaries, and Specialists rules in Chapter 3 for details on ruffians.

Hideout Size and Cost

Market Class Max. Syndicate Membership Minimum Hideout Value (gp)
Class VI 25 5,000
Class V 50 10,000
Class IV 100 20,000
Class III 375 75,000
Class II 750 150,000
Class I 3,000 600,000

Hideouts must be built within 6 miles of an urban settlement, which becomes the syndicate's base of operations. The market class of the urban settlement determines the maximum size of the syndicate. Large ports and cosmopolitan cities can sustain much larger criminal gangs than small towns and agrarian villages. However, in order to reach its maximum size, a syndicate's boss must construct a sufficiently large hideout. The Hideout Size and Cost table shows the maximum syndicate membership by settlement class, as well as the required hideout cost to reach that size of membership.

Example: Joanna establishes a hideout in a class IV market. Initially, she spends 10,000gp on her hideout. Based on the value of her hideout, the maximum membership of her syndicate is 50. Later, she spends another 10,000gp on her hideout, increasing its value to 20,000gp. The maximum membership of her syndicate rises to 100. The year following, she expands her hideout to a 75,000gp mansion. However, the maximum membership of her syndicate does not increase, because a Class IV market can only sustain a 100-member syndicate.

Hijinks

Once an adventurer has established a syndicate, its members can be deployed on various hijinks within its base of operations. If an adventurer has henchmen of an appropriate class (assassin, elven nightblade, or thief) these may also be assigned hijinks. Each month, each member of the syndicate (whether a follower, henchman or ruffian) on the boss's payroll can be assigned a hijink from one of six available options. The boss who controls the syndicate gets the benefit of any successful hijinks he orders. The available hijinks, required rolls, and outcome of a successful hijink are summarized below.

Hijink Requirement Successful Outcome
Assassinating Hide in Shadows Victim dies; bounty of 1,000gp per level of victim to boss
Carousing Hear Noise Learn one rumor worth 3d12x5gp per level of perpetrator to boss
Smuggling Move Silently Smuggle 10 loads per level of perpetrator, payout of 12% of value of goods to boss
Spying Hide in Shadows Learn one secret worth 2d12x100gp per level of perpetrator to boss
Stealing Pick Pockets Steal 2 loads per level of perpetrator, payout of 60% of value of goods to boss
Treasure Hunting Find Traps Find treasure map to hoard worth 1d6x1,000gp per level of perpetrator to boss

Assassinating

Assassination is the murder of unsuspecting NPC targets for pay. (Assassinating a PC or suspicious NPC victim is an adventure, not a hijink.) Only assassins and elven nightblades can be assigned assassination hijinks. An adventurer may assign an assassination against a particular target for personal reasons if desired. Otherwise, an assassination hijink is murder-for-hire on a victim within 1d2 levels of the perpetrator's level.

For an assassination to succeed, the perpetrator must first make a successful Hide in Shadows throw. There is a -1 penalty on the proficiency throw per each level the perpetrator is lower than the victim. If the victim is slain, the boss collects a bounty equal to 1,000gp per level of the victim from whomever hired the guild. A victim assassinated for the boss's personal reasons does not generate a bounty for the boss. 0th level victims count as 1/2 level for purposes of bounties (500gp).

If the proficiency throw fails, the assassination attempt failed. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. If caught, determine the charges with a 1d6 roll: assault (1-3), mayhem (4-5), or murder (6).

Carousing

Carousing includes all manner of consortium with harlots, gossips, and other unsavory characters in unseemly inns and taverns. Any character (including 0th level characters) can be assigned to a carousing hijink, but thieves and characters with Eavesdropping proficiency make the best carousers.

For carousing to succeed, the perpetrator must make a successful Hear Noise throw. If the throw is successful, the perpetrator learns one valuable rumor appropriate to the perpetrator's location. The boss earns 3d12x5gp per level of the perpetrator exploiting the rumor through blackmail, insider trading, etc. (Alternatively, the Judge may provide a specific rumor valuable within the ongoing campaign in lieu of money.)

If the proficiency throw fails, the perpetrator learns nothing. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. If caught, determine the charges with a 1d6 roll: drunkenness (1-3), gambling (4-5), or vandalism (6).

Smuggling

Smuggling is the illicit movement of goods in order to avoid tolls, customs duties, labor fees, and monopolies. Only thieves can be assigned a smuggling hijink. For smuggling to succeed, the perpetrator must make a successful Move Silently throw. If the throw is successful, the perpetrator smuggles ten loads of merchandise per class level. The type of merchandise smuggled is determined by a random roll on the Common Merchandise Table (see Mercantile Ventures). The perpetrator can smuggle extra loads of merchandise by taking a -1 penalty on the proficiency throw per 10 extra loads. When smuggling succeeds, the boss collects a fee equal to 12% of the market value of the merchandise smuggled.

If the proficiency throw fails, the perpetrator was not able to move the merchandise. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught and the merchandise confiscated. If caught, determine charges with a 1d6 roll: contraband (1-3), smuggling (4-5), racketeering (6).

Spying

Spying is the clandestine retrieval of secrets from powerful and influential figures. Assassins, nightblades, and thieves can be assigned a spying hijink.

For spying to succeed, the perpetrator must make a successful Hide in Shadows throw. If the throw is successful, the perpetrator learns advance intelligence, secret facts, or other highly valuable information from the perpetrator's area of operation. The boss earns 2d12x100gp per level of the perpetrator exploiting the valuable secret. (If desired, the Judge can provide specific secrets valuable within the ongoing campaign in lieu of money).

If the proficiency throw fails, the perpetrator learns nothing. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. If caught, determine charges with a 1d6 roll: eavesdropping (1-3), sedition (4-5), or treason (6).

Stealing

Stealing includes all manner of burglary, robbery, and theft. Only thieves can be assigned a stealing hijink. For stealing to succeed, the perpetrator must make a successful Pick Pocket throw. If the throw is successful, the perpetrator steals two loads of merchandise per class level. The type of merchandise stolen is determined by a random roll on the Common Merchandise Table (see Mercantile Ventures, below). The perpetrator can attempt to steal a particular type of merchandise by taking a -4 penalty on the proficiency throw. The perpetrator can steal extra loads of merchandise by taking a -1 penalty on the proficiency throw per extra load. When stealing succeeds, the boss receives 60% of the market value of the stolen merchandise.

If the proficiency throw fails, the perpetrator was not able to steal anything. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. If caught, determine charges with a 1d6 roll: theft (1-3), burglary (4-5) or robbery (6).

Treasure-Hunting

Treasure-hunting covers all manner of skulking and scavenging for treasure maps and rumors of hidden wealth. Only thieves can be assigned a treasure-hunting hijink. For treasure-hunting to succeed, the perpetrator must make a successful Find Traps throw. If the throw is successful, the perpetrator finds a treasure map to a random hoard worth 1d6 x 1,000gp per level of the perpetrator. The Judge determines the exact location of the hoard; hoards will generally be 6 miles away from the boss's hideout for each 1,000gp value.

If the proficiency throw fails, the perpetrator finds nothing. If the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. If caught, determine charges with a 1d6 roll: trespassing (1-3), theft (4-5), or burglary (6).

Getting Caught

Whenever the proficiency throw fails by 14 or more or is an unmodified 1, the perpetrator has been caught. Any perpetrator caught is subject to legal penalties for his deeds. The Judge may determine appropriate punishments, or have the player roll on the Crime and Punishment table.

Crime and Punishment

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Punitive Conviction
3-5 Conviction
6-8 Conviction on Lesser Charge
9-11 Acquittal
12+ Acquittal with Damages

To roll on the Crime and Punishment table, roll 2d6. Adjust the die roll by the perpetrator's Charisma modifier and any appropriate proficiency modifiers (from Diplomacy, Mystic Aura, or Seduction). Other circumstances that will apply are listed below.

Attorney: Add the perpetrator's rank in Profession (attorney), if any. Otherwise, an attorney can be hired by the syndicate. A rank 1 attorney costs 25gp, a rank 2 attorney costs 50gp, and a rank 3 attorney costs 100gp.

Bribery: If the syndicate has a member with the Bribery proficiency, it can attempt to corrupt the courts. A +1 bonus costs 50gp, a +2 bonus costs 350gp and a +3 bonus costs 1,500gp.

Evidence: Roll 1d4 to represent evidence favorable to the perpetrator (alibis, good character, etc.). Roll 1d8 to determine the penalty from unfavorable evidence (witnesses to the crime, caught with stolen goods, etc.)

Interpleader: If the syndicate has ties with a domain ruler, the ruler could plead on the perpetrator's behalf. Add the Charisma modifier of the domain ruler, plus an additional +2 if the interpleader has Diplomacy, Intimidation, or Mystic Aura. Note that if the domain ruler controls the domain where the crime happened, he may free the perpetrator without resorting to trial at all.

Prior Crimes: -1 if perpetrator is branded; -2 if perpetrator has been maimed (loss of tongue or hands); -3 if perpetrator has been proscribed.

Severity of Crime: The worse the crime, the worse the penalty. Breach of peace, drunkenness, outrage of decency 0; eavesdropping, gambling, or trespassing -1; assault, bribery, contraband extortion, theft, or vandalism -2; battery, burglary, kidnapping, rioting, or smuggling -3; manslaughter, mayhem, racketeering, rape, robbery, or sedition -4; arson, desertion, murder, or piracy -5; heresy, high treason, or regicide -6.

The result of the table indicates the fate of the perpetrator. A punitive conviction means that the perpetrator has been made an example of. He will be punished out of proportion to his charges. A conviction means that the perpetrator has been found guilty of the charges and will be punished appropriately. Conviction on lesser charge means that the perpetrator has been found guilty, but will not be punished as severely. Acquittal means the perpetrator has been found innocent. Acquittal with damages means that the perpetrator has been found so innocent that the court awards monetary damages for the offense to his reputation. Damages are always equal to what the fine would have been for the charges.

The Retribution by Crime table can be used to find an appropriate punishment for various charges. Punishments can include various forms of fines, humiliation, torture, mutilation, enslavement, exile, and execution. A perpetrator who cannot pay a fine is indentured to work off the fine. Perpetrators work off fines at a rate of 3gp per month. A perpetrator who can pay three times the amount of a fine can avoid other associated punishments.

Example: Reingo the Ruthless, a 1st level thief, is caught stealing a bundle of rare furs (500gp) and charged with theft (-2). Reingo is quite uncharismatic (-2) and the evidence looks bad (the 1d4 roll scores +1, while the 1d8 roll scores -5, for a -4 penalty). Since Reingo has been a loyal follower, his boss Joanna hires the best available attorney (+3) for 100gp and spends 350gp on bribes (+2). Reingo's will roll on the Crime and Punishment table with a -3 on the die roll. He rolls an 8, reduced by 3, for a score of 5, resulting in a Conviction. Reingo will be whipped and fined 500gp.

Retribution by Crime Table

Crime Punitive Punishment Standard Punishment Lesser Punishment
Drunkenness, Outrage Fined 5gp Fined 2gp Fined 1gp
Eavesdropping Ear cut off (-1 to reaction rolls, -1 to hear noise, -1 to surprise rolls) and fined 25gp Fined 10gp Fined 5gp
Trespassing, Gambling Placed in stocks 2d6 days(save v. Death or lose 1d6 teeth, -2 to reaction rolls) and fined 50gp Fined 25gp Fined 10gp
Bribery Tongue cut off (cannot speak, cast spells, or use magic items or proficiencies involving speech; -4 to rolls) and fined 150gp Placed in stocks 2d6 days (save v. Death or lose 1d6 teeth, -2 to reaction rolls) and fined 50gp Fined 25gp
Theft,Contraband Hand amputated (cannot dual wield or use two-handed weapons) and fined 450gp Whipped (save v. Death or permanent scarring, -2 to reaction rolls) and fined 300gp value Placed in stocks 2d6 days and fined 150gp
Assault,Vandalism Tortured (save v. Death or suffer permanent wound from row 11-15 of Mortal Wounds table) and fined 600gp Whipped (save v. Death or permanent scarring, -2 to reaction rolls) and fined 450gp Whipped (save v. Death or permanent scarring, -2 to reaction rolls) and fined 300gp
Burglary, Smuggling Both hands amputated (cannot climb, use weapons or items, open locks, remove traps, or any other similar actions) and fined 900gp Branded (-2 to all reaction rolls) and fined 600gp Whipped (as above) and fined 450gp
Kidnapping, Manslaughter, Mayhem Tortured and proscribed (lose all property and rights, permanently exiled) Tortured (save v. Death or suffer permanent wound from row 11-15 of Mortal Wounds table) and 750gp Whipped (as above) and fined 600gp
Robbery, Racketeering Execution (beheaded or hung) and fined 1,200gp Hand amputated (cannot dual wield or use two-handed weapons) and fined 900gp Branded (-2 to all reaction rolls) and fined 750gp
Arson, Desertion, Murder, Sedition Agonizing execution (burned, crucified, drawn and quartered, or devoured by wild beasts) Execution (beheaded or hung) Proscribed (lose all property and rights, permanently exiled)
Heresy, High Treason, Regicide Fate worse than death (cross-bred into monstrous creature, transformed into undead, etc.) Agonizing execution (burned, crucified, drawn and quartered, devoured by wild beasts) Execution (beheaded or hung)

The syndicate boss is expected to pay for the attorneys, bribes, fines, and healing of members who get caught while assigned hijinks. If the boss regularly abandons his members to their fate, the Judge may roll on the Henchmen Loyalty table to see if the remaining syndicate members attack or betray their boss.

Creating a Criminal Guild

A criminal guild is a group of multiple syndicates under the control of one boss. Criminal guilds are commonly named for the class of their boss, e.g. a thieves' guild or assassin's guild. There are four general ways an adventurer may create a criminal guild:

New Base of Operations

An adventurer whose syndicate has reached its maximum size in its current base of operations may decide to establish a new syndicate in a new base of operations by building a hideout there and relocating some of his membership. The new syndicate in the new base of operations becomes part of the adventurer's criminal guild.

Example: Joanna's syndicate, based in a Class IV settlement, has reached its maximum size of 100 members. In order to keep her criminal enterprise growing, Joanna builds a new hideout in a Class III settlement and moves 20 of her members there.

Henchman Advancement

If one of the adventurer's assassin, thief, or nightblade henchmen reaches 9th level, the adventurer may fund a hideout for the henchman. The henchman will attract followers into a syndicate as per the rules above, and the henchman's syndicate becomes part of the adventurer's criminal guild.

Henchman Acquisition

An adventurer may recruit an NPC who already controls a syndicate to be a henchman. The new henchman's syndicate becomes part of the adventurer's criminal guild.

Change in Management

An adventurer may exile, imprison, or kill an NPC who already controls a syndicate. He may then claim the syndicate and its members as his own. The Judge should roll on the Change in Management table for each of the NPC's former henchmen and followers to see if they are successfully recruited by the adventurer. For very large syndicates, the Judge may roll in batches of 5, 10, 25, or even 100 where appropriate.

The adventurer's CHA modifier is applied as a die roll modifier, along with any bonuses for Diplomacy, Intimidation, or other proficiencies. If the adventurer is higher level than the previous leader, add a +1 bonus per level difference; apply a -1 penalty per level difference if the converse is true. Apply the previous leader's CHA bonus (if any) as a penalty to the recruitment roll. The Judge may apply an additional modifier between -2 to +2 reflecting the adventurer's reputation, gifts, and other attributes.

Change in Management

Adjusted Die Roll Result
2- Immediate Attack
3-5 Betray
6-8 Hesitate
9-11 Accept
12+ Accept with elan

Immediate attack means that the follower seeks immediate revenge against the adventurer and will attack him at the first available opportunity. Betray means that the follower will pretend to be loyal to adventurer, but will betray him if an opportunity to do so presents itself. Hesitate means that the follower feels conflicting loyalties. He will betray the adventurer if a plurality of his fellows do so, but remain loyal if not. Accept means that the follower becomes loyal to the character. Accept with 'elan means the offer is accepted with very good spirit, and the follower's morale rolls receive a bonus of +1.

Example: Joanna, a 14th level thief with CHA 13, assassinates Rollio, a 12th level thief with CHA 16 and four followers. Joanna claims Rollio's four followers for herself, so the Judge secretly rolls to see how Rollio's followers respond to the change in management. Each die roll will be at +2 (because Joanna is two levels higher than Rollio) +1 (from Joanna's CHA) -2 (from Rollio's CHA), for a total of +1. The Judge rolls incredibly badly - an adjusted 3, 5, 8, and 9. Only one follower is loyal to Joanna. One is hesitant, and two plan to betray Joanna. Since the two betrayers are a plurality, the hesitant follower will join their attempt.

Managing a Criminal Guild

An adventurer can only directly manage one syndicate at a time. Other syndicates in the criminal guild must be assigned to a henchman to manage, either the henchman who established the syndicate or one appointed by the adventurer. A henchman who manages a syndicate is called an underboss.

An adventurer may assign hijinks to his own syndicate members, and to the members of any syndicates controlled by his underbosses. However, underbosses expect to be given wide latitude in running their part of the syndicate. If the adventurer assigns hijinks to more than 20% of the followers that any underboss controls, this causes the underboss to roll on the Henchman Loyalty table, with a -1 penalty per each additional 10% of the followers that the adventurer is ordering around. A henchman who resigns or becomes hostile takes his syndicate with him.

Underbosses may themselves have underbosses beneath them. In this way very large criminal guilds spread across multiple bases of operation can be formed. For purposes of assigning hijinks, each underboss can be assumed to have direct control over 20% of the followers one rank below him on the chain.

Example: Joanna manages a syndicate with 80 followers in her hometown. Her underboss, Anzio, manages a syndicate with 20 followers in a nearby city. Anzio himself has an underboss with 10 followers in a small villiage. Anzio directly manages his own 20 followers plus 20% of his underboss's 10, for a total of 22 followers. Joanna directly manages her own 80 followers plus 20% of Anzio's 22, for a total of 84 followers. If Joanna assigns hijinks to greater than 20% of Anzio's followers, this will cause Anzio to roll on the Henchman Loyalty table.

Monthly Hijink Income

Syndicate Member Level Monthly Income (gp)
0 1
1 5
2 30
3 200
4 425
5 650
6 835
7 1,500
8 2,000

When managing a large criminal guild, it can be time-consuming to roll for every member of the guild. The Monthly Hijink Income table can be used to summarize the outcomes of a large number of hijinks by characters of 1st to 8th level. (Hijinks by 9th level or above character should always be rolled.) The Monthly Hijink Income table factors in the costs of wages as well as attorneys, bribes, fines, and healing for syndicate members who get caught.

Sanctums and Dungeons

A mage who builds a sanctum attracts 1d6 apprentices of 1st-3rd level each, plus 2d6 normal men seeking to become mages. The intelligence scores of the normal men will be above average (discard any rolls of 8 or less), but many will become discouraged before they become mages. At the end of 1d6 months, each normal man must make a proficiency throw of 14+, adding their Intelligence modifier to the die roll. Those who succeed become 1st level mages; those who fail become discouraged and leave the tower. Each year the mage dwells in his sanctum, he can attract an additional 1d6 normal men, until he has a maximum of 6 apprentices (of any level) and 12 normal men studying at any one time.

Constructing a Dungeon

Many mages devote their later careers to magical research. This vocation demands a constant supply of rare components, generally monster parts, such as the fangs of 20 hellhounds or skulls of 50 ogres. Rather than squander their time hunting beasts for these components, many mages build dungeons within their domain with the aim of luring monsters to lair within. There they can be harvested at the mage's leisure. The following rules govern the creation of such dungeons.

A dungeon is constructed using the Stronghold Structure Costs listed under Establishing the Stronghold. There are no restrictions on the dungeon's size (other than what the mage can afford) or location, but dungeons do best when they are in wilderness domains with terrain favorable to monsters, such as forests, swamps, and mountains.

A mage may construct multiple dungeons within their domain if desired. A mage's dungeon(s) need not be in the same hex as his stronghold. The value of a dungeon does not count towards Minimum Stronghold Value unless it is used to secure a chaotic domain.

Populating a Dungeon

After the dungeon is completed, the Judge will begin checking to determine whether any wandering monsters have arrived at the dungeon, using the Wandering Monster tables in the Secrets chapter. The Judge will make an encounter throw daily if the dungeon is in a wilderness domain, weekly if in a borderlands domain, and monthly if in a civilized domain. Any wandering monsters that arrive have a percentage chance of establishing a lair in the dungeon equal to their % In Lair entry.

If desired, the mage may seed the dungeon with treasure to help entice the monsters to stay. If a monster finds unclaimed treasure equal to or greater than the average for its Treasure Type (as explained in the Treasure chapter), the monster's chance of making its lair within the dungeon is doubled. Monsters without a Treasure Type simply do not care about treasure, so it has no effect on them. Wandering monsters do not normally have any treasure of their own.

Wandering monsters who establish a lair will choose the best available room or area within the dungeon appropriate for their size, displacing any less powerful monsters already in that area (and taking their excess treasure, if any). Monsters generally prefer to be deeper in dungeons where possible, as the depth gives added security. As a result, the more powerful monsters with the most treasure will generally be deep within the dungeon, with progressively weaker monsters closer to the entrance.

When 1/3 of the areas in the dungeon have monsters lairing within them, the dungeon becomes full. The remaining rooms will be buffer zones between the different creatures. Any future monsters that arrive will displace weaker creatures out of the dungeon entirely, unless they are the sort of creature which would prefer to subjugate the current denizens (Judge's discretion). For instance, a dragon might enslave kobolds rather than displace them.

Some results on the Wandering Monster table will indicate that NPC men, dwarves, or elves have arrived. These results mean that adventuring parties have come to clear the dungeon! Such encounters are best resolved by having the player whose mage owns the dungeon run a one-off session with the rest of the group playing as the wandering adventurers. The dungeon-owning mage may, of course, intervene personally when his dungeon is invaded.

Harvesting a Dungeon for Monster Parts

It is up to the mage how he harvests the monsters within his dungeon. Some mages prefer to hire low-level adventurers to enter their dungeons to gather particular components. For instance, a mage might offer 140gp per ogre skull to adventurers exploring the maze he has created. Other mages may charm the monsters, stage gladiatorial battles among them, or simply kill the old and weak. Some Chaotic mages harvest adventurers...

Note that a mage receives no experience for seizing his own treasure back from monsters, but wandering adventurers who seize treasure from the mage's dungeon receive experience points normally.

Peasants and Dungeons

Like fighters, clerics, and most other classes (but unlike thieves), the domain around the mage's stronghold may become settled by peasant families seeking his protection and leadership. These families can be demoralized if the mage builds a dungeon and does not protect the peasants from the monsters therein.

If maintaining a secure peasant population is important to him, the mage may increase his monthly garrison expenditure of gold pieces. Total the experience point value of the monsters in the dungeon and divide that total by the number of peasant families (round to the nearest whole number). The quotient represents the required increase in monthly garrison. If the mage fails to pay this, his domain morale will decrease by 1 per gp/family.

Example: Quintus' domain has 1,100 peasant families. It also is home to a sinister dungeon with a cyclops (2,400xp), 6 ogres (1,290xp), and 60 orcs (600xp), for 4,290xp total. 4,290xp/1,100 families is 3.9, rounded to 4, so Quintus' garrison cost is increased by 4gp per peasant. Being a stingy archmage, Quintus opts to only spend an extra 3gp per peasant (3,300gp). His domain morale decreases by 1.

If desired, mages may actually hire the monsters in their dungeon to serve as the garrison. This will cause a -2 domain morale penalty if the monsters are Chaotic and the peasants are not. Mages with beastmen peasant families (see Chaotic Domains) do not need to increase their garrison because of dungeons, unless the dungeon's inhabitants are Lawful.

Mercantile Ventures

In their youth, adventurers are wont to squander their treasures on wine, women, and song. But older, wiser adventurers, who have faced death one time too often for a bare handful of coin, may find that their favorite type of venture is mercantile.

Arbitrage Trading

The riskiest, but most lucrative, form of mercantile trade is arbitrage: The movement of goods across long distances from markets where they are cheap to markets where they are expensive. Arbitrage traders must identify an opportunity, front the cost of purchasing large quantities of merchandise, safely transport it across long distances to distant markets by ship, and then find a buyer willing to pay enough of a premium to earn the trader a profit. Because it requires large sums of treasure and risky travel across the wilderness, arbitrage is a common choice for merchant-adventurers. Follow the steps below to adjudicate arbitrage trading.

1. Determine market characteristics.

In order to buy and sell goods, the adventurer must first travel to a market. A market can be anything from a humble county fair to a city-state's outdoor bazaar to the ports of a major metropolis, but each has different characteristics. Each domain (as described under Strongholds and Domains) generally has its own separate market. Markets are rated by market class from I to VI, which rate their size and importance. The vast mercantile hubs of empires, with urban populations of 20,000 families or more, constitute Class I. Major ports, national capitals, and other large cities of 5,000 or more families constitute Class II. Provincial capitals and medium-sized cities of 1,750 to 5,000 families make up Class III. Small cities and large towns of 600 to 1,750 families make up Class IV. Small towns and large villages of 250 to 600 families are Class V. Any village of 250 families or less is Class VI.

Each market will have a unique set of demand modifiers, determined by the Judge, for different types of merchandise. The demand modifier modifies the availability and price for merchandise in the market. A low demand modifier indicates that there is a surplus of that type of merchandise available, usually because the market is a producer of that merchandise. A high demand modifier indicates that the merchandise is hard to get and very expensive. (See Generating Demand Modifiers, below, if the demand modifiers are unknown).

Example: The border capital of a rural Southern kingdom is a Class III market. Its demand modifiers are: Common Wood -2, Hides -2, Common Metals -2, Ivory -2, Rare Furs -2, Gems -2, Grain +1, Pottery +1, Dye +2, Cloth +1, Glassware +1, Tools +2, Armor +2, Spices +1, Silk +1. This capital is a great place to buy timber, furs and hides, ivory, and gems, and a good place to sell dyes, tools, armor, spices, silk, and similar manufactured or luxury goods.

Each time adventurers enter a market to buy or sell goods, they must pay a toll (unless they sneak in). The cost of the toll is listed below on the Market and Merchant Table. For characters entering to sell, the minimum toll is always 1gp per load. This represents harbor fees paid to the harbormaster of a port, guild tolls at the city gate for caravans, etc.

2. Determine the number of merchants and loads of merchandise in the market.

Once a market is selected, roll on the Merchants column of the Market and Merchant table below to find the number of merchants interested in transactions with the adventurers. For each merchant, roll on the Loads of Merchandise column to determine the volume of goods each merchant can handle. A "load" is a generic unit - the exact nature of a load varies depending on the merchandise (see the Common Merchandise and Precious Merchandise Tables, below).

Market and Merchants

Market Class Toll Merchants Loads of Merchandise
I 1d6+15gp 2d6+2 6d8 loads
II 1d10+10gp 2d4+1 4d6 loads
III 1d8+5gp 2d4 3d4 loads
IV 1d6+3gp 1d4 2d4 loads
V 1d6gp 1d4-1 1d4 loads
VI 1d3gp 1d3-1 1d2 loads

If the adventurers are buying, the Loads of Merchandise result shows how many loads the adventurers can purchase from that merchant. If the adventurers are selling, the Loads of Merchandise result shows many of their loads that merchant will be willing to purchase from them.

One half of the merchants (rounded up) become interested in transactions within the first week the adventurers enter the market. One quarter of the merchants (rounded down, minimum 1) become interested during the second week. The remainder of the merchants will become interested in transactions in the third week. Additional efforts to locate more merchants in the market may be made at the end of this time, but the dice roll takes a modifier of -2 for each week that the adventurers have been in the market.

Example: Farlaghn leads a caravan into a Class III market. There are 7 merchants available. 4 merchants express interest in doing business in the first week his caravan is in town. 2 more merchants become interested in doing business in the second week. The last merchant becomes interested in the third week. As this is a class III market, each of these merchants will buy up to 3d4 loads of merchandise. What exactly they want to buy or sell has not yet been determined.

As long as they have a caravan or vessel at a market, adventurers will have to pay moorage or stabling fees. Moorage fees for ships are 1gp per 10 structural hit points per day. Stabling fees are 2sp per mule, 5sp per horse, 1gp per cart, and 2gp per wagon per day. For instance, a merchant with 2 wagons drawn by 4 horses each will have to pay 6gp per day.

An adventurer buying and selling in a domain he controls (see Strongholds and Domains, above) always has access to the maximum number of merchants available, and need not pay moorage, stabling fees, or tolls.

3. Determine merchandise of interest to each merchant.

Each merchant will buy and sell only one type of merchandise. Roll on the Common Merchandise table to see the merchandise each merchant is interested in buying and selling. The specific results can be customized where appropriate. For instance, "hides, furs" might be bear and wolf furs in a northern Viking town or camel hide in a trading outpost on the steppes.

If the adventurers are trying to buy or sell a particular type of merchandise, a reaction roll of 9+ is required to persuade a merchant to transact in a particular type of Common Merchandise, or 12+ for Precious Merchandise. Add the demand modifier to the die roll when trying to find buyers of goods, and subtract it from the die roll when trying to find sellers of goods. If an adventurer has a monopoly over a particular type of merchandise, he gains a +3 on the die roll, and merchants will buy or sell twice the normal number of loads of that type from him. Only one roll per merchant is permitted, and on a failed roll, the merchant will not transact with the adventurer at all; another trader has met his needs.

Example: Farlaghn's caravan is carrying 20 loads of dyes and pigments when it arrives in the city. Farlaghn wants to see if any of the 7 available merchants will buy this specific merchandise from him. Dyes and pigments are common merchandise, for which the city has a demand modifier of +2. For each merchant, he makes a reaction roll of 9+. Since he is trying to find buyers, he will add the demand modifier of +2 to his roll, so he will only need a natural die roll of 7 or more. He rolls 9, 3, 7, 3, 4, 8, and 2; 3 of the 7 merchants are persuaded to buy dyes and pigments. Rolling 3d4 for each merchant, Farlaghn discovers they will buy 8, 8, and 9 loads of dyes and pigments respectively, for a total of 25. Farlaghn will be able to unload all the dyes and pigments in his caravan!

4. Determine market price of merchandise.

Once the nature of a load of merchandise has been determined, its market price must be calculated. Each type of merchandise has a base price which represents an average value of the commodity given its utility and scarcity. The base price is then adjusted for the economic and political factors of the market where the transaction is occurring. These factors are modeled randomly using die rolls and situational adjustments.

The market price is the prevailing price for that market, and should only be calculated once for each type of merchandise for each visit to the market. Different merchants in the same market will not buy and sell the same type of goods at different prices.

To determine market price:

Example: Having lined up some interested merchants, Farlaghn sells his dyes and pigments. The base price for dyes and pigments is 250gp. Rolling 4d4, Farlaghn scores a 9. The city is a major consumer of dyes and pigments, so the demand modifier is +2, increasing the result to 11. Dyes and pigments in the city have a market price of (11x10) 110% of the base price, or 275gp per load. Farlaghn's 20 loads of dyes and pigments are worth 5,500gp.

The market price is calculated once when merchandise is bought, and again when it is sold in a different market. If the adventurers wait in the same market hoping for the price to change, there will be a 10% cumulative chance of a price change (re-roll) for each type of merchandise each month.

5. Exchange goods.

If the adventurers find a merchant buying or selling merchandise at a market price acceptable to the adventurers, a transaction may occur. Adventurers may transact with any or all available merchants, but each merchant will never buy or sell more than the number of loads rolled for that merchant in step 2.

When adventurers buy goods, they must pay a labor fee to cover the cost of loading the goods onto their ship or caravan. When they sell goods at their destination, they must pay another labor fee to unload the goods. The labor fee is 1gp per 200 stone of merchandise. Adventurers selling goods will also have to pay a customs duty equal to 2d10% of their market price. Player characters disinclined to pay such fees can, of course, attempt to smuggle goods into the market.

Example: 20 loads of dyes and pigments weigh 500 stone, so Farlaghn's labor fees will be 3gp. The city has an 11% customs duty, so Farlaghn will have to pay a fee of 605gp when he sells his goods for 5,500gp.

6. Transport goods.

If the adventurers have purchased merchandise, they will need to transport their goods to a new market for sale. Transporting goods should be handled as a wilderness adventure, as described in Chapter 6 under Wilderness Adventures. When the adventurers reach a new market, they may sell their merchandise, starting with step 1, above.

Passenger and Cargo Transport

If an adventurer is operating a vessel or caravan, he may transport passengers between markets. The number of passengers available is determined on the Passengers and Shipping Contracts table. Roll on a 1d20 to determine the destination of each passenger. On 19+, the passenger wants to hire a caravan or vessel to travel to a distant market of his choice, 2d20 x 100 miles away. Otherwise, the passenger simply wants to be transported to the closest market within one size class along the way towards the adventurer's destination.

Passengers and Shipping Contracts

Market Class Passengers Shipping Contracts Cargo to be Shipped
I 2d4+1 2d6+2 6d8 loads
II 2d4 2d4+1 4d6 loads
III 1d4 2d4 3d4 loads
IV 1d4-1 1d4 2d4 loads
V 1d3-1 1d4-1 1d4 loads
VI 1d2-1 1d3-1 1d2 loads

Passengers will not accept transport from adventurers they deem untrustworthy. The adventurer must make a Reaction Roll for each passenger (see Reactions in Chapter 6). Only on an adjusted Reaction Roll of 9+ will the passenger voyage with the adventurer. Charisma, Bribery, Diplomacy, Intimidation, Mystic Aura, Seduction, and other modifiers apply normally.

Each passenger counts as 200 stone of cargo, not including any food or water required for their passage. The standard fee for passengers is 20gp per 500 miles by sea or 20gp per 150 miles by road (rounded up). However, passengers that hire a vessel or caravan to go to a particular designation must pay as if they shipped enough to fill the cargo hold. This fee is 1gp per 10 stone of cargo space per 500 miles of distance by sea or 1gp per 10 stone per 150 miles by road. A round-trip fee may be charged if the destination is at least 2 market classes smaller than the originating market. Passengers will generally pay half in advance and the remainder upon safely reaching their destination.

An adventurer operating a vessel or caravan may also solicit shipping contracts to move cargo for other merchants. The number and size of the shipping contracts available is determined on the Passengers and Shipping Contracts Table. The destination of shipping contracts is determined as per passengers, above. Like passengers, shippers will not accept transport from adventures they deem untrustworthy. A Reaction Roll of 9+ is required to secure each shipping contract.

A shipping contract pays 1gp per 10 stone of cargo space per 500 miles by sea or 1gp per 10 stone of cargo per 150 miles by road (rounded up). Shippers will not generally disclose the merchandise they are shipping. The Judge may roll on the Common Merchandise table to determine the precise weight of the cargo to be shipped, or simply assume it is a mixed shipment weighing 70 stone per load. Adventurers will be expected to offer free passage for one merchant representative who takes care of the goods and tax payments. Shippers will generally pay half in advance and the remainder (through an agent) upon their cargo safely reaching its destination.

Characters may both accept passengers and shipping contracts and buy their own merchandise to fill out cargo space. As with merchants, one half of the passengers and shipping contracts (rounded up) become interested in a transaction during the first week the adventurers enter the market. One quarter (rounded down, minimum 1) become interested during the second week. The remainder becomes interested in transactions in the third week.

Merchant Ships and Caravans

Use the following table to quickly determine the costs, profits, or treasure of merchant ships or caravans. The table values were determined based on the average values for number of passengers, shipping contracts, merchants, and merchandise given in these rules. Large sailing ships and huge 30-40 wagon caravans are assumed to ply trade routes between Class I and II markets, while small sailing ships and caravans ply the secondary trade routes between Class II and III markets.

Merchandise Tables

Merchant Ships and Caravans

Ship/Caravan Upfront Cost Ship Crew / Caravaneers Average Cargo Weight Carried Average Cargo Value Carried (Treasure Type) Average Monthly Costs Average Monthly Profits
Small sailing ship 10,000gp 10 sailors, 1 navigator, 1 captain 10,000 stone 20,000gp (Q) 325gp 875gp
Large sailing ship 20,000gp 17 sailors, 2 navigators, 1 captain 30,000 stone 64,000gp (R+Q) 525gp 2,600gp
10 wagons 3,600gp 20 guards, 2 sergeants, 1 leader 6,400 stone 15,000gp (N+L) 515gp 120gp
20 wagons 7,200gp 40 guards, 4 sergeants, 1 leader 12,800 stone 25,000gp (Q+H) 825gp 600gp
30 wagons 10,800gp 60 guards, 6 sergeants, 1 leader 19,200 stone 40,000gp (Q+P) 1,150gp 1,050gp
40 wagons 14,500gp 80 guards, 8 sergeants, 1 leader 25,600 stone 55,000gp (R+N) 1,450gp 1,475gp

Common Merchandise

Roll Merchandise 1 Load Enc. per Load (stone) Base Price
01-04 Grain, vegetables 20 bags 80 10gp
05-08 Fish, preserved 10 barrels 80 50gp
09-12 Wood, common 1 cord of logs 80 50gp
13-16 Animals (Roll 1d6 on Animals) By Animal By Animal
17-20 Salt 150 bricks 80 100gp
21-25 Beer, ale 10 barrels 80 100gp
26-30 Oil, lamp 5 jars 30 100gp
31-35 Textiles 4 bags 20 100gp
36-39 Hides, furs 10 bundles 30 150gp
40-43 Tea or coffee 2 bags 10 150gp
44-47 Metals, common 200 ingots 100 200gp
48-51 Meats, preserved 10 barrels 80 200gp
52-54 Cloth 20 rolls 80 200gp
55-60 Wine, spirits 1 barrel 16 200gp
61-63 Pottery 2 crates 10 200gp
64-68 Tools 1 crate 10 200gp
69-73 Armor, weapons 1 crate 10 225gp
74-75 Dye & pigments 5 jars 25 250gp
76-80 Glassware 2 crates 10 400gp
81-85 Mounts (Roll 1d4+4 on Animals) By Animal By Animal
86-100 Roll on Precious Merchandise - -

Precious Merchandise

Roll Merchandise 1 Load Enc. per Load (stone) Base Price
01-10 Monster parts* 1 crate 5 300gp
11-25 Wood, rare 1 cord 16 500gp
26-35 Furs, rare 1 bundle 5 500gp
36-45 Metals, precious 2 ingots 4 600gp
46-60 Ivory 1 tusk 8 800gp
61-65 Spices 1 jar 1 800gp
66-70 Porcelain, fine 2 crates 10 1,000gp
71-75 Books, rare 1 box 3 1,000gp
76-90 Silk 5 rolls 20 2,000gp
91-95 Semiprecious stones 1 box 1 1,000gp
96-100 Gems 1 box 1 3,000gp

*Roll on the wandering monster table for the region to determine specific monster. Each monster's parts have a gp value equal to the monster's XP value$

Animals

Roll Animal Encumbrance per Animal Animals per Load Fodder Cost per Load (10 stone) Price per Load
1 Rabbit, hen 1 stone per 2 200 (100 stone) 5gp/wk 60gp
2 Sheep 6 stone 30 (180 stone) 5gp/wk 60gp
3 Pig, goat 12 stone 20 (240 stone) 5gp/wk 60gp
4 Cattle 50 stone 5 (250 stone) 5gp/wk 50gp
5-6 Horse, yak 150 stone 2 (300 stone) 5gp/wk 80gp
7 Warhorse 200 stone 2 (400 stone) 7gp/wk 500gp
8 Elephant 1,000 stone 1 (1,000 stone) 20gp/wk 1,500gp

Note: When quickly calculating average hauls, merchandise has an average base price of 300gp and an encumbrance of 70 stone per load. Common merchandise averages 180gp and 80 stone per load. Precious merchandise averages 1,000gp and 10 stone per load.

Earning Experience from Campaigns

Characters that undertake campaign activities can earn experience points (XP) from their activities. As with XP earned from adventuring, characters receive XP bonuses or penalties based on their score in their class prime requisites, as detailed in Chapter 2, Characters. Characters can never earn enough campaign XP to advance 2 levels or more in one month.

Experience from Construction

A character receives 1 XP per 2gp spent constructing a stronghold (castle, sanctum, etc.) used to secure a domain. The XP is earned when the stronghold is completed. If the character ever loses the stronghold, however, the character loses the XP earned from its construction. This may result in the loss of class levels. The character can regain the lost XP by re-taking the stronghold intact. If the stronghold is partially destroyed when re-captured, the character re-gains XP equal to its reduced value.

Mages do not gain XP from gp spent to construct dungeons, but do gain XP for harvesting monsters in them. A stronghold constructed by a follower or henchman of an appropriate level earns the follower or henchman 1 XP per 4gp (e.g. 50%).

Experience from Domain and Mercantile Income

A character may earn XP from his domain and mercantile income. In order to earn XP, the character's activities must meet two criteria. First, the activity must have been managed by the character personally. The character does not earn XP from domains managed by vassals, or from mercantile expeditions risked by others. Second, the income earned in any month must exceed the character's monthly gold piece threshold. The gp threshold is based on the character's level, and represents the monthly income that a character of that stature should be able to earn with little risk or effort.

Domain income is the total of the ruler's land, service, tax, and vassal revenue, less his garrison cost, stronghold upkeep, taxes, and tithes. If domain income exceeds the character's gp threshold, he earns XP equal to the difference. Domain income is earned monthly. A follower or henchman managing a domain earns 50% of the normal domain XP.

Example: Marcus is a 9th level fighter who has become a Palatine of the Empire. His domain of 1,500 families generates 9,000gp of land income, 6,000gp of service income, and 2,000gp of tax income. His 5 vassals pay him an additional 8,000gp each month in total, making his domain revenue 25,000gp. However, his garrison costs 4,500gp; stronghold upkeep costs 1,000gp; taxes cost 5,000gp; and tithes cost 2,500gp each month. His domain income is 12,000gp per month. Marcus earns no domain XP, as his gp threshold is 12,000gp. Marcus contemplates raising taxes... or conquering a larger domain.

XP from Domain and Mercantile Income

Class Level Gp Threshold
1 25
2 75
3 150
4 300
5 650
6 1,250
7 2,500
8 5,000
9 12,000
10 18,000
11 40,000
12 60,000
13 150,000
14 425,000

Mercantile income is the total of gp earned from selling goods and transporting cargo and passengers, less the cost of goods sold, wages, rations, tolls, custom duties, moorage and stabling, and labor fees. Mercantile income from arbitrage and transport expeditions is calculated when the character reaches his final destination (usually by returning to his point of origin). Divide the total revenue from the expedition by the number of months that have elapsed since the expedition began to determine monthly income. If monthly mercantile income exceeds the character's gp threshold, he earns XP equal to the difference per month of the expedition.

Example: Farlaghn, a 7th level elven spellsword, leads a fleet of six small sailing ships from his home port to an exotic island port and back, a two-month expedition. At the conclusion of the expedition, his mercantile income (after all expenses) is 7,200gp. Since the expedition took two months, his monthly mercantile income is 3,600gp. His gp threshold is 3,000gp, so he earns 600XP for each month, or 1,200XP total.

A follower or henchman earns 50% of the normal XP from mercantile activities. If multiple characters join a mercantile expedition, the total gp value should be divided among all surviving player characters and henchmen evenly, with henchmen receiving a 1/2 share each.

In cases where a character has both domain and mercantile income, the totals should be calculated separately.

Experience from Magical Research

A character may earn XP from magical research he conducts personally, if its cost exceeds his gp threshold. The XP is earned when the research is completed. Divide the cost of the research by the number of months required to complete it (always divide by at least one). If this monthly cost exceeds the character's gp threshold, the character earns XP equal to the difference per month of research. Both the base cost of the magical research and any precious materials apply, but the cost for libraries, workshops, or special components is excluded. Failing at magical research does not earn XP.

Example: Quintus, a 5th level mage, creates a scroll of sleep. This takes one week and 500gp. 500gp divided by one (the minimum) is 500gp, which is less than his gp threshold of 650gp, so he earns no XP. He then creates a scroll of fireball. This takes three weeks and 1,500gp. 1,500gp divided by one (the minimum) is 1,500gp, which is greater than his gp threshold of 650gp, so he earns the difference. Quintus has earned 850XP. Years later, at 9th level, Quintus creates a sword +2, which takes two months and 15,000gp. He also uses 15,000gp in precious materials, so the cost is 30,000gp. 30,000gp divided by two months is 15,000gp. Quintus' gp threshold is 12,000gp, so he earns 3,000XP for each month, or 6,000XP total.

Followers or henchmen conducting magical research earn 50% of the normal XP from magical research. An assistant gains 50% of the magical research XP he would earn if he conducted the research independently. (A follower or henchman acting as an assistant thus gains 25% of the normal XP.) Characters do not receive XP for magical research conducted by their assistants.

Example: Quintus, a 5th level mage, decides to focus on creating scrolls of fireball. He gives his assistant, Rigan, a 1st level mage henchman, a sample scroll of sleep and supervises him in the creation of more. With a sample, Rigan can make one scroll every half-week at a cost of 250gp. Each time Rigan succeeds, he will earn 56XP (250gp less his gp threshold of 25gp, multiplied by 25%). With a magic research throw of 16+, Rigan will succeed about twice per month. Should Rigan be so fortunate as to have Quintus' close supervision (and resources) for about two years, he'll earn around 2,700XP, enough to reach 2nd level.

Experience from Hijinks

A syndicate boss may earn XP from his monthly hijink income. Monthly hijink income is the total gp value earned from hijinks by the boss, less the cost of wages, attorneys, bribes, fines, and magical healing for his members. (Income can be rolled and calculated manually, or the Monthly Hijink Income table in the Managing Criminal Guilds section can be used for faster calculation.) If monthly hijink income exceeds the character's gp threshold, he earns XP equal to the difference.

Syndicate members earn XP equal to 50% of the gp value of hijinks they perpetrate successfully. On average, 1st level followers will earn 50XP per month from hijinks. Assuming that their leader manages to bail them out of trouble every time they get caught, followers will reach 2nd level in about 25 months (two years). Most ruffians do not, in practice, live that long.

0th Level Characters and Experience from Campaigns

A 0th level character may earn experience points from campaign activities. If the 0th level character earns 100 XP from campaign activities, he may advance to become a 1st level character. 0th level characters are always considered to be followers or henchmen and earn 1/2 XP.

Magical Research: 0th level characters who study under an arcane spellcaster of 9th level or higher may become 1st level mages. To qualify they must first possess the Alchemy, Collegiate Wizardry, Magical Engineering, or related proficiency (Judge's discretion). They must then study for 1d6 months and make a proficiency throw of 14+, modified by their INT bonus or penalty. Success means the character advances to 1st level. Failure means the character has no gift for magic.

Domain and Mercantile Income: A 0th level character may earn XP from domain and mercantile income. They are treated as if they had a Gp Threshold of 25gp. The character will advance into a type of class appropriate to the domain managed. For instance, a petty noble's son (0th level character) who inherits his father's small domain (125gp per month) will earn 50 XP per month [(125gp - 25gp) x 1/2], advancing to become a 1st level fighter after 2 months as serving as baron (if bandits don't kill him first).

Hijinks: A 0th level character may earn XP from perpetrating hijinks. In most cases, the only hijink available to 0th level characters is carousing (Hear Noises 18+). When the 0th level character earns 100xp from carousing, he may become a 1st level assassin, nightblade, or thief. Which class will depend on his race (only elves may be nightblades) and the sort of company the character is keeping. On average, it takes 0th level characters 6 months of consorting with unsavory sorts in dimly-lit taverns to advance.

When a 0th level character advances to 1st level, he gains the Adventuring proficiency and his new class's proficiency, powers, attack throws, and saving throws. The character re-rolls his hit points using his new class's Hit Die, keeping either his new hp total or his prior hp total if it was higher. The new 1st level character retains any general proficiencies he already knew. Each time he becomes eligible to learn a new general proficiency by advancing in class level, he may replace one of these existing general proficiencies with a new general proficiency better suited to his new class.


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Chapter 8: Monsters

In Adventurer Conqueror King, the term "monster" generally refers to any being other than the player characters. Monsters are listed in this chapter in an encyclopedic format. Each monster has certain characteristics, which are defined below. Though each monster listing can be considered to represent the "average" specimen of a particular creature, the Judge can alter the abilities and power level of any creature to fit the situation. It is assumed that all monsters, except humans and demi-humans, have infravision of 60'.

Monster Characteristics

The following terms are used to define the characteristics of monsters.

% In Lair: This indicates the percentage chance of encountering the monster in its lair. Monsters are usually present in greater numbers when encountered in their lair, and may have treasure appropriate to the type.

Dungeon Encounter: This category details the typical encounter that will occur with this monster in a dungeon setting. Each entry will be listed as: [Collective Noun] (Number Encountered) / [Collective Noun] (Number Encountered)

Example: The Dungeon Encounter listing for Orcs reads "Gang (2d4) / Lair (1 warband)".

Use the first collective noun (e.g., "gang") and subsequent number encountered ("2d4") for encounters outside of the creature's lair. Use the second collective noun ("lair") and subsequent number encountered ("1 warband") for encounters inside the creature's lair. The number encountered in the lair is usually a distinct number of monsters (such as "2d6"), but sometimes is based on the ranges encountered outside the lair (e.g., "1 warband"). The latter is common for monsters that have a clan or tribal structure.

If the category has only one collective noun and range, it means the monster does not make a lair. If the category has "none" listed, it means that the monster will not be encountered in this setting unless placed there by the Judge for a special reason. Except as a reference to the number encountered, the collective noun has no game mechanical effect, and is merely to help the Judge envision and describe what has been encountered.

Note that number encountered applies to combatant creatures of the standard type. Chiefs, bodyguards, or noncombatant monsters (juveniles, elderly, and sometimes females) do not count in this number. The text of the monster description should explain this in detail where it matters, but the Judge is always the final arbiter.

Example: When a dungeon encounter with orcs occurs, the Judge first rolls 1d100 against the orc's % In Lair 35%. He rolls a 17, meaning that the orcs have been encountered in their lair. A lair of orcs is defined as 1 warband. 1 warband is defined as 2d6 gangs. The Judge rolls 1d4 for the number of gangs and gets a 3. The entry indicates that gangs are 2d4 orcs each, so he rolls 2d4 for each of the 3 gangs and gets 5, 3, and 7. 15 orcs are encountered. The Judge now consults the text of the monster description. Here he sees that for every gang encountered, one orc champion is present, and that for every warband encountered, one orc sub-chieftain is present. He also notes that the lair is ruled by a chieftain and that females and young equal to 50% of the number of males each are present. These creatures are in addition to the number encountered, so the overall lair encounter will include 15 orcs, 1 chieftain, 1 sub-chieftain, 3 champions, 10 females, and 10 young.

Wilderness Encounter: This category details the typical encounter that will occur with this monster in a wilderness setting. The Wilderness Encounter listing is read the same as the Dungeon Encounter listing, above. Note that wilderness lairs are usually the same size as dungeon lairs, but occasionally can be much larger. Large-sized wilderness lairs are common for human, demi-human, and humanoid encounters. A large-sized wilderness lair is essentially an entire dungeon itself.

Alignment: All monsters are chaotic, neutral, or lawful. Many monsters are either unintelligent or are simply unconcerned about law and chaos, and are considered neutral.

Movement: There are two listings under this category. The first represents a number in feet per turn that a creature may move. The second value provided in parentheses represents the monster's combat movement, which are in feet per round. If two different rates are given, the additional movement will relate to movement of a different type, which will be appropriate to the creature. Common movement types include flying or swimming.

Armor Class: In game terms, the AC of a monster means the same thing as a character's AC. For monsters, this value reflects not only the creature's general agility but also its natural armor, from tough hide, or a magical adjustment. A normal unarmored man has an AC 0 while a powerful red dragon has an AC 10.

Hit Dice: This value is roughly equivalent to character level, but for monsters it always represents a number of hit points determined by this number of d8s. For example, a 2 HD monster will have 2d8 hit points. Sometimes a value is given as a "+" or "-", in which case this number is added or subtracted from the total hit points rolled. A monster will always have a minimum of 1 hp. Hit dice also determine the attack throws of monsters and how many experience points the adventurers receive when the monster is killed. Refer to the Monster Attack Throws table in Chapter 6 and the Monster Experience Points table in Chapter 6.

Some monsters have asterisks next to their Hit Dice. Each asterisk indicates that the monster has one of the following special abilities: automatic damage, breath weapon, charm, energy drain, fear, gaze attack, immunity to normal weapons, immunity to morale checks, invisibility, paralysis, petrification, poison, regeneration, spell-casting, splitting or summoning other creatures, swallowing whole, and spell-like or other abilities of similar potency. These special abilities increase the XP earned for defeating the monster, as shown on the Monster Experience Points table in Chapter 6.

Hit dice also are used to determine which dungeon level the monster will be found on. Monsters of 1 HD or less will most typically be found on the first dungeon level. Monsters of 2-3 HD will inhabit the second dungeon level. 4-5 HD monsters typically populate the third dungeon level, while 6-7 HD monsters populate the fourth. Monsters of 8-9 HD are found on dungeon level five, while monsters of 10 HD or more are typically found only on dungeon level six or deeper. When monsters are found on an atypical dungeon level their Number Encountered should be adjusted accordingly.

Attacks: This listing describes how many attacks are available to a monster, per round, and the nature of the attacks. These will be listed in the same order as the appropriate damage in the damage listing. There are a number of special attacks that monsters can employ. The most common of these are explained in greater detail below. When a creature is noted to have one of these special attacks, the rules below will apply except where the monster description specifically states otherwise.

Acid: Some monsters employ acid. When acid successfully hits, it does damage because it has made contact with flesh. Once contact is made, acid does not need to make any additional attack throws in order to continue doing damage in subsequent rounds (unless otherwise noted). Most acid can be removed by rinsing it off with water or other non-flammable liquids (e.g. beer or wine). The acid breath weapon employed by black dragons performs differently in that the acid does not remain active round to round, and damage is only suffered per attack. If armor is destroyed by acid, the character's AC should be adjusted to reflect having no armor.

Charge: Any monsters may charge, as described in Chapter 6 under Movement. But certain monsters have natural weapons that are especially suitable for charging. These monsters deal double damage on a successful charge.

Charm: Some monsters are able to charm characters with powerful enchantments. Monstrous charms function differently than the spell charm person. The character receives a saving throw versus Spells, but if the character fails the saving throw, he is confused and passive. A character under the effect of a monster's Charm attack cannot use spells or magic items, cannot make decisions, and will not defend himself against the monster's attacks. If the monster and charmed character cannot communicate due to a language barrier or some other situation, the charmed character will act in the interest of the monster to protect it, even from his comrades. All charm effects have a duration, but if the monster is killed, the effects will disappear.

Continuing Damage: Some monsters have attacks that, once successful, continue to deal damage on subsequent rounds without requiring further attack throws. Examples include the constrictive attack of a giant snake, or if a character is swallowed by a giant monster. The monster's description will indicate under what circumstances continuing damage will discontinue (usually upon the death of the creature).

Dive: Flying monsters with talons can make dive attacks. Opponents must be in open terrain for this attack to be effective. Like a charge, a dive attack deals double damage. If the monster hits with both of its talons, the monster may grab the creature struck. The creature struck must be smaller than the monster, and it can avoid being grabbed with a successful saving throw versus Paralysis. If the monster is much larger than the opponent, the Judge may impose a saving throw penalty of -4, -6, -8, or greater. Some monsters may be so large and powerful that they grab with no saving throw permitted. Once a creature has been grabbed, the monster can automatically inflict damage each round with no attack throw necessary until the creature escapes. Grabbed creatures are helpless until they escape. To escape, the grabbed creature must make a successful saving throw versus Paralysis. Grabbed creatures may be carried off. A creature that has been carried off will fall to earth if it escapes, if the monster releases it, or if the monster is killed.

Energy Drain: Some monsters, especially undead, have an energy drain attack. An energy drain removes class levels from characters and Hit Dice from other monsters. No saving throw is permitted against an energy drain. The effect can only be reversed by the 7th level cleric ritual spell restoration or the 9th level mage ritual wish. When a character is drained of a level, he is reduced to the minimum experience points for his new level. All abilities, including hit points, saving throws, etc., are affected as appropriate for the character of the new, lower class level.

Magic Resistance: Some powerful creatures enjoy a partial immunity to spells and spell-like effects. When a creature with magic resistance is affected by a spell or spell-like effect, the creature may make a magic resistance throw. A roll of 1d20 equal to or greater than the listed magic resistance (MR) value for the creature means it ignores the spell or effect. The magic resistance throw is affected by the power of the caster. The listed value assumes a 7th level caster. The creature suffers a -1 penalty for each level of the caster greater than 7, but gains a +1 bonus for each level of the caster less than 7. For purposes of magic resistance, spell-like effects are all effects that duplicate a spell, or magical effects that are resisted with a saving throw versus Spells or Staffs & Wands (but excluding effects that do not duplicate a spell and are resisted with saving throws versus Poison & Death, Blast & Breath, or Paralysis or Petrification).

Paralysis: When a character is paralyzed, he collapses and is incapable of any movement whatsoever, including speaking or casting spells. Characters remain conscious and aware of their surroundings. A saving throw versus Paralysis is allowed to avoid the effect. Paralyzed characters are very vulnerable to attack. No attack throw to hit them is required, and they may be slain in one round with any weapon by any unengaged character. The paralysis attack of most monsters lasts 2d4 turns. The cleric spell cure light wounds can negate the paralysis, but no hit points are healed when the spell is used in this way.

Petrifying Gaze: A victim that meets a monster's petrifying gaze is required to make a saving throw versus Petrification or turn to stone. Any opponents surprised by the monster will meet its gaze, as will those attacking it without averting their eyes or using a mirror. Combatants who attempt to fight the monster while averting their eyes suffer penalties of -4 on attack rolls and -2 to AC.

It is safe to view a monster's reflection in a mirror or other reflective surface; anyone using a mirror to fight a monster suffers a penalty of -2 to attack and no penalty to AC. A monster with a petrifying gaze is not immune to its own gaze, and if its sees itself in a mirror it must succeed in a saving throw versus Petrification or turns itself to stone. Monsters with petrifying gazes instinctively avoid mirrors or other reflective surfaces, even drinking with their eyes closed, but if an attacker can manage to surprise the monster with a mirror it may (1-2 on 1d6) see its reflection.

Poison: Poisonous monsters are among the most dreaded that adventurers will face. A character exposed to the poison of a monster, unless otherwise noted, must immediately succeed in a saving throw versus Poison or be killed. The 4th level cleric spell neutralize poison can be used to restore the stricken character if cast within 10 rounds of the character's death.

Swallow Attack: Some monsters are capable of swallowing a character whole when their unmodified attack throw equals or exceeds certain target values. The target value will be noted in the monster's description. Characters who are swallowed suffer the listed damage every round until they die, or until the monster is killed. Being swallowed may have other effects also noted in the monster's listing. If a character who has been swallowed has a sharp weapon, he may attack the monster from inside its belly with an attack penalty of -4. Should a swallowed character die and remain in a monster's belly for 6 turns, he has been irrecoverably digested and cannot benefit from restore life and limb.

Trample: When a monster tramples, it stomps or throws its weight against an opponent to deal damage due to its immense bulk. A trample attack gains a +4 bonus to the attack throw if the opponent is human-sized or smaller. Any monster capable of this attack will do so 3/4 of the time (1-3 on a d4), and the remaining times will employ any other forms of attack available to it. Large numbers (20 or greater) of normal sized animals, such as a herd of cattle, may also attempt a trample attack. These kinds of trample attacks deal 1d20 points of damage.

Damage: Damage is listed in the same order as attacks, and is represented by a number and kind of die that should be rolled, just like weapon damage is rolled. Some monsters may in fact employ weapons.

Save: Like characters, monsters have saving throws. Monsters have saving throws that are the equivalent of a particular class and class level. Usually, this is the fighter class, but it can be any class. Monsters that are unintelligent often save as a fighter of a level equal to one-half of the monster's Hit Dice number, rounded up. The following abbreviations are used in the monster listings, and are followed by a number indicating which level of the class a monster saves as: Cleric, C; Fighter, F; Mage, M; Thief, T; Dwarven Vaultguard, D; Elven Spellsword, E.

Morale: When losing a battle, monsters must roll morale to see if they stay and fight or flee. The Judge will roll 2d6 according to the Morale Rolls rule in Chapter 6 and add the monster's morale score to the total. Morale scores range from -6 (for a monster that never fights) to +4 (for a monster that never retreats and never surrenders). Monsters that never roll morale, such as mindless vermin, constructs, or controlled undead, have a listing of N/A (not applicable).

Treasure Type: This listing refers to the Treasure Type of the monster. The Treasure Types are lettered from A to R, with TT A yielding the smallest hoards and TT R the largest. This letter is cross-referenced on the Treasure Type table in Chapter 9 to determine the treasure that is found in the lair of a monster. Unless otherwise noted, these treasures are found only in the monster's lair. See Random Treasure Generation in Chapter 9 for more details.

XP: This abbreviation stands for experience points. It is the precalculated total for the monster, taking into account its HD and any special abilities. Note that if a monster has variable HD, this total reflects a monster with the lowest HD possible, and XP will need to be recalculated for more powerful monsters.

Monster Types

Monsters with similar characteristics are grouped into monster types. The monster types are animal, beastmen, construct, enchanted creature, fantastic creature, giant humanoid, humanoid, ooze, summoned creature, undead, and vermin. A creature can belong to multiple types. For instance, skeletons are undead constructs, while efreeti are enchanted summoned creatures. Monster type determines the effectiveness of various charm, detection, hold, protection, and sleep spells against the creature.

Animal

Animals are a type of monster that includes apes, rock baboons, bats, bears, boars, camels, cats, crocodiles, dogs, elephants, ferrets, fish, hawks, herd animals, horses, lizards, mules, octopuses, rats, rhinoceroses, shark, shrews, snakes, squids, toads, weasels, whales, wolves, and any other creatures of sub-human intelligence that occur in the real world. Giant animals are merely larger version of normal animals, and therefore part of this type. Prehistoric animals, such as cave bears, dinosaurs, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and titanothere are also animals. Charm animal, speak with animal, and related magic items only work on animals. They are also vulnerable to charm monster and hold monster spells.

Beastman

Beastmen are a special type of monster that were created through ancient magic by blending a humanoid with an animal or fantastic creature. Beastmen include bugbears, centaurs, gnolls, goblins, hobgoblins, kobolds, lizardmen, lycanthropes, mermen, minotaurs, ogres, orcs, trolls, and troglodytes.

Construct

Constructs are a type of mindless, unliving monster that includes animated statues, gargoyles, golems, skeletons, and zombies. (Note that skeletons and zombies are undead constructs.) Because they are not truly alive, all constructs are immune to gas and poison. Further, they are unaffected by charm, sleep, or hold spells. All constructs are enchanted creatures for purposes of spells such as dispel evil and protection from evil.

Enchanted Creature

Enchanted creatures are a special type of monster that can be kept at bay by protection from evil and destroyed or driven off by dispel evil. All constructs, summoned creatures, and undead are enchanted creatures, as are lycanthropes, shadows, and other fantastic creatures that can only be harmed by magical weapons.

Fantastic Creature

Fantastic creatures are a type of monster characterized by magical powers, impossible combinations of body parts, or both, including basilisks, blink dogs, centaurs, chimera, cockatrice, demon boars, doppelgangers, dragons, dragon turtles, gorgons, griffons, harpies, hell hounds, hippogriffs, hydra, lamia, lammasu, lycanthropes, manticore, medusa, minotaurs, owl bears, pegasi, phase tigers, remorhaz, rocs, rust monsters, sea serpents, shadows, stirges, throghrin, treants, unicorns, wyverns, and similar monsters. Fantastic creatures cannot be affected by charm person or hold person spells but are usually vulnerable to charm monster and hold monster spells.

Giant Humanoid

Giant humanoids are a type of monster that includes cyclops, ettin, giants, trolls, and other creatures that would be humanoids were it not for their great size and 5 or more Hit Dice. Giant humanoids cannot be affected by charm person or hold person spells, but are vulnerable to charm monster and hold monster spells.

Humanoid

Humanoids are a type of monster that includes bugbears, dryads, dwarves, elves, gnolls, gnomes, goblins, hobgoblins, kobolds, lizardmen, men, mermen, morlocks, neanderthals, naiads, ogres, pixies, sprites, and troglodytes, and other creatures no larger than an ogre and possessing 4 or fewer Hit Dice. Humanoids (other than humans) with character classes are called demi-humans. Humans and demi-humans do not cease to be humanoids even if they achieve 5th level or higher. All humanoids are vulnerable to charm person and hold person spells.

Ooze

Oozes are a type of mindless monster that includes black puddings, gelatinous cubes, gray oozes, green slimes, ochre jellies, and yellow molds. Oozes have a variety of different immunities and vulnerabilities, but all are immune to charm, hold, and sleep spells.

Summoned Creature

Summoned creatures are a special type of monster that can be kept at bay by protection from evil and destroyed or driven off by dispel evil. Summoned creatures include djinni, efreeti, elementals, invisible stalkers, and salamanders. Summoned creatures of Chaotic alignment are inherently evil for purposes of detect evil and protection from evil spells. Summoned creatures are usually vulnerable to charm monster and hold monster spells.

Undead

The undead are a type of monster that include spectres, zombies, skeletons, wights, wraiths, vampires, and others. These beings were alive at one time, but through foul magic or by dying at the hands of another undead type, have risen again as undead horrors. Most undead do not make a sound when moving. All such creatures are immune to the effects of gas and poison. Further, they are unaffected by charm, sleep, or hold spells of any sort. All undead are inherently evil for purposes of detect evil and protection from evil spells.

Vermin

Vermin are a type of mindless monster that includes caecilian, cavern locusts, giant ants, giant killer bees, giant beetles, giant crabs, carcass scavengers, giant centipedes, insect swarms, giant leeches, purple worms, rhagodessa, rot grubs, giant scorpions, shriekers, spiders, and other lower life forms. Vermin have such minimal intelligence that they cannot be affected by spells that affect animals. They are usually vulnerable to charm monster and hold monster spells.

Abbreviations

In written adventures, when monsters are indicated, their characteristics are typically abbreviated in the following order and format: AC, Armor Class; Move, Movement; HD, Hit Dice; hp, hit points; #AT, number of attacks; Dmg, damage; SV, save; ML, morale; AL, alignment. For example: AC 3, Move 90', HD 1, hp 5, #AT 1, Dmg 1d4, SV F1, ML 0, AL N.

Alignment is abbreviated as follows: C, chaotic; N, neutral; L, lawful.

Monster Listings

Ankheg

Ankheg -
% In Lair: 15%
Dungeon Enc: Cluster (1d6) / Nest (1d8)
Wilderness Enc: Cluster (1d6) / Nest (1d8)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 90' (30')
Burrow: 60' (20')
Armor Class: 8
Hit Dice: 5**
Attacks: 1 (bite)
Damage: 3d6 (+ 1d4)
Save: F5
Morale: -1
Treasure Type: M
XP: 500

The ankheg is a burrowing monster with a taste for fresh meat. An ankheg has six legs, and varies in shade from yellow to brown. It is about 10' long and weighs about 800 pounds.

An ankheg burrows with legs and mandibles. A burrowing ankheg usually does not make a usable tunnel, but can construct one when necessary; it burrows at half speed when it does so. It often digs a winding tunnel up to 40 feet below the surface in the rich soil of forests or farmlands. The tunnel is a tube, 5' in diameter, from 60' to 150' long ([1d10 + 5] x 10). An ankheg usually lies in its tunnel, 5' to 10' below the surface, until its antennae detect the approach of prey. It then burrows up to attack. Clusters of ankhegs share the same territory but do not cooperate.

If an ankheg hits an opponent, it inflicts 3d6 points of damage plus an additional 1d4 points of damage from digestive acid excreted by its mandibles. The target must also save versus Paralysis or be grabbed. Grabbed victims are helpless until they escape by making a successful saving throw versus Paralysis on their turn. Once an ankheg has grabbed its prey, it will retreat down its tunnel at its burrow speed, dragging the victim with it. If the ankheg is damaged after grabbing its prey, it will retreat backward down its tunnel at its land speed (not its burrow speed).

If desperate or frustrated, an ankheg can spit a 30-ft. line of acid for 4d8 points of damage (half damage on a successful saving throw versus Blast). One such attack depletes the ankheg's acid supply for 6 hours, so it will only spit acid when reduced to fewer than half its hit points or when it has not successfully grabbed an opponent.

Ant, Giant

Giant Ant -
% In Lair: 10%
Dungeon Enc: Scourge (2d4) / Nest (4d6)
Wilderness Enc: Swarm (4d6) / Nest (4d6)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 180' (60')
Armor Class: 6
Hit Dice: 4
Attacks: 1 (bite)
Damage: 2d6
Save: F2
Morale: -1
Treasure Type: I plus special
XP: 80

Giant ants are hardy and adaptable insects. Workers are about 6' long, while the queen may be immense. Giant ants eat almost anything, since they are omnivores, and will never retreat if defending the nest (Morale +4). They tend to have incidental treasure around their nests, left over from past opponents, but in some rare instances giant ants will inexplicably mine precious metals. This occurs in about 30% of nests, where there will be as much as 1d10x1000 gold pieces worth of raw gold nuggets.

Ape, White

White Ape -
% In Lair: 10%
Dungeon Enc: Troop (1d6) / Den (2d4)
Wilderness Enc: Band (2d4) / Den (2d4)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 120' (40')
Armor Class: 3
Hit Dice: 4
Attacks: 2 (claw, claw) or 1 (rock)
Damage: 1d4/1d4 or 1d6
Save: F2
Morale: -1
Treasure Type: None
XP: 80

White apes are adapted to living in a subterranean environment, only venturing to the surface to forage for food at night. As such, they have lost all pigment. White apes will vocalize and act aggressive if other creatures come near their lair, and may attack. When not engaged in melee, white apes can throw rocks for 1d6 points of damage per round. White apes may occasional be found as pets to neanderthals or morlocks.

Baboon, Rock

Rock Baboon -
% In Lair: 10%
Dungeon Enc: Troop (2d6) / Den (5d6)
Wilderness Enc: Band (5d6) / Den (5d6)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 120' (40')
Armor Class: 3
Hit Dice: 2
Attacks: 2 (bite, club)
Damage: 1d3/1d6
Save: F2
Morale: 0
Treasure Type: None
XP: 20

These larger, more intelligent baboons are omnivores that often hunt for meat. They both bite and use sticks as clubs. Like its smaller cousin, the rock baboon lives in packs led by the biggest, strongest male. Rock baboons are aggressive, and are easily stimulated to fight. While they do not have a true language, they can communicate threats and warnings with simple screams.

Basilisk

Basilisk -
% In Lair: 40%
Dungeon Enc: Bask (1d6) / Nest (1d6)
Wilderness Enc: Bask (1d6) / Nest (1d6)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 60' (20')
Armor Class: 5
Hit Dice: 6 + 1**
Attacks: 2 (bite, gaze)
Damage: 1d10/petrify
Save: F6
Morale: +1
Treasure Type: K
XP: 980

A basilisk is a reptilian monster that petrifies living creatures with its gaze. A basilisk usually has a dull brown body with a yellowish underbelly. Some specimens sport a short, curved horn atop the nose. An adult basilisk's body grows to about 10' long. Basilisks often live in dense woods or dungeons. Any victim that meets the basilisk's petrifying gaze or is bitten by the basilisk is required to make a saving throw versus Petrification or he turns to stone. Any treasure in a basilisk's nest will be on petrified victims, and will only be accessible if the victims are restored to flesh.

Bat

Bat Ordinary Giant
% In Lair: 35% 35%
Dungeon Enc: Flock (1d10) / Nest (1 bat swarm) Flock (1d10) / Nest (1d10)
Wilderness Enc: Flock (1d10) / Nest (1 bat swarm) Flock (1d10) / Nest (1d10)
Alignment: Neutral Neutral
Movement: 9' (3') 30' (10')
Fly: 120' (40') 180' (60')
Armor Class: 3 3
Hit Dice: 1hp 2
Attacks: 1 (bite) 1 (bite)
Damage: 1 1d4
Save: 0 Human F1
Morale: -2 0
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 5 20 (29)

Bats live in sheltered caverns or abandoned buildings, and are nocturnal mammals with leathery wings. Their nocturnal lifestyle has made typical eyesight useless to them, but they are able to navigate with a refined use of sound, or echolocation. For this reason, no spells or other influence that would normally blind an opponent will affect bats, but the spell silence 15' radius negates their ability to echolocate.

Bats, Ordinary: Ordinary bats are small and do not attack for significant damage individually, However, ordinary bats can swarm in great number. When a bat swarm is rolled, see Swarms later in this chapter for information. Ordinary bats are not particularly predisposed to fight, and as such they are susceptible to a morale roll once each round. The morale roll does not apply to bats that are under another's control.

Bats, Giant: These bats are larger than normal bats and are fierce carnivores. About 95% of giant bats are of this normal variety, but the remaining portion are vampiric, with a bite that will cause paralysis if a saving throw versus Paralysis is not rolled successfully. This paralysis lasts for 1d10 rounds. Unless otherwise distracted, a giant vampiric bat will feed on a paralyzed victim, dealing 1d4 points of damage per round from blood loss. If the opponent is killed by this attack, he must succeed in a saving throw versus Spells or he will rise again as a vampire one day after his death. Giant vampiric bats are worth 29xp, rather than 20xp.

Bear

Bear Black Grizzly
% In Lair: 25% 25%
Dungeon Enc: Sloth (1d4) / Den (1d4) Solitary (1) / Den (1d4)
Wilderness Enc: Sloth (1d4) / Den (1d4) Sloth (1d4) / Den (1d4)
Alignment: Neutral Neutral
Movement: 120' (40') 120' (40')
Armor Class: 3 3
Hit Dice: 4 5
Attacks: 3 (2 claws, bite) 3 (2 claws, bite)
Damage: 1d3/1d3/1d6 1d4/1d4/1d8
Save: F2 F2
Morale: -1 0
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 80 200
Bear Cave Polar
% In Lair: 25% 35%
Dungeon Enc: Solitary (1) / Den (1d2) Sloth (1d2) / Den (1d2)
Wilderness Enc: Sloth (1d2) / Den (1d2) Sloth (1d2) / Den (1d2)
Alignment: Neutral Neutral
Movement: 120' (40') 120' (40')
Armor Class: 3 4
Hit Dice: 6 7
Attacks: 3 (2 claws, bite) 3 (2 claws, bite)
Damage: 1d6/1d6/1d10 1d8/1d8/2d6
Save: F3 F3
Morale: 0 +1
Treasure Type: None None
XP: 320 440

Bears can live in many different climates, and are dangerous predators. They attack with both claws and a bite, and if both claws successfully strike in one round, the bear also squeezes the character in a powerful hug that does an additional 2d8 points of damage. All bears are omnivorous, but some kinds of bears prefer flesh more than other kinds.

Black Bear: A black bear averages 6' tall, has black fur, and eats a variety of fruits and other foliage more frequently than meat. Though they will give their lives in defense of their cubs, black bears do not usually engage in combat unless they are forced to.

Cave Bear: These immense prehistoric bears are 15' tall and are vicious hunters. They live in caves and caverns, and particularly savor humanoid flesh. They are able to follow wounded creatures by the smell of their blood.

Grizzly Bear: A grizzly bear may have red or brown fur, and in older individuals it may be silver-tipped. These large bears average 9' tall and are more aggressive and interested in meat than black bears.

Polar Bear: These bears live in very cold climates, usually by the sea. They average about 11' tall and almost exclusively eat meat. They are adept at swimming and moving on ice and snow.

Bee, Giant Killer

Giant Killer Bee -
% In Lair: 35%
Dungeon Enc: Flight (1d6) / Hive (5d6)
Wilderness Enc: Swarm (5d6) / Hive (5d6)
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 150' (50')
Armor Class: 2
Hit Dice: 1d4 hit points*
Attacks: 1 (sting)
Damage: 1d3, see below
Save: F1
Morale: +1
Treasure Type: Special
XP: 6

Although many times larger than normal killer bees, growing to a length of about 1', giant killer bees behave similarly to their smaller cousins. Generally, the giant killer bees will attack any creature they encounter, especially if it is near their hive, which is an underground labyrinth of tunnels. They attack with a poisonous sting that requires a successful saving throw versus Poison. Failure results in death. A stinger always breaks off inside the victim, and if the victim survives the poison he suffers an additional 1 point of damage per round until the stinger is removed. A bee that successfully strikes dies the following round from the trauma of losing its stinger. A character must spend 1 round to remove a stinger.

A giant killer bee hive will be ruled by a queen bee with 2 Hit Dice. A queen bee can be as large as 4', and may sting multiple times (her stinger does not break off with a successful attack). The queen will be guarded by 10 large giant killer bee drones with 1 Hit Dice each. Giant killer bees make a special honey in their hive. If eaten, the honey acts as a half-strength potion of healing (healing 1d4 points of damage). One hive's honey will yield 1d4 doses.

Beetle, Giant

Giant Beetle Fire Bombardier Tiger
% In Lair: 40% 40% 40%
Dungeon Enc: Cluster (1d8) / Nest (2d6) Cluster (1d8) / Nest (2d6) Cluster (1d6) / Nest (2d4)
Wilderness Enc: Scourge (2d6) / Nest (2d6) Scourge (2d6) / Nest (2d6) Scourge (2d4) / Nest (2d4)
Alignment: Neutral Neutral Neutral
Movement: 120' (40') 120' (40') 150' (50')
Armor Class: 5 5 6
Hit Dice: 1 + 2 2 3 + 1
Attacks: 1 (bite) 1 (bite) 1 (bite)
Damage: 2d4 1d6, see below 2d6
Save: F1 F1 F1
Morale: -1 0 +1
Treasure Type: None None None
XP: 15 20 65

Giant Fire Beetle: These subterranean, nocturnal beetles are about 2 1/2' long. The fire beetle is so named for the light-producing organs it exhibits on its head and abdomen. They produce light within a 10' radius. Two of these organs are on the head, and one is on the abdomen. If removed from the corpse of the beetle they will continue to illuminate an area for 1d6 days.

Giant Bombardier Beetle: These 3' long beetles have immense horn-like jaws that inflict damage, in addition to a toxic spray that can squirt an opponent within 5' of the beetle. When the toxic fluid successfully strikes an opponent, it is extremely painful and causes chemical burns and blisters. This effect makes the opponent suffer a -2 penalty to attack throws for 1 day, or until the spell cure light wounds is used. These beetles can be found above and below ground.

Giant Tiger Beetle: These fierce carnivorous beetles, measuring up to 5' long, have a carapace with markings resembling the hide of a tiger. Though they often hunt giant insects, they also attack and eat large mammals, including humanoids.

Black Pudding

Black Pudding -
% In Lair: None
Dungeon Enc: Solitary (1)
Wilderness Enc: None
Alignment: Neutral
Movement: 60' (20')
Armor Class: 3
Hit Dice: 10*
Attacks: 1 (envelopment)
Damage: 3d8
Save: F5
Morale: N/A
Treasure Type: None
XP: 1,550

This black gooey mass slithers about in dungeon corridors, eating anything in its path. It is typically 10' to 30' in diameter. It is capable of moving not just on the floor, but also on the wall and ceiling, and may compress itself through small fissures and under the cracks of doors. It digests through both metal and wood, but not stone. A black pudding can be damaged only by fire, and takes full damage from torches, magical flame, or a flame tongue sword. If attacked with cold-based attacks, it will take no damage, but the black pudding will be paralyzed for one round per die of damage the attack would normally deal.

If attacked with normal or magical weapons, or with lightning or electricity, a black pudding suffers no injury, but will be split into two puddings; the Judge should divide the original black pudding's Hit Dice between the two however he sees fit, with the limitation that neither pudding may have less than two Hit Dice. A two Hit Die black pudding does only 1d8 damage, is unharmed by additional weapon or lightning-based attacks, and cannot be split further.

Blink Dog -
% In Lair: 20%
Dungeon Enc: Pack (1d6) / Den (2d6)
Wilderness Enc: Route (2d6) / Den (2d6)
Alignment: Lawful
Movement: 120' (40')
Armor Class: 4
Hit Dice: 4*
Attacks: 1 (bite)
Damage: 1d6
Save: F4
Morale: -2
Treasure Type: I
XP: 135

The blink dog is an intelligent canine that has a limited teleportation ability. Blink dogs have their own language, a mixture of barks, yaps, whines, and growls that can transmit complex information. Blink dogs hunt in packs, teleporting, or "blinking" out of one location and "blinking" in close to prey for their attack. They blink again immediately after their attack, appearing 1d4x10 feet away from the opponent. Blink dogs never blink into the same space occupied by another object. When blink dogs flee, they simply blink away and fail to appear again.

Boar

Boar Ordinary Giant
% In Lair: None None
Dungeon Enc: Sounder (1d4) Sounder (1d4)
Wilderness Enc: Sounder (1d6) Sounder (1d4+1)
Alignment: Neutral Neutral
Movement: 150' (50') 120' (40')